« EelmineJätka »
mode of conveying intelligence. When I and washed by one or more of its comrades, juterfered with ihe column or abstracteci an who performed the task by passing the limb individual from it, news of the disturbance between the jaws and the tongue, finishing was very quickly communicated to a dis. by giving the antennæ a friendly wipe. It tance of several yards toward the rear, and was a curious spectacle, and oue well Calc:uthe column at that point commenced retreat- lated to increase one's amazement at the ing. All the small-headed workers carried similarity between the instinctive actions of m Ticir jaws a little cluster of white may- ants and the acts of rational beings, a simi. gots, which I thought at the time wight be larily which must bave been brought about young larvæ of their own colony, but after. by two different processes of development of ward found reason to conclude were the the primary qualities of mind. The actions grubs of some other species wliose nests they of these ants looked like simple indulgence had been plundering, the procession being in idle amusement. Hare these little creamost likely not a migration, but a column on tures, then, an excess of energy beyond what & marauding expedition.
is required for labors absolutely necessary to The positiou of the large-headed individuals the welfare of their species, and do they thus in the marching column was rather curious. expend it in mere sportiveness, like young There was one of these extraordinary fellows lambs or kittens, or in idle whims like to about a score of the smaller class ; uone rational beings? It is probable that these of them carried anything in their mouths, hours of relaxation and cleaning may be iubut all trotted along empty-handed and out- dispensable to the effective performance of side of the column, at pretty regular inter. their harder labors ; but while looking at vals from each other, like subaltern offcers ther, the conclusion that the ants were enin a marching regiment of soldiers. It was gaged merely in play was irresistible easy to be tolerably exact in this observation, Eciton predator. This is a small dark-redfor their shining white heads made them dish species, very similar to tbe common red very conspicuous among the rest, bobbing stinging ant of England. It differs from all up and down as the column passed over the other Ecitons in its babit of hunting, nct in inequalities of the road. I did not see them coluunns, but in dense phalanxes consisting change their position or take any notice of of myriads of individuais, and was first met tbeir small-headed comrades marching in with at Ega, where it is very common. the column, and when I disturbed the line Nothing in insect movements is more striking they did not prance forth or show tight 80 than the rupid march of these large and comeagerly as the others. These large-headed pact bodies. Wherever they pass, all the members of the community have been con- rest of the animal world is thrown int.) a sidered by some authors as a soldier class, state of alarm. They stream along the like the similarly-armed caste in Termites ; ground and climb to the summits of all the but I found no proof of this, at least in the lower trees, searching cvery leuf to its apex, present species, as they always seemed to be and whenever they encounter a mass of derather less pugnacious than the worker- caying vegetable matter, where booty is plenminors, and their distorted jaws disabled tiful, they concentrate, like other Eciions, them from fastening on a plane surface like all their forces upon it, the dense phalanx of the skin of an attacking animal. I ain in- shining and quickly-moving bodies, as it clined, however, to think that they may act, spreads over the surface, looking like a flood in a less direct way, as protectors of the com- of dark-red liquid. They soon penetrate munity, namely, as indigestible mursels to every part of the confusod heap, and then, the flocks of ant-thrushes w!uch follow the gathering together again in marching order, marching columns of these Ecitons, and are unward they move. All soft-bodied and inthe most formidable enemies of the species. active insects fall an easy prey to them, and, It is possible that the hooked and i wisted like other Ecitons, they tear their victims in jaws of the large-headed class may be eficc. pieces for facility of carriage. A phalanx of tire weapons of annoyance when in the giz. this species, when passing over a tract of zards or stomachs of these birds, but I upfor- smooth ground, occupies a space of from tunately omitted to ascertain whether this four to six square yards ; on examining the was really the fact.
ants closely they are seen to move, not alto. The life of these Ecitons is but all work, gether in one straightforward direction, but for I frequently saw them very luisurely cm in variously spreading contiguous columns, ployed in a way that looked like recreation. now separating a little from the general mass, When this happened, the place was always a now reuniting with it. The margins of the sunny nook in the forest." The main column phalanx spread out at times like a cloud of of the army and the branch columns, at these skirmishers from the flanks of an army. I times, were in their ordinary relative posi- was never able to find the hive of this spetious; but iustead of pressing forward eager cies. ly, and plundering right and left, they B lind Ecitons.- I will now give a short acseemed to have been all smitten with a sud. count of the blind species of Eciton. Nono, den fit of laziness. Some were walking of the foregoing kinds have eyes of the facetslowly about, others were brushing their an. ted or compound structure, such as are usual tennæ with their fure feet ; but the drollest in insects, and which ordinary ants (Furmnica) sight was their cleaning one another. Here are furuished with, but all are provided with and there an ant was seen stretching forth organs of vision composed each of a single first one leg and then another, to be brushed Lens. Connecting them with the utterly blind species of the genus, is a very stout-limbed November with, 1856. — Embarked on the Eciton, the E. crassicornis, whose eyes are Upper Amazons steamer, the l'abatinga, for sunk in rather deep suckets. This ant goes an excursion to Tunantins, a small semi-Inon foraging expeditions, like the rest of its dian settlement, lying 240 miles beyood Egn. tribe, and attacks even the nests of other The Tabatinga is an iron boat of about 170 stinginy species (Myrmica), but it avoids the tons burden, built at Rio de Janeiro, and ligbt, always moving in concealment under fitted with engines of fifty-horse power. The leaves and fallen bianches. When its col- saloon, with berths on each side for twenty umos have to cross a cleared space, the ants passengers, is above deck, and open at buih construct a temporary ccrered way with ends to admit a free current of air. Tlie granules of earth, arched orer, and holding captain or “commandante" was a licutenant together mechanically ; under this the pro- in the Brazilian navy, u man of polished, cession passes in secret, the indefatigable sailor-like address, and a rigid disciplinacreatures repairing their arcade as fast as rian ; his namu, Senhor Nunes Dello Carbrenches are made in it.
dozo. I was obliged, as usual, to take with Next in order comes the Eciton vastator, me a stock of all articles of food, except which las no eres, although the collapsed meat and fish, for the time I intended to be sockels are plainly visible; and, lastly, the absent (liree months); and the luggage, inEcitun urrutica, in which both sockets and cluding hammocks, cooking utensils, (rockeyes have lisappeared, leaving only a faint ery, and so forth, formed fifteen large packring to mark the place where they are usual- ages. One bundle consisted of a mosquits ly situated. The armies of E. vastator and tent, un article I had not yet bad occasion to E. erratica move, as far as I could learn, use on the river, but which was indispensable wholly undercovered roads, the unts con: in all excursions beyond Ega, every person, structing them gradually but rapidly as they man, woman, and child, requiring one, as advance. The column of foragers pushes without it existence would be scarcely possiforward step by step under the protection of ble. My lept was about eight feet long and these cu fered passages, through the thickets, five feet broad, and was made of course calico and on reaching a rotting log or other prom- in an oblong shape, with sleeves at each end ising hunting-ground, pour into the crevices through which to pass the corris of a ham. in search of booty. I have traced their mock. Under this shelter, which is fixed up arcades, occasionally, for a distance of one or every evening before sundown, one can road two hundred yards; the grains of earth are and write, or swing in one's hammock durtaken from the soil over which the column ing the long hours which intervene before is passing, and are fitted together without bedtime, and feel one's sense of comfort incement. It is this last-mentioned feature creased by huving cheated the thirsty swarms that distinguishes them from the similar cor- of mosquitoes which fill the chamber. ered roads made by Termites, who use their We were four days on the road. The glutinous saliva to cement the grains together. pilot, a mameluco of Ega, whom I knew The blind Ecitons, working in numbers, very well, exhibited a knowledge of the river build up simultaneously the sides of their and powers of endurance which were quite convex arcades, and contrive, in a surprising remarkable. He stood all this time at bis manner, to approximate them and fit in the post, with the exception of three or four key-stones wiihout letting the loose unce. hours in the middle of each day, when he mented structure fall to pieces. There was relieved by a young man who served as was a very clear division of labor between apprentice; and he knew the breadth ard the two classes of neuters in these blind spe- windings of the channel and the extent of cies. The large-beade t class, although not all the yearly-shifting shoals from the Riv possessing monstrously lengthonod jaws, like Negro to Loreto, a distance of more than a the worker-majors in E. hamata and E. dre- thousand miles. There was no slackening panophora, are rigidly dedinud in structure of speed at night, except during the brief from the small-headed class, and act as sol. but violent storms which occasionally broko diers, defending the working community upon us, and then the engiues were stopped (like soldier Termites) against all comers. by the command of Lieutenant Nunes, soineWhenever I made a breach in one of their times against the wish of the pilot. The covered ways, all the ants underneath wure nights were often so dark that we passengers set in commotion, but the worker-minors ree on the poop deck could not discurn the hardy mained behind to repair the damage, while fellow on the bridge ; but the steamer drove the large-heads issued forth in a most menac. on at full speed, men being stationed on the iog manuer, rearing their heads and snap- lookout at the prow, to watch for floating ping their jaws with an expression of the logs, and one man placed to pass orders to fiercest rage and defiance.
the helmsman; lbe keel scraped agaiust a
sand bank only once during the passage. CHAPTER XIII.
The passengers were chiefly Puruvians, EXCURSIONS BEYOND EGA.
mostly thin, anxious, Yankee-locking men,
who were returning home to the cities of Steamboat travelling on thc Amazons-Passengers Tunanting-Caisháp Indians--The Jatahl The
e Moyobainba and Chachapoyas, on the Audes, Saj:6-Marauá Indians - Fonte Bua-Journey to St. after a trading trip to the Braziliau towns on Paulo - Tucúna Indiane - Illne88 --- Descent t Pará - Changes at Pará-Departure for Fogland.'
anne six months previously, with cargoes of
Panama hats to exchange for European bank, about a mile from the mouth of the wares. These hats were niade of the young river, and contains twenty habitations, nearly leaflets of a palm tree, by the Indians and all of which are merely novels, built of laihbalf-caste people who iphabit the eastern work and mud. The short streets, after rain, parts of Peru. They form almost the only are almost impassable, on account of the article of export from Peru by way of the many puddles, and are choked up with Amazons, but the inoney value is very great weeds, leguminous blirubs, and scarlet-flowcuinpared with the bulk of the goods, as the ered asclepias. The atmosphere in such a hals are generally of very fine quality, and place, hedged in as it is by the lofty forest, cost from twelve shillings to six pounds ster and surrounded by swamps, is always close, ling cach ; sone traders bring down two or warm, and reeking; and the hum nod chirp three thousand pounds' worth, folded into of insects and birds cause a continual din. small compass in their truuks. The return The small patch of weedy ground around the cargoes consist of hardware, crockery, glass, village swarms with piovers, sandpipers, and other bulky vr. heavy geuds, but not of striped herons, and scissor-tailed fly-catchCluth), which, being of light weight, can be crs; and alligators are always seen fluating carried acros: the Andes from the ports on lazily on the surfaco of the river in front of the Pacific to the eastern parts of Peru. All the houses. kinds of European cloth can be obtained at a On Innding, I presented myself to Senhor much cheaper rate by this route than by the Paulo Bitancourt, a goou-naturcu half-caste, more direct way of the Amazons, the import director of Indians of the neighboring river duties of Peru being, as I was told, lower Issá, who quickly ordered a small house 15 tban those of Brazil, and the diffcrence not be cleared for me. This exhilarating abodu heing counterbalanced by increased expense contained only one room, the walls of which of transit, on account of weight, over the were disfigured by large and ugly patches of passes of the Ancics.
mul, the work of white ants. The floor There was a great lack of amusement on was the baru earth, dirty and damp; the board. The table was very well served, pro wretched chamber was darkened by a sheet fessed cooks being employed in these Amd. of calico being stretched over the windows, zonian steamers, and fresh meat insured by & plau adopted here to keep out the Piumkeeping on deck & supply of live bullocks flies, which float about in all shady places and fowls, which are purchased whenever like thin clouds of smuke, rendering all rethere is an opportunity on the road. The puse inipssible in the daytime whenever river scenery was similar to that already de- they cai. effect an entrance. My baggage scribed as presented between the Rio Negro was soon landed, and before the steamer deand Ega ; ' long reaches of similar aspect, parted I had taken gun, insect-uet, and game with two lung, low lincs of forest, varied bag, to make a preliminary exploration of sometimes with clitis of red clay, appearing my new locality. one after thu other, a horizon of water and I remained here nineteen days, and, consky on some days limiting the view buth up sidering the shortness of the time, inade a stream and down. We traveled, howerer, very good collection of monkeys, birds, and always near the bank, and, for my part, I insects. A considerable number of the spe: was never weary of admiring the picturesque cics (especially of insects) were different froin grouping and variety of trees, and the varied those of the four other stations, which I exmantles of creeping plants which clothed the amined on the south side of the Solimoens green wall of forest every step of the way. and as many of these were “representative With the exception of a small village called forms''* of others found on the opposite Fonte Boa, retired from the main river, banks of the broad river, I concluded that where we stopped to take in firewood, and there could have been no connection between of which I shall have to speak prescptly, we the two shores during, at least, the recent saw no human habitativn the whole of the geological period. This conclusion is con. distance. The mornings were delightfully tirmed by the case of the Uakarí monkeys, cool; cæffee was served at sunrise, and a described in the last. chapter. All these bountiful breakfast at ten o'clock ; after that strongly modified local races of insects con. hour the heat rapidly increased until it be- fined to one side of the Solimoens (like the came almust unbearable ; how the engine. Uakarís), are such as huve not been able to drivers and firenen stood it without exhaus. cross a wide treeless space such as a river. tion I cannot tell ; it diminished after four The acquisition which pleased me most, in o'clock in the afternoon, about which time this place, was a new species of butterfly (a dinner-bell rang, and the evenings were Catagramma), which has since been named always pleasant.
C. excelsior, owing to its surpassing in size November 11th to 30th, The Tunautins is and beauty all the previously-known species a sluggish black-water stream, about sixty of its singularly beautiful genus. The upper miles in length, and toward its mouth from surface of the wings is of the richest blue, 100 to 200 yards in breadth. The vegetaiion varyiug iy shade with the play of light, and on its bank's has a similar aspect to that of on each side is a broad curved stripe of an the Rio Negro, the trees having small foliage orange color. It is a bold flier, and is nut of a sombre bue, and the dark piles of greenery resting on the surface of the iuky water. The village is situated on the left . Species or racne-which take the place of other confined, as i afterward found, to the north- not practice tattooing, or perforate their ears eru side of the river, for once I saw a speci- and noses in any way. Their social condimen amid a number of richly-colored butter. tion is of a low type, very little remuved, inflies, flying about the deck of the steamer deed, from that of the brutes living in the when we were anchorel off Fonte Boa, 200 same furests. They do not appear tu ovey miles lower down the river.
allied species or races.
any common chief, and I coulil not make out With the exception of three mameluco that they had Pajés, or medicine men, those families and a stray Purtuguese tracer, all rudest beginnings of a priest class. Symthe inhabi:ants of the village and neighbor- bolical or masked dances, and ceremoning in hood are semi-civilized Iudians of the Shu- honor of the Juruparí, or demon, customs mána and Passé tribes. The forests of the wbich prevail among all the surrounding Tuantins, huwever, are inhabited by a tribe tribes, are unknown to the Caishanas. There of wild Indians called Caislánas, who resem- is among them a truce of festival keeping ; ble much, in their social conditious aud man- but the only ceremony used is the drinking ners, the debused Múras of the Lower Ama- of cashiri beer, and fermented liquors made zous, and have like them, shown no aptitude of Indian corn, bananas, and so forth. for civilized life in any shape. Their huts These affairs, however, are conducted in a commence at the distance of an hour's walk degenerate style, for they do not drink to infrom the village, along gloomy and narrow toxication, or sustain the orgies for several forest paths. My first and only visit to a days and nights in succession, like the Jurís, Caishaua dwelling was accidental. One day, Passés, and Tucunas. The men play a having extended my walk further than usual, musical instrument, made of pieces of stem and föllowed one of the forest-roads until it or the arrow-grass cut in different lengths became a mere picada, or hunter's track, I and arranged like Pan-pipes. With this they caine suudenly upou a well-trodden pathway, while away whole hours, lolling in ragyed bordered on cach side with Lycopodia of the bast hammocks slung in their dark, smoky mnost elegant shapes, the tips of the fronds huts. The Tunantins people say that the stretching almost like lendrils down the little Caishánas bave persecuted ihe wild animals eurthy slopes which formed the edge of the and birds to such an extent near their settlepath. The road, tbough smooth, was var- ments that there is now quite a scarcity of row and dark, and in many places blocked animal food. If they kill a toucan, it is conup by trunks of felled trees, which had been sidered an important event, and the bird is apparently thrown across by the timid In- made to serve as a meal for a score or more dians on purpose to obstruct the way to their persons. They boil the meat in cartbenware habitations. Half a mile of this study road kettles filled with 'Tucupí sauce, ani cat it brought ine to a small open space on the with beiju, or mandiocu cakes. The moinen banks of a brvok or creek, on ihe skirts of are not allowed to taste of the meat, but which stuod & conical hut with a very low are forced to content themselves with sopping doorway. There was also an open shed, pieces of cake in the liquior. with stages made of split palin stems, and á November 30th.-I left Tunantins in a pumber of large wooden troughs. Two or trading schooner of eighty tons burden bethree dark-skinned children, with a mun and longing to Senhor Batalha, a trudesman of woman, were ju the shed; but, immediately Ega, which had been out all the summer colon espying me, all of them ran to the hut, lecting produce, and was coinmanded by a bolting through the little doorway like so friend of mine, a young Paranese, numed niany wild animals scared into their burrows. Francisco Raiol. We arrived on the 3d of A few moments after, the man put his head December at the mouth of the Jutahí, a convut with a look of greot distrust; but on my siderable stream about half a mile broad, and making t.be most friendly gestures I could flowing with a very sluggish current. Tbis think of, he came forth with the children. is one of a series of six rivers, fronı 400 to They were all smeared with black mud and 1000 miles in length, which flow from the pilint; the only clothing of the elders was a south-west through unknown lands lying bekind of apron made of the innner bark of the tween Bolivia and the Upper Anazons, and Hapucaya tree, and the savage aspect of the enter this latter river between the Madeiia man was heightened by his hair hanging over and the Ucayali. Wo remained at anchor his forehead to the eyes. I stayed about two four days within the mouth of the Sapó, a hours in the neighborhood, the children gain- small tributary of the Jutahí flowing from ing sufficient confidence to come und help the south-east, Senhor Raiol having to gend me to search fur insects. The only weapon an igarité to the Cupatána, a large tribntary used by the Caislánas is the bluw-gun, and some few miles farther up the river, to fetch this is employed only in shooting animals for - a cargo of salt fish. During this time we food. They are not a warlike people, like made several excursions in the moplaria to most of the neighboring tribes on the Japurá various places in the neighborhood. Our land Issá.
longest trip was to some Indian houses, a ! The whole tribe of Caishápas does not ex- distance of fifteen or eighteen miles lip the ceed in number 400 souls. None of them are Sapó, a journey mude with ons lugan sad. baptized Indians, and they do not dwell in dler, and occupying a whole liay. The villages, liko the more advanced sections of stream is not nuore than furty or fills yards the Tupí stock ; but each family has its own broad; its waters are durker in color than Bolitary hut. They are quite harmless, do those of the Jutahí, and flow, as in all these small rivers, partly under shade between two ease. The early explorers of the country, on lofty walls of forest. We passed, in ascend noticing spotted skins to be very frequent in ing, seven habitations, most of thein hidden certain localities, thought they were peculiar in the luxuriaki foliage of the banks ; their to a few tribes of Indians. The younger sites being known only by small openings in children in these houses on the Sapó were the coinpact wall of forest, and the presence free from spots ; but two or three of theni, of a canve or two tied up in little shady about ten years of age, abowed signs of their ports. The inhabitants are chiefly Indians commencement in rounded yellowish patches of the Maraná tribe, whose original territory on the skin, and these appeared languid and comprised all the small by-Streams lying be sickly, although the blotched adults seemed tween the Jutabí and the Juruá, deur the not to be affected in their general health. A mouths of both these great tributaries. They middle-aged half-caste at Funte Bog told mo live in separate families or small hordes; he had cured himself of the disorder by have no common chief, and are consiuered strong doses of sarsaparilla; the black as a tribe little disposed to adopt civilized patches had caused the hair of his beard and customs or be friendly with the whites. One eyebrows to fall off, but it had grown again of the houses belonged to a Jurí family, and since his cure. we saw the owner, an erect, nuble-looking W e left these friendly people about four old fellow, tattooed, as customary with his o'clock in the ufternoon, and in descending tribe, in a large patch over the middle of his lhe unbrageous river, stopped, about half. face, fishing under the shade of a colossal way down, ut another liouse, built in one of tree in his port with book and line. He the most charming situations I had yet seen saluted us in the usual grave and courteous in this country. A clean, narrow, sandy manner of the better sort of Indians as we path way led from the shady port to the passed by,
house, through a tract of forest of indescribWe reached the last house, or rather Wo able luxuriance. The buildings stood on an house's, about ten o'clock, and spent there eminence in the middle of a level, cleared several honus during tbe great heat of mid- space, the firm sandy soil, smooth as a floor, day. The houses, which stuod ou a high forining a broad terrace around them. The clayey bank, were of quadrangular shape, owner was a semi-civilized Indian, named partly open like sheds, and partly enclosed Manoel, a dull, taciturn fellow, who, to. with rude mud-walls, forming one or more gether with his wife and children, seemed by chambers. The inhabitants, a few fainilies no means pleased at being intruded on in of Marauás, comprising about thirty persons, their solitude. The family must bave been received us in a frank, smiling manner, a very industrious; for the plantations were reception which may have been due to Senhor very extensive, and included a little of almost Raiol being an old acquaintance and some- ull kinils of cultivated tropical productions, what of a favorite. None of them were tat- fruit trees, vegetubles, and even flowers for tvoed, but the men had great boles pierced ornament. The silent old man har surely a in their ear-lobes, in which they insert plugs fine appreciation of the beauties of nature, of wond, and their lips were drilled with for the site be had chosen commanded a view smaller bules. One of the younger men, of surprising magnificence over the summits a tine strapping fellow nearly six ieet high, of the forest ; and, to give finish to the proswith a large aquiline nose, who seemed to pect, he hurl planted a large quantity of wish to be pariicularly friendly with me, banada trees in the foreground, thus conceal. showed me the use of these lip-boles, by fixing the charred and dead stumps which ing a number of little white sticks in them, would otherwise have marred the effect of and then iwisting his mouth about and going the rolling sea of greenery. The only inforthrough a pantomime to represent defiance nation I could get out of Manoel was that in the presence of an enemy. Nearly all the large flocks of richly-colored birds camo people were disfigured by dark blotches on down in the fruit seuson and despoiled his the skin, the effect of a cutaneous disease trees. The sun set over the tree-lops before very prevalent in this part of the country. we left this little Eden, and the remainder of The face of one old man was completely our journey was made slowly and pleasantly, blackened, and looked as though it had been under the checkered shades of the river smeared with black-lead, the blotches having b:iuks, by the light of the moon. coalesced to from one large patch ; others were simply mottled. The black spots were December 7th.- Arrived at Fonte Boa, a hard and rough, but not scaly, and were mar- wretched, muddy, and dilapidated village, gined with rings of a color paler than the situated two or three miles within the mouth natural hue of the skin. I had gren many of a parrow by-stream called the CayhiarIndians and a few half-castes at Tunantins, lry, which runs almost as straight as an artiand afterward saw others at Fonte Boa, ficial canal between the village and the main blotched in the same way. The disease Amazons. The cbaracter of the vegetation would seem to be contagious, for I was told and soil here was different from that of all that a Portuguese trader became distigured other lucalities I had hitherto exaruined; I with it after cohabiting some years with an liad planned, therefore, to devote six weeks Indian woman. It is curious that, although to tbe place. Having written beforehand to prevalent in many places on the Solimuens, one of the principal inhabitants, Senhor do resident of Ega exhibited signs of the dis. Venancio, a house was ready for me on land