« EelmineJätka »
America than the district just mentioned, pear until two or three hours after the ani. namely, the banks of the Japurá, neur its mal was quite dead, I judged that it was not principal mouth; and even there it is con- exclusively due to the blood, but partly, to fined, as far as I could learn, to the western a pigment beneath the skin, which would side of the river. It lives in small troops probably retain its color a short time after among the crowns of the lofty trees subsist. the circulation bad ceased. ing on fruits of varivus kinds. Hunters say After seeing much of the morose disposi. it is pretty nimble in its motions, but is not tion of the Vakarí, I was not a little surmuch given to leaping, preferring to run up prised one day at a friend's house to find an und down the larger boughs in travelliug from extremely lively and familiar individual of tree to tree. The mother, as in other species this species. It ran from an inner chamber of the monkey order, carries her young on straight toward me, after I had sat down her back. Individuals are obtained alive by on a chair, climbed my legs and nestled in shooting them with the blow-pipe and arrow my lap, turning round and looking up with tipped with diluted Urarí poison. They run the usual monkey's grin, after it had made a consideruble distance afier being pierced, itself comfortuble. It was a young animal and it requires an experienced hunter to which bad been taken when its mother was track them. He is considered the most ex. shot with a poisoned arrow ; its teeth were pert who can keep pace with a wounded one incomplete, and the face was pule and motand catch it in his arms wben it falls ex. tled, the glowing scarlet bue not supervenhausted. A pinch of salt, the antidote to ing in these animals before mature age ; it the poison, is then put in its mouth, and the bad also a few long black hairs on the eyecreature revives. The species is rare, even brows and lips. The frisky little fellow had in the limited district which it inliabits. been reared in the house among the children, Senhor Chrysostomo sent six of his most and allowed to run about freely, and take its skilful Indians, who were absent three weeks meals with the rest of the household. There before they obtained the twelve specimens' are few animals which the Brazilians of which formed his unique and princely gift. these villages have not succeeded in lamiug. When an independent hunter obtains one, a 'I have even seen young jaguars running very high price (thirty to forty milreis*) is loose about a house, and ireated as pets. asked, these monkeys being ju great demund The animals that I had rarely became for presents to persons of influence down the familiar, however long they mignt remain in river.
my possession, a circumstance due no doubt Adult Uakarís, caught in the way just to their being kept always tied up. described, very rarely become tame. TheyThe Vakarí is one of the many species of are peevish and sulky, resisting all attempts animals which are classified by the Brazil: to coax them, and biting any one who ven- ians as “ mortál," or of delicate constitution, tures within reach. They have no particu. in contradistinction to those which are lar cry, even when in their native woods ; “ duro," or hardy. A large proportion of in captivity they are quite silent. In the the specimens sent from Ega die before arcourse of a few days or weeks, if not very riving at Pará, and scarcely one in a dozeu carefully attended to, they fall into a listless succeeds in reaching Rio Janeiro alive. The condition, refuse food, and die. Many of difficulty it has of accommodating itself to them succumb to a disease which I suppose changed conditions probably has some con. from the symptoms to be inflammation of section with be very limited range, or cou. the chest or lungs. The one wbich I kept fined sphere of life, of the species in its as a pet died of this disorder, after I had had natural state, its native home being an area it about three weeks. It lost its appetite in of swampy woods, not more than asont a very few days, although kept in an airy sixty square miles in exleut, although no veranda ; its coat, which was originally permanent barrier exists to check its dislong, smooth, and glossy, became dingy and persal, except toward the south, over a ragged, like that of the specimens seen in much wider space. When I descended the museums, and the bright scarlet color of its river in 1859, we had with 119 a tanie adult? luce changed to a duller hue. This color, Vakarí, which was allowed to ramble about in health, is spread over the features up to the vessel, a large schooner. When we' the roots of the bair on the forehead and reached the mouth of the Rio Negro, we had temples, and down to the neck, including to wait four days while the custom-house the flabby cheeks, which hang down below officials at Barra, ten miles distant, made out the jaws. The anitial in this condition the passports for our crew, and during this looks at a short distance as though some one time the schooner lay close to the shore, had laid a thick coat of red paint on its with its bowsprit secured to the trees on the countenance. The death of my pet was bank. Well, one morning, scarlet-face was slow ; during the last twenty-four hours it missing having made his escape into the lay prostrale, breathing quickly, its chest forest. Two men were sent in search of strongly heaving ; the color of its face be- him, but returned after several hours' ab. Cadie gradually paler, but was still red when sence without having caught sight of the it expired. As the hue did not quite disap- runaway. We gave up the monkey for lost,
until the following day, when he reappeared Three pounds seven shillings to four pounds thir- on the skirts of the forest, and marched toon shillings.
quietly down the bowsprit to his usual place
on deck. He had evidently found the gladdened pet then jumped to its usual perob forests of the Rio Negro very different from on his shoulder. those of the delta lands of the Japurá and Orol-faced Night Apes.-A third interesting preferred captivity to freedom in & place genus of monkeys, found near Ega, are the that was so uncongenial to him.
Nyctipitheci, or Night Apes, called Ei-á by The Parauacú Monkey. - Another Ega the Indians. Of these I found two species, monkey, nearly related to the Uakarís, is the closely related to each other, but nevertheParauacá (Pithecia hirsuta), a timid, inoffen. less quite distinct, as both inhabit the same sive creature, with a long bear-like coat of forests, namely, those of the bigber and harsh speckled-gray hair. The louy fur drier lands, without mingling with each bangs over the head, half concealing the other or intercrossing. They sleep all day pleasing diminutive face, and clothes also long in hollow trees, and come forth to prey the tail to the tip, which meinber is well de- on insects and eat fruits only in the night. veloped, being cighteen inches in length, or They are of small size, the body being about longer than the body. The Parauacú is a foot long, and the tail fourteen inches, and found on the "terra firma ” lands of the are thickly clothed with soft gray and brown porth shore of the Solimvens, from Tunan- fur, similar in substance to that of the rab. tins to Peru. It exists also on the south bit. Their physiognomy reminds one of the side of the river, namely, on the banks of the owl or tiger-cat ; the face is round and enTeffé, but there under a changed form, which circled by a ruff of whitish fur ; the muzzle differs a little from its type in colors. This is not at all prominent; the inouth and chin form has been described by Dr. Gray as a are small; the ears are very short, scarcely distinct species, under the name of Pithecia appearing above the hair of the biad ; and albicans.' The Parauacú is also a very deli. the eyes are large and yellowish in color, cate animal, rarely living many weeks in imparting the staring expression of nocturcaptivity ; but any one who succeeds in nal animals of prey. The forehead is whitkeeping it alive for a month or two, gains in ish, and decorated with three black stripes, it a most affectionate pet. One of the which in one of the species (Nyctipithecus specimens of Pithecia albicans nuw in the trivirgatus) coutinue to the crown, and in British Museum was, when living, the prop- the other (N. felinus) meet on the top of the erty of a young Frenchman, a neighbor of forehead.' N. trivirgatus was first described mine at Ega. It became so tame in the by Humboldt, who discovered it on the course of a few weeks, that it followed him banks of the Cassiquiare, near the head about the streets like a dog. My friend was waters of the Rio Negro. & tailor, and the little pet used to spend the I kept a pet animal of the N. trivirgatus greater part of the day seated on his shoulder for many months, a young one baving been while he was at work on his board. It given to me by an Indian compadre, as a pres. showed, vevertheless, great dislike to stran- ent from my newly-baptized godson. These gers, and was not on good terms with any monkeys, although sleeping by day, are uther member of my friend's huusehold than arvused by the least noise, 80 that when a jhimself. I saw no monkey that showed so person passes by a tree in which a number : strong a personal attachment as this gentle, of them are concealed, he is startled by the timid, silent little creature. The eager and sudden apparition of a group of little striped passionate Cebi seem to take the lead of all faces crowding a hole in the trunk. It was the South American monkeys in intelligence in this way that my compadre discovered and docility, and the Coaitá has perhaps the tbe colony from which the one given 10 mo must gentle and impressible disposition ; but was taken. I was obliged to keep my pet the Parauacú, although a dull, cheerless chained up; it therefore never became animal, excels all in this quality of capability thoroughly familiar. I once saw, huwever, of attuchment to individuals of our own an individual of the other species (N. felispecies. It is not wanting, however, in in- nus) which was most amusingly tame. It telligence as weil as moral goodness, prouf was as lively and nimble as the Cebi, but not of which was furnished one day by an act so mischievous and far more confiding in its of our little pet. My neighbor had quitted disposition, deligbting to be caressed by all his house in the morning without taking persons who came into the house. But its Parauacú witu him, and the little creature owner, the Municipal Judge of Ega, Dr. having missed its friend, and concluded, as Carlos Mariana, had treated it for many it seemed that he would be sure to come to weeks with the greatest kindness, allowing it me, both being in the habit of paying me a to sleep with him at night in his hammock, daily visit together, came straight to my and to nestle in his bosom half the day as he dwelling, taking a short cut over gardens, lay reading. It was a great favorite with trees, and thickets, instead of going the every one, from the cleanliness of its habits roundabuut way of the street. It had never and the prettiness of its features and ways. done this before, and we knew the route it My own pet was kept in a box, in which , had taken only from a neighbor having was placed a broad-mouthed glass jar ; into - watched its movements. On arriving at my this it would dive, head-foremost, when any house and not finding its master, it ciiubed one entered the room, turning round inside to the top of my table, and eat with an air of and thrusting forth its inyuisitive face an quiet resigặation, waiting for him. Shortly instant afterward to stare at the intruder. Afterward, my friynd entered, and the It was very active at night, venting at fro
quent intervals a hoarse cry, like the sup- collector of birds and mammals, whom I em. pressed barking of a dog, and scampering ployed, and who resided a long time among about the rvom, to the length of its iether, ihe Tucunu ludians, near Tabatinga, I calcuafter cockroaches and spiders. In climbing late that one horde of this tribe, 200 in numbetween the box and the wall, it straddled ber, destroyed 1,200 of these monkeys annu. the space, resting its hands on the palms and ally for foud. The species is very numerous tips of the outstretched fingers, 'with the in the forests of the higher lands, but, owing knuckles bent at an acute angle, and thus to long persecution, it is now seldom seen in mounted to the top with the greatest facility. the neighborhood of the larger villages. It Although seeming to prefer insects, il ate is not found at all on the Lower Amazons. all kinds of fruit, but would not touch iaw Its manuers in captivity are grave, and its or cuoked meat, and was very seldom thirsty, temper mild and confiding, like that of the I was told by persons who had kept these Coaitás. Owing to these traits, the Barrigudo monkeys loose about the house, that they is much svuglit after for pets ; but it is not cleared the chambers of bats as well as insect hardy, like the Coaitás, and seldom survives vermin. When approached geolly, my Ei-á a passage down the river to Pará allowed itself to be caressed; but when Marmosets. -It vow only remains to notice bandled roughly, it always took alarm, biting the Marmosets, which form the second family severely, striking out its little hands, and of American monkeys. Our old friend making a hissing noise like a cat. As al. Midas ursulus of Para and the Lower Ama. ready related, my pet was killed by a jealous zons is not found on the upper river, but in Cuiaiára monkey, which was kept in the its stead a closely allied species presents it. house at the same time.
self, which appears to be the Midas rufoniger Barrigudo Monkeys. - Ten other species of of Gervais, whose mouth is bordered with monkeys were found, in addition to those longish white hairs. The habits of this spe. already mentioned, in the forests of the Up- cies are the saine as those of the M. Ursulus, per Amazons. All were stiicly arboreal and jadeed it seems probabie that it is a form or diuinal in their habits, and lived in flocks, race of the saine stock, modified to suit the travelling from tree to tree, the mothers with altered local conditions under which it lives. their children on their backs; leading, in One day, while walking along a forest pathfact, a life similar to that of the Parárauáte way, I saw one of these lively little fellows ludians, and, like thein, cecasionally plun- miss his grasp as he was passing from one dering the plantations which lie near their tree to another along with his trocp. flu line of march. Some of them were found fell head-foremost froin a height of at least also on the Lower Amazons, and have been fifty feet , but managed cleverly to alight on noticed in former chapters of this narrative. his legs in the pathway ; quickly turning Of the remainder, the most remarkable is the round, ho gave me a good stare for a few Macaco barrigudo, or big-bellied monkey of moments, and then bounded off gayly to the Portuguese colonists, a species of Laguih- climb another tree. At Tunantins I shot å rix. The gedus is closely allied to the pair of very handsome species of marmoset, Couitás, or spider monkeys, having, like the M. rufiventer, I believe, of zoologists. them, excecdingly strong and flexible tails, Its coat was very glossy and smooth, tha which are furnished underneath with a back deep brown, and the underside of the naked palm like a hand, for grasping. The body of rich black and reddish hues. A Barrigudos, however, are very bulky ani- tbird species (found at Tabating 1, 200 miles mals, while the spider monkeys are remark, further west) is of a deep black color, with able for the slenderpess of their bodies and the exception of a patch of white hair around limbs. I obtained specimens of what have its mouth. The little animal at a short disbeen considered two species, one (L. oliva- tance looks as though it held a ball of snow. cells of Spix ?) having the hcad clothed with white cotton in its teeth. The last I shall gray, the other (L. Humboldtii) with black mention is the Hapale pygmæus, one of the fur. They both live together' in the same most diminutive forms of the monkey order, places, and are probably only differently col- three full-grown specimens of which, measurOred individuals of one and the same species ing only seven inches in length of body, I I sent hume a very large male of one of these obtained neatr St. Paulo. The pretty Lilikinds, wbich measured twenty-seven inches putian face is furnished with long brown in length of trunk, the tail being twenty-six whiskers, which are naturally brushed back inches long; it was the largest monkey I over the ears. The general color of the anisaw in America, with the exception of a mal is bruwnish-tawny, but the tail is eleblack Howler, whose body was twenty-eight gantly barred with black. I was surprised anches in height. The skin of the face in on my return to England to learn, from the Barrigudo is black and wrinkled, the spaciwens in the British Museum, that the forehead is low, with the eyebrows project. pygmy marmoset was found also in Mexico, ing, and, in short, the features altogether re- no other Amazunian munkey being known to semble in a striking manner those of an old wander far from the great river plain. Thus negro. In the forests the Barrigudo is not a the smallest and apparently the feeblest spevery active animal ; it lives exclusively op cies of the whole order is one which has by some fruits, and is much persecuted by the In. 22:103 become the most widely dispersed. dians on account of the excellence of its flee). The Jupurà.-A curious animal, kaown to as food. From inforination given me by : laturalists as the Kinkaiou. It called Japurá
by the Indians of the Amazons, unit con- Many small and curious species living in the siderud by them as a kind of mjukey,may woods conceal themselves by day under the be mentioned in this place. It is the Cure:) broad leaf -blades of Heliconiæ and other leples cau livolvus, of 2001.)gists, and hils plants whici giuw in shady places ; others been considered by 9:m3 authors as aa inler. cling to the trunks of lives. While walking mediate form between the Lemur family of through the forest in the daytime, especially apes and the plantigrade Carnivoru, or bear along gloomy ravines, one is almost sure to fainily. It has decidedly no close relati:n starile bats from tbeir sleeping-places, &pu ship to either of the groups of American at night they are often seen in great num). monkeys, having six cutting teeth to each. bers flitting about the trees on the shady jaw, and loug claws. instead of Dails, will m:irgins of narrow channels. I captured extremities of the usual shape of pa.vs in. altogether, without giving especial atieption stead of hands. Its muzzle is conical and to bits, sixteen different species at Ega. pointed, like that of. m:ww.y lemurs of Maliban The Vampire Bat.--The little gray blood. ghscar ; the expression of its counteuince, sucking Puyllostom, mentioned in a former and its habits and actions, are also very chapter as found in my chamber at Caripí, siunilar to those of lemurs. Its tail is very was not uncommon at Ega, where every ons texible toward the tip, and is ujel to twine believes it to visit sleepers and bleed them in round branches in climning I did not sue the night. But the vampire was here by fur or bear anything of this animal while resid- the most abundant of the family of leaf-nosed ing on the Lower Amazons, but on the banks bats. It is the largest of all the South of the upper river, frum the Teffé to Peru, Ainerican species, measuring twenty-eigbt it appeared to be rather common. It is noc inches in expanse of wing. Nothing in ani. turnal in its babits, like the owl faced mon. mal physiognomy can be more hideous than keys, although unlike them it has a bright, the countenance of this creature when viewed dark eye. I once saw it in considerable from the front, the large leathery cars standnumbers when vn au excursion with an in. ing out from the sides and top of the head, diau companion along the !6:18. Y yapó shores the erect spear-shaped appendage on the tip of the Terfé, about twens, ies ubove Ega. of the nise, the grin and the glistening black We slept one night at the bouse of a native eye, all corubining to make up a figure tbat family living in the thick of the forest, where reminds one of some mocking imp of fable. *& restival was going on, and there being no No wonder that imaginative people have inroom to hang our hammocks under shelter, ferrei diabolical instincts on the part of so on account of the number of visitors, we lay ugly an animal. The vampire, however, is down ou a mat in the open air, near a shed the must larmless of all bats, and its inoffenwhich stood in the midst of a grove of fruit sive character is well known to residents on trees and pupunha palms. Past midnight, the banks of the Amazons. I found two uiswhen all became still after the uproar of holi- tinct species of it, one having the fur of a day-making, as I was listening to the dull, blackish color, the other of a ruddy hue, and fanning sound made by the wings of impish ascertained that both feed chiefly on fruits. hosts of vampire bais crowding round the The church at Ega was the headquarters of Cajú trees, a rustle commenced from the side both kia.is ; I used to see them, as I sat at of the woods, and a troop of slender, long. my vous luring the short evening twilights, tailed animals were seen against the clear trooping : orth by scores from a large open muonlit sky, taking flying leaps from branch window at the back of the altar, twittering to branch throngh The grove. Many of them cheerfully as they sped off to the borders of stopped at the pupuuha trees, and the the forest. They sometimes enter houses ; hustling, twittering, and screaming, with the first time I saw one in my chamber, sounds of falling fruits, showeil how they wheeling heavily round and round, I mistook were employed. I thought at first they were so for a pigeon, thinking that a tame one had Nyctipitheci, but they proved to be. Jupurás, escaped from the premises of one of my for the owner of the house early next morns neighbors. I opened the stomach of several ing caught a young one, and gave it to me. of these bats, and found them to contain a I kept this as a pet animal for several weeks, mass of pulp and seeds of fruits, mingled feeding it on bananus, and mandivca-meal with a few remains of insects. The natives mixed with treacle. It became tame in a say they devour ripe cajús and guavas op very short time, allowing itself 10. be caressed, trees in the gardens, but on comparing the but making a distinction in the degree of seeds taken from their stomachs with those confidence it showed betweuu myself and of all cultivated trees of Ega, I found they strangers. My pet was unfortunately killed were, unlike any of theru ; it is therefore by a neighbor's dog, wbich entered the room probable that they generally resort to the forwhere it was kept. "The animal is so difficult est to feed, coming to the village in the mornto obtain alive, its place of retreat in the day. ing to sleep, because they find it more secure time not being known to the natives, that I from animals of prey ihan their natural was unable to prucure a second living speci- abodes in the woods. men.
Bats. --The only vther mammals that I sball Birds.--I have already had occasion to men. mentiva are the bats, which exist in very tion sereral of the more interesting birds considerable numbers and variety in the for- found in the Ega district. The first thing that est, as well as in the buildings of the villages. would strike a new-comer in the forest of tho pper Amazons would be the general scarcity mus birds are now and then found mixed up of birds ; indeed, it often happened that I did with the rest, as though led away by some not meet with a single bird during a whole will-o'-the-wisp. The native women, even days' ramble in the richest and most varied the white and balf-caste ivlabitants of the part of the wood. Yet the country is ten. towns, attach a superstitious value to the anted by many hundred species, many of skin and feathers of the Virá-pará, believing which are in reality abundant, and sume of that if they keep them in their clothes-cbest 'them conspicuous from tbeir brilliant plu. the relics will have the effect of attracting mage. The cause of their apparent rarily is to for the happy possessors a train of lovers and be sought in the sumeness and density of the followers. These birds are congevuently in thousand miles of forest which constituie great demand in some packe :!, äupters their dwelling-place. The birds of the coun. selling them at a gi price to the foolish try are gregarious, at least during the scasopis girls, who preserve the bodies by dıying fleshi when they are most readily found ; but the and feathers together in the sun. I could fiugivorous kinds are to be met with vply never get a sight of this famous little bird in when certain wild fruits are ripe, and to the forest. I once employed Indians to obknow the exact localities of the trees requires tain specimens for me; but after the same months of experience. It would not be sup- man (who was a noted woodsman) had posed that the insectivorous birds are also brought me at different times three distinct gregarious; but they are so, numbers of dis- species of birds as the Virá-pará, I gave up tinci species, belongiog to many different the story as a piece of humbug. The sim. families, joining together in the clase or plest explanation appears to be this, that the search of foud. The proceeditigs of these birds associate in fucks from the instinct associated bands of insect-hunters are not a of self-preservation, and in order to be a little curious, and merit a few remarks. less easy prey to hawks, snakes, and other
While bunting aloog the narrow pathways enemies, than they would be if feeding that are made through the forest in the lone. neighborhood of bouses and villages, One Toucans-Cuvier's Toucan.-Of this fammay pass several days without seejny many ily of birds, so conspicuous from the great bids ; but now and then the surrouuding size and liglil structure of their beaks, and lushes and trees al pear suddenly to swarm so characteristic of tropical American forwith them. There are ecores, probably hun. ests, five species inhabit the woods of Eya. dieds, of birds, all moving about with the The commonest is Cuvier's Toucan, a large greatest activity-woodpeckers and Dendro. bird, distinguished from its nearest relatives colaptidæ (from species no larger iban a spar- by the fenthers at the bottom of the back row to others the size of a crow) running up being of a saffron hue instead of red. It is the tree trunks ; lanagers, ant-ibrushes, hum found more or less numerously throughout ming-birds, fy-catchers, and barbets, flitting the year, as it breeds in the neighborhood, about the leaves and lower hrunches. The laying its eggs in holes of trees at a great Lustling crowd loses no time, and although height from the ground. During most months nioving in concert, each bird is occupied on of the year it is met with in single individu. iis own account in searching bark or leaf or als or small pocks, and the birds are then twig, the basbels visiting every clayey nest very wary. Sometimes one of these little 'cf termites on the lets wbich lie in the lipe bands of four or five is seen perched for of warch. In a few minutes ile host is bours together among the topmost branches gone, and the forest path remains deserted of high trees, giving vent to their remarkitand silenı as before. I became in course of bly loud, shrill, yelping cries, one bird time so accustomed to this habit of birds ju mounted higher than the rest, acting apparthe wcods near Ega, that I could generally ently as leader of the ipharmonious chorus; find the flock of associated marauders when- but two of them are often heard yelping ever I wanted it. There appeared to be only alternately and in different notes. These one of these flocks in each small district ; cries have a vague resemblance to the syllaand as it traversed chiefly a limited tract of bles Tocáno, Tocáno, and hence the Indian woods of second growth I used to try differ- name of this genus of birds. At these times ent paths until I came up with it.
it is difficult to get a shot at Toucans, for The Indians bave poticed these miscelane. their senses are so sharpened that they descry ous hunting-parties of birds, but appear not the hunter before he gets near the tree on to have observed that they are cccupied in which they are perched, although he may b: searching for insects. They have supplied half concealed among the underwood 15.) their want of knowledge, in the usual way feet below them. They stretch their necks of half-civilized people, by a theory which downward to look beneath, and on espying hus degenerated into a myth, to the effect the least movement among the foliage, tly that the onward muving lands are led by a off to the more inaccessible parts of the forlittle gray bird called the Uira.paiá, which est. Solitary Toncaas are sometimes met fascinates all the rest, and leads them a weary with at the samy season, hopping silently up dance through the thickets. There is crr. and down the larger boughs, and pering tainly some appearance of truth in this ex- into the crevices of iree trunks. They moult planation ; for sometimes stray birds encoun. in tbe Inonths from March to June, some in. tered in the line of march are soon to be dividuals earlier, others later. This season drawn into the throng, and rurdy frugivorof enforced quiet being passed, they make