« EelmineJätka »
laughing country wench, such as might be walk in the forest. The fit of shivermag very met with any day among the laboring class often seized ine before I got home, and I then in villages in our own country, thau a canui- used to stand still and brave it out. When bal. I heard this artless muiden relate, in the steamer ascended in January 1858, Lieuthe coolest manner possible, how slie ute o tenant Nunes was shocked to see me so much portion of the bodies of the young men shattered, and recommended me strungly to whom her cribo had roasted. But wlat in return at once to Ega. I took bis advice, creased greatly the incongruity of this busic and embarked with hiin, when he touched ness, the young widow of one of the victims, at St. Paulo on his downward voyage, on a neighbur of mine, bappened to be present the 2d of February. I still hoped to be during the narrative, anii showed her interest able to turn muy face westward again, to in it by laughing at the broken Portuguese in gather the yet unseen treasures of the mar. which the girl related the horrible story. vellous countries lying between Tabatinga
and the slopes of the Andes ; but although, In the fourth month of my sojourn ai st. after a short rest in Ega, the ague left me, Paulo I had a serious illness, an attack of my general health remained in a state too the “sizoens,' or ague of the country, weak to justify the undertaking of further which, as it left me with shuttered health journeys. At length I left Eyx, on the 3d and damped enthusiasm, led to my abandon- of February, 1859, en route for England. ing the plan I had formed of proceeding to I arrived at Pará on the 17th of March, the Peruvian tuwns of Pebas and Moyo. after an absence in the interior of seven years bulmba, 250 and 600 miles further west, and and a half. My old friends, English, Amer. 80 completing the examination of the natural ican, and Brazilian, scarcely knew me again, history of the Amazonian plains up to the but all gave me a very warm welcome, es. foot of the Andes. I made a very large colpecially Mr. George Brocklehurst (of the lection at St. Paulo, and employed a collec- firm of R. Siuglehurst & Co., the chief tor at Tabatinga and on the bauks of the foreign merchants, who had been my correJauari for several months, so that I acquired spondents), who received me into his house, a very fair knowledge altogether of the pro- and treated me with the utmost kindness. Í ductions of the country bordering the Ama. was rather surprised at the warm appreciation zons to the end of the Braziliun territory, a shown by many of the principal people of distance of 1900 miles from the Atlantic at my labors ; but, in fact, the interior of the the mouth of the Purá ; but beyond the Pe- country is still the “ sertao" (wilderness) ruvian boundary I found now I should be terra incoguila to most residents of the seaunable to go. My ague seemed to be the port—and a man who had spent seven years culmination of a gradual deterioration of and a balf in exploring it, solely with scienhealth, which had been going on for several tific aims, was somewhat of a curiosity. I years. I had exposed myself too much in found Pará greatly changed and improved. the sun, working to the utmust of my It was no longer the weedy, ruinous, villagestrength six days a week, and had suffered looking place that it appeared when I first much, besides, from bad and insufficient knew it in 1848. The population bad been food. The ague did not exist at St. Paulo; increased (to 20,000) by an intlux of Portu. but the foul and humid state of the village guese, Madeiran, and German immigrants, was, perhaps, sufficient to produce ague in a and for muny years past the provincial gov. person much weakened from other causes. erument had spent their considerable surThe country bordering the shores of the Sol- plus revenue in beautifying the city. The imoens is healthy throughout; some endemic streets, formerly unpaved or strewn with diseases certainly exist, but these are not of loose stones and sand, wero now laid with a fatal nature, und the epidemics which des concrete in a most completo manner; all the olated the Lower Amazuns from Pará to the projecting masonry of tho irregularly-built Rio Negro, between the years 1850 and 1856, houses had been cleared away, and the buiid. had never reached this favored land. Ague ings made mure uniform. Most of the dilapis endemic only on the banks of those tribu idated houses were replaced by handsome tary streams which have dark - cnlored new edifices, having long and clegant balcowater..
nies fronting the first floors, at an elevation I always carried & stock of medicing with of several feet above the roadway. The large me; and a small vial of quinine, which I swampy squares had been drained, Weeded, bad bought at Pará in 1851, but never yet and planted with rows of almond and casuahad use for, now came in very useful. I rina trees, so that they were now a great ortook for each dose as much as would lie on nament to the city, instead of an eyesore, as the tip of a ponknife-blade, mixing it with they formerly were. My old favorite road, warm chamumile tea. The first few days the Monguba Avenue, had been renovated after my irst attack I could not stir, and and joined to many other magnificent rides was delirivus during tho paroxysms of fever ; lined with troes, which in a very low yoars but the worst being over, I made an effort to had grown tu height sufficient to afford rouso myself, knowing that incurable disur. agreeable shade ; one of these, the Estrada dors of tho liver and spleen follow ague in this de Sao José, had been planted with cocoa-nut country if the foeling of lassitude is too much palms. Sixty public vehicles, ligbt cubriolets indulgod. So overy morning I shouldered some of them built in Pará), pow plied in my gun or insect-net, and went my uanal the streets, increasing much the animation of the beautiful squares, streets, and avenues. In rumbling over my old ground in the
I found also the habits of the people con- forests of the neighborhood, I found great siderably changed. Many of the old religious changes had taken place to me, changes for holidays had declined in irnportance, and the worse. The mantle of shrubs, bushes, given way to secular amusements-social and creeping plants which for morly, when parties, balls, music, billiards, and so forth. the suburbs were uudisturbed by axe or There was quite as much pleasure-seeking as spade, had been left free to arrange itself in formerly, but it was turned in a more rational rich, full, and smooth sheets and masses over direction, and the Paraenses seemed now to the forest borders, had been nearly all cut copy rather the customs of the northern na. away, and troops of laborers were still em. tions of Europe, than those of the mother- ployed cutting ugly muddy roads for caris cjuntry, Portugal. I was glad to see seve- and cattle, through the once clean and lonely ral new book-sellers' shops, and also a fine woods. House's upd mills had been crected edifice devoted to a reading-room, supplied on the borders of these new roads The with periodicals, globes, and maps, and a cir- noblu forest trees bad been cut down, and culating library. There were now many their naked half-bui nid stems remained in printing offices, and four daily newspapers. the midst of ashes, muddy puddles, and The health of the place had greatly improved heaps of broken branches. I was obliged to since 1850, the year of the yellow fever, and hire a negro boy to show me the way to my Pará was now considered no longer danger- favorite pail near Una, which I have deous to new.comers.
scribed in the second chapter of this narraSo much for the improvements visible in tive, the new clearings having quite oblitthe place, and now for the dark side of the erated the old forest roads. Only a few picture. The expenses of living had in- acres of the glorious forest near Una now recreased about fourfold, a natural consequence mained in their natural state. On the other of the demand for labor and for native pro- side of the city, near tbe old road to the rice ducts of all kinds having augmented in mills, several scores of woodmen were em. greater ratio than the supply, through large ployed, under government, in cutting a arrivals of non - productive residents, and broad carriage - road through the forest to considerable importations of money on ac- Maranlam, the capital of the neighboring count of tbe steamboat company and foreign province, distant 250 miles from Pará, and Inerchants. Pará, in 1848, was one of the this bad entirely destroyed the solitude of the cheapest places of residence on the American grand old forest path. In the course of a continent; it was now one of the dearest. few years, however, a new growth of creepers Imported articles of food, clothing, and fur- will cover the naked tree-trunks on the borniture were mostly cheaper, although charged ders of this new road, and luxuriant shrubs with duties varying froin 18 to 80 per cent, form a green fringe to the path ; it will then besides high freights and large profits, than become as beautiful & woodland road as the those produced in the neighborhood. Salt old one was. A naturalist will have, hencecodfish was twopence per pound cheaper forward, tu go farther from the city to find than the vile salt pirarucú of the country. the glorious forest scenery which lay so near Oranges, which could formerly be had al. in 1848, and work much more laboriously most gratis, were now sold in the streets at than was formerly needed, to make the large the rate of three for a penny ; large bananus collections which Mr. Wallace and I sucwere a penny each ; tomatoes were from ceeded in doing in the neighborhood of Pará. twopence to ihreepence each, and all other June 2d, 1859.- At length, on the second fruit in this fruit-producing country had ad. of June, I left Pará, probably forever ; emvanced in like proportion. Mandioca-meal, barking in a North American trading-vessel, the bread of the country, had become so the Frederick Demming, for New York, the scarce and dear and bad, that the poorer United States route being the quickest as classes of natives suffered famine, and all well as the pleasantest way of reaching Eng. who could afford it were obliged to eat land. My extensive private collections were wheaten bread at fourpence to fivepenice per divided into three portions, and sent by three pound, made from American flour, 1200 bar- separate ships, to lessed the risk of loss of rels of which were consumed monthly ; this the whole. On the evening of the 3d of was now, therefore, & very serious item of June, I took a last view of the glorious forest daily expense to all but the most wealthy. for which I had so much love, and to exHouse-rent was most exorbitant ; a miser-plore which I had devoted so many years. able little place of two rooms, without fix. The saddest hours I ever recollect to have, tures or conveniences of any kind, having spent were those of the succeeding night, simply blank walls, cust at the rate of £18 when, the mameluco pilot baving left us free sterling a year. Lastly, the hire of servants of the shoals and out of sight of land, though was beyond the means of all persons in mod. within the mouth of the river, at anchor, erate circumstances ; a lazy cook or porter waiting for the wind, I felt that the last link could not be bad for less than three or four which connected me with the land of so shillings a day, besides his board and what many pleasing recollections was broken. he could steal. It cost me balf-a-crown for The Paraenses, who are fully aware of the the hire of a small boat and one man, to dig, attractiveness of their country, have an alembark from the steapuer, a distance of 200 literative proverb, “ Quem vai para (0) Pará yards.
para,'' “ He who goes to Pará stops there,"
and I had often thought I should myself have rience or England, I ind how incomparably been added to the list of examples. The de- superior is civilized life, where feelings, sire, however, of seeing again my parents and tastes, and intellect find abundant nourishenjoying once more the rich pleasures of in- ment, to the spiritual sterility of half-savage tellectual society had succeeded in overcom- existence, even though it be passed in the ing the attractions of a region which may be Garden of Eden. What has struck me pow. fittingly called a Naturalist's Paradise. Dur- erfully is the immeasurably greater diversity ing this last night on the Pará River a crowd and interest of human character and social of unusual thoughts occupied my mind. conditions in a single civilized nation, than Recollections of English climate, soenery, in equatorial South America, where three and modes of life came to me with a vivid- distinct races of men live together. The ness I had never before experienced during superiority of the bleak north to tropical rethe eleven years of my absence. Pictures of gions, however, is only in their social aspect ; startling clearnens rose up of the gloomy win- for I hold to the opinion that, although huters, the long gray twilights murky atmos- manity can reach an advanced state of cul. phere, elongated shadows, chilly springs, and ture only by battling with the inclemencies sloppy summers; of factory chimneys and of nature in high latitudes, it is under the crowds of grimy operatives, rung to work in equator alone that the perfect ruce of the early morning by factory bells ; of union future will attain to complete fruition of workhouses, contined rooms, artificial cares, man's beautiful heritage, the earth. and slavish conventionalities. To live again. The following day, having no wind, wo amid these dull scenes I was quitting a coun. drifted out of the mouth of the Pará with the try of perpetual summer, where my life had current of fresh water that is poured from been spent, like that of three fourths of the the mouth of the river, and in twenty-four people, in gypsy fashion, on the endless hours advanced in this way seventy miles on streams or in the boundless forests. I was our road. On the 6th of June, when in 7° leaving the equator, where the well-balanced 55' N. lat. and 52° 30' W. long., and there forces of nature maintained a land-surface and fore about 400 miles from the mouth of the climate that seemed to be typical of mundune main Amazons, we passed numerous patches order and beauty, to sail toward the North of floating grass mingled with tree-trunks and Pole, where lay my home under crepuscular withered foliage. Among these musses I es. skies somewhere about fifty-two degrees of pied many fruits of that peculiarly Amaza latitude. It was natural to feel a little dis- nian tree the Ubussú palm ; this was the mayed at the prospect of so great a change ; last I saw of the Great River. but now, after three years of renewed expo
PAGE I CEAP.
- PAGH I.-PARA: Arrival-Aspect of the country-The Negro observanco of Christmas A German
Pará River-First walk in the suburbs of family-Bats-Ant-eaters - Humming-birds : Par& Birds, Lizards, and Insects of the sub
Excursion to the Murucupi-Domestic life of urbs-Leaf-carrying Ant-Sketch of the cli the inhabitants-Hunting excursion with Inmate, history and present condition of Pará..
diang-White Ants........................... 067 I.-PARA: The swampy forest of Pare-A Por VI. -THE LOWER AMAZONS-PARA TO OBYDOS: tuguese landed proprietor-Country house at
Modes of travelling on the Amazons-HigNazareth-Life of a Naturalist under the
torical sketch of the early explorations of the | Equator-The dryer virgin forests Magoary
river-Preparations for voyage-Life on board Retired creeks-Aborigines......
a large trading vessel-The narrow channels III.-PARA: Religious holidays - Marmoset joining the Pará to the Amazons-First sight Monkeys-Serpents Insects..................
of the great river-Gurupa-The great shoalIV.--THE TOCANTINS AND CAMETA: Preparations
Flat-topped mountains-Santaren-Obydos.. 665 for the journey-The bay of Goajar.Grovo VII.--THE LOWER AMAZONS-OBYDOS TO MANof fan-leavod palms—The lower Tocanting
AOS, OR THE BARRA OF THE RIO NEGRO: DeSketch of the river-Vista alegre-Baia
parture from Obydog-River banks and byRapids-Boat journey to the Guariba falls
channels-Cacao planters-Daily life on board Native life on the Tocantins-Second journey our vegsel-Great storm-Sand island and its to Cametá.............................
birds-Hill of Parenting-N V.-CARIPI AND THE BAY OF MARAJO: River Mauhés Indians-Ville Nova, its inhabitants,
Para and Bay of Marajá Journey to Caripi forest, and animal productions-Cararauch :
dolidays ~ M
PAG A rustic festival-Lake of Cararaucá-Motuca river in the flood sonson-Oucama Indians flieg Serpar Christmas holidays-River Man
Mental condition of Indiang-Squall Manatee deire Amameluco farmer-Mura Indians
-Forest Floating pumice-stones from the Rio Negro-Description of BarrDescent to
Andos Falling banks Ega and its inhabitants Par&- Yellow fever.....
OY -Daily life of a Naturalist at Ego The tour VIII.-BANTAREX: Situation of Santarem--Man. seasons of the Upper Amazons.....
76 ners and customs of the inhabitants-Climato XI.-EXCURSIONS IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF EGA: Grassy campos and woods-Excursions to
The River TefroRambles through groves on Mapiri, Mabica, and rura, with sketches of
the beach-Excursion to the house of a Pagsé their Natural History; Palms, Wildfruit
chieftain-Character and customs of the Passo trees, Mining Wasps, Mason Wasps, Bees, and tribeFirst excursion to the sand islands of Sloths................ ......................... 680 the Solimoens-Habits of great river turtle IX.-VOYAGR UP THX TAPAJOS: Preparations for Second excursion-Turtle Ashing in the inland
voyage-First day's Rail-Loss of boat-Altar pools-Third Excursion - Hunting rambles do Chao-Modos of obtaining ish-Difficulties
with natives in the forest Return to Ega. .... with crew-Arrival at Aveyrog-Excursions XII.-ANIMALS OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF EGA: in the neighborhood-Whito Cobus, and habits
Sarlet-faced Monkeys-Parauacu Monkey and dispositions of Cebi Monkeys Tame Par
Owl-faced Night-apes-Marmosets Jupuré rot-Missionary settlement Enter the river Bats-Birds-Ouvier's Toucan Curl-crested Cupar-Adventure with Anaconda-Smoke
Toucan-Insects-Pendulous Cocoons-Foragdried Monkey-Bos-constrictor-Village of
ing Ante-Blind Ants.............
....................... 101 Mundurucu Indians, and incursion of a wild XII.- EXCURSIONS BEYOND EGA: Steamboat tribeFalls of the Cupari-Hyacinthine Ma
travelling on the Amazons-Passengers-Tucaw-Ro-emerge into the broad Tapajos
nantins-Caishána Indians-The Jutahi-The Doscant of rivor to Santarem..........
Sapo_Marauá Indians-Fonto Boo Journey X-THE UPPER ANAZOWEVOYAGE TO EGA: De
to St. Paulo Tucuna Indians-Diness-Departure from Barn First day and night on scent to Park-Changes at Park-Departure the Upper Amazons-Desolato appearance of
for ogland................................... 700
orest Rounting the inland
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