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PSALM XIII.

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[of man. see if there were any that did understand, and seek God.

3 They are all gone aside, they are all together become filthy: there is none that doeth good, no, not one.

4 Have all the workers of iniquity no knowledge? who eat up my people as they eat bread, and call not upon the LORD.

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5 There were they in great fear: for God is in the generation of the righ

teous.

6 Ye have shamed the counsel of the poor, because the LORD is his refuge.

7 Oh that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion! when the LORD bringeth back the captivity of his people, Jacob shall rejoice, and Israel shall be glad. (0)

EXPOSITION.

(N) A Psalm of David, complaining of desertion, and imploring divine aid."While God permits his servants to continue under affliction, he is said, after the manner of men, to have forgotten and hid his face from them.' For the use, therefore, of persous in such circumstances, is this psalm intended; and consequently, it suits the different cases of the church universal, languishing for the advent of our Lord to deliver her from this evil world; of any particular church, in time of persecution, and of each individual, when harrassed by temptations, or broken by sickHe who bore our ness, pain, and sorrow. sins, and carried our sorrows, may likewise be presumed to have made it a part of his devotions in the day of trouble."(Bishop Horne.)

The complaint of desertion here resembles that in the beginning of the twentysecond Psalm, which we know was used by our blessed Lord upon the cross; and the complaint is not of desertion only, but

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also of persecution from the enemy. In both, deliverance is implored and confidence expressed, with a promise of the like grateful return of praise. heart which trusteth in God's mercy (say the above excellent writer) shall alone re joice in his salvation, and celebrate by the tongue, in songs of praise, the loving-kind ness of the Lord. It is observable, tha this and many other psalms with a mourn ful beginning, have a triumphant ending to show us the prevailing power of dev tion, and to convince us of the certain r turn of prayer, sooner or later, bringin with it the comforts of heaven, to revi and enrich our weary and barren spirits the gloomy seasons of sorrow and tempta tion, like the dew descending by nig upon the withered summit of an easter mountain."

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NOTES.

Ver. 3. Lighten mine eyes-That is, res'ore to me health and joy and comfort; for darkness is the sha dow of death.

Ver. 5. I have trusted.-Or, "I trust." Bp. Horne.

PSALM XIV. This psalm bears the name of David, and is addressed likewise to the chief Musician. Another copy of it is given, with some slight variations, Psalm lii., and a difference in the title, which will be there Roticed.

Ver. 3. Gone aside-Become filthy.-The expresCons, Mr. Hervey suggests, are borrowed from ines soured Cor turned) and meats putrified." The

word for the latter is used Job xv. 16. At the of this verse, the present copies of the LXX in three verses quoted by St. Paul in the third cha of Romans from the other psalms, and which b thence been also introduced into this psalm in Common Prayer-Book.

Ver. 4. Who (or they eat up my people.—Tha devour the poor. See Micah iii. 3.

Ver. 5. There were they in great fear.They feared a fear: the parallel passage, Ps. li it is added" where no fear was; see that Psalm Ver. 7. O that, &c.-Marg." Who will give,'

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4 la whose eyes a vile person is contemned; but he honoureth them

[of Zion. that fear the LORD. He that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not.

5 He that putteth not out his money to usury, nor taketh reward against the innocent. He that doeth these things shall never be moved. (P)

PSALM XVI.

Michtam of David,

PRESERVE me, O God: for in thee do I put my trust.

2 O my soul, thou hast said unto the LORD, Thou art my Lord: my goodness extendeth not to thee;

3 But to the saints that are in the

EXPOSITION.

Bertain. From the last verse some learned men have supposed it to have been Wien during the time of Absalom's rebelion, when the ark was in possession of party: (See 2 Sam. xix. 9-15,) others refer it to the period of the Babylouish cap. ty; but St. Paul plainly refers us to the days of Messiah, and to a future restration of the Jews subsequent to their Conversion. (Rom. xi. 26, &c. compare Palm ex. 2; Isa. Ixii. 11; Zech. ix. 9.) The chief subject of this psalm, however, is the landelity of the human heart, for infidelity is unquestionably more a disease of the heart than of the head; the corruption of our nature gives an unhappy bias to the judgment. Sin makes fools of us all; and the greatest fool whose mind is most der the influence of depraved passious, Be not only lead to abominable actions, but incapacitate for doing good. "The conduration of the apostacy and corruption f mankind, described in this psalm, Lakes the prophet express a longing deire for the salvation of Israel,' which to go forth out of Zion,' and to bring the people of God from that most iful of all captivities, the captivity er sin and death; a salvation at which b would indeed rejoice, and Israel be -Bishop Horne)

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the offices of the Levitical priesthood;" but is simply intended to point out, that moral" righteousness is the qualification which alone can fit any one to be a guest in God's tabernacle,"—a citizen of Zion. This qualification, however, implies no claim of merit, but simply moral fitness. "The man (says Bishop Horne,) who would be a citizen of Zion, and there enter into the rest and joy of his Lord, must set that Lord always before him. Renewed through grace, endued with a lively faith, and an operative charity, he must consider and imitate the life of that blessed Person, who walked amongst men without partaking of their corruptions; who conversed unblaneably with sinners; who could give this challenge to his inveterate enemies, Which of you convinceth me of sin?' in whom the grand accuser, when he came found nothing;' who being himself the truth,' thought and spake of no

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thing else, making many promises and performing them all,

"In the above comment (says Bishop Horne) it was thought most advisable to open and display the full intent of what was both enjoined aud forbidden, by exemplifying each particular. Whoever shall survey and copy these virtues and graces as they present themselves in his life, [relying at the same time on his atonement,] will, it is humbly apprehended, take the best and shortest way to the heavenly Zion;" and shall never be expelled from the eternal city.

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7. Neh. v. 6-7.

PSALM XVI. Title, - Michtam. — Marg. “A golden (psalm) of David." D'Herbetot observes of the works of seven of the most excellent Arabian poets, that they are called Al Modhakebat, which signifies golden, because they were written in letters of gold upon Egyptian paper. Might not the six psalms which are thus distinguished viz. this

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7 So shall the congregation of the people compass thee about: for their sakes therefore return thou on high.

8 The LORD shall judge the people: judge me, O LORD, according to my righteousness, and according to mine integrity that is in me.

9 Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end; but establish the just for the righteous God trieth the hearts and reins.

10 My defence is of God, which saveth the upright in heart.

11 God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry with the wicked every day.

12 If he turn not, he will whet his sword; he hath bent his bow, and made it ready.

13 He hath also prepared for him the instruments of death; he ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors.

14 Behold, he travaileth with ini

PSALM VII.

[Psalm.

quity, and hath conceived mischief, and brought forth falsehood.

15 He made a pit, and digged it, and is fallen into the ditch which he made.

16 His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall come down upon his own pate.

17 I will praise the LORD according to his righteousness: and will sing praise to the name of the LORD most high. (G)

PSALM VIII.

To the chief Musician upon Gittith. A Psalm of David.

LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens.

2 Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength because of thine enemies, that thou

EXPOSITION.

(G) An Elegy of David.-" David is said to have composed this psalm" concerning the words (or the matter) of Cush the Benjamite. "Whether Saul, or Shimei, or any one else, be intended under this name, it is sufficiently clear that David had been maliciously calumniated, and that this psalm was written to vindicate himself from the imputation." The writer declares his trust to be in God alone, protests his innocence of the accusation, and requests that judgment may be given on his behalf. He then prays for the suppression of wickedness and the establishment of righteousness, denounces the most awful judgments against sinners, and praises God for his deliverance.

That the psalmist requests to be "judged according to his righteousness," has been used as an argument, not only to apply, but to confine this psalm to the Messiah,

but with how little force may be seen by considering the cases of Hezekiah an Nehemiah (referred to in the Notes.) W have no objection, however, to such an ap plication, if not made exclusive. The fo lowing remarks of Bishop Horne are bot just and striking:

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"Conscious of his righteousness and it tegrity, as to the matter in question, Day desires to be judged by him who is to jud; the world at the last day. How few, amo Christians, have seriously and deliberate considered whether the sentence of th day is likely to be in their favour! how many, with the utmost composure a self-complacency, repcat continually words of this psalm, as well as those in Te Deum, We believe that thou sh come to be our judge!' Legal, or perf righteousness and integrity, are peculia the Redeemer; but evangelical righted ness and integrity all must have would be saved."

NOTES-Psalm VII. Con.

Ver. 4. Yea, (rau) "but-rather" I have delivered. -See ver. 10, 11, of the chapter just quoted. Ver. 5. Selah.-See Note on Ps. iii. 2. Ver. 8. According to my righteousness.-See Neh. xiii. 14, 22, 3; 2 Kings xx. 3. and Expos. Ver. 10. My defence is of God-Heb. ler is upon God;" Ainsworth, In God;"' the maning unquestionably is, "God is my buckler," or shield."

My buck

Ver. 11. God judgeth the righteous-Marg, “God is a righteous Judge." So Ainsworth, Horsley, &c.

--God is angry with the wicked-This shou understood in the singular," the wicked man,” agrees with the following sentence, If he. &c. Ver. 14. Behold, he travaileth. — The travaileth and conceiveth should be transp "Hath conceived iniquity, travailed with mis and brought forth falsehood; i e. an abortio this effect Boothroyd.

Ver. 15. He hath made-Heb." He hath dig pit, and sunk it" (deep), &c.

Ver. 16. Pate-The crown of his head.

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3 When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained;

4 What is man, that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man, that thou visitest him?

5 For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour.

6 Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet: 7 All sheep and oxen, yea, and the

PLALM VIII.

[Psalm.

8 The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas.

9 O LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! (H)

PSALM IX.

To the chief Musician upon Muth-labben.
A Psalm of David.

I WILL praise thee, O LORD, with
my whole heart; I will shew forth
all thy marvellous works.

2 I will be glad and rejoice in thee:

EXPOSITION.

HA Psalm of David, for the vintage. -We consider this as an evening or midmight hymn, in which the psalmist, overwhelmed with the brilliant glories of an eastern sky, is led to reflect upon the comparative littleness and insignificance of an and of himself, though king of Israel. It is not necessary to suppose David acquainted with the modern system of astronomy, to account for his humiliating views. Supposing the golden orbs, which he surveyed, to be only floating meteors, their helliancy and beauty, and especially that of the moon, might well command his admiration. Man is mean and little, compared with the globe which he inhabits, Each more compared with the vaulted skies around him-well might he, thereure say, "Lord, what is man that thou art indful of him, and the son of man that Du visitest him?"

From the title of this psalm, we think ghly probable that it was composed for time of vintage, which we know was a of great rejoicing, in which not only

the young people, but the children also, joined in praising God for the bounties of his providence; which marked Israel, under that dispensation, as the chosen people of God, and was calculated to silence the reproaches of their enemies. This circumstance may account for our Lord's application to himself of the hosannahs of the Jewish children, Matt. xxi. 16.

The New Testament, however, gives us another and widely different view of human nature. Adam fell and lost his prerogative of supremacy, and in fact, his all: but a second Adam has been appointed to supersede the former; and not only to restore, but to raise our nature to higher honour and felicity than his predecessor lost. This second Adam, this "Lord from heaven," whose peculiar character is that of Son of Man, has been for a little while" made lower than the angels, to the end that he might, in his own person, exalt human nature far above them; and herein is a display of the divine power and goodness that may well excite our admiration and our praise: " O LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth!"

NOTES.

MVIII. Title,-Upon Gittith. Some have this to be a musical instrument, which ght from Gath, where he long resided: Idee paraphrase; and if this be correct, it sa stringed instrument, as it does not David played on any other. But Gath nepress; and the LXX understand this ating that it was composed for the time with which the purport of the psalm very as it is a thanksgiving to God for the is providence

O LORD our Lord-The first word here
OED, in capitals, is JEHOVAH, the second
chai, Governor, or Master.
Ordained-Heb.

Founded" strength. - considered the divine ordination as the of all strength. That thou mightest Dence) the enemy and the avenger. A little lower. The Hebrew, (says Mr.

Ainsworth) means either "a little while," or "a little deal," in both which senses it is used in Ps. xxxvii. 10, 16. Bishop Horsley renders it, "Thou hast somewhat abased him in comparison of angels." Dr. J. P. Smith, "Thou hast reduced him a little below the angels; the Heb. thus translated is Elohim, the gods; which is explained of angels, not only by the Greek and Chaldee, but also by the apostle to the Hebrews, chap. ti. 7, 9.

Ver. 7. All sheep and oxen-Heb. " Flocks and oxen, (or cattle) all of them."

PLALM IX. Title,-Upon the death of Labben.---Among the great variety of interpretations here 1. We have no given, we shall name a few only.

idea that any of the:e Hebrew terms refer to hymn tunes. The Hebrews had no musical characters, nor any metrical tunes, like modern psalmody.

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I will sing praise to thy name, O thon most High

3 When mine enemies are turned back, they shall fall and perish at thy presence.

4 For them hast maintained my right and my cause; thou satest in the throne fudging right

5 Thou hast rebuked the heathen, thou has destroyed the wicked, thou Last put out their name for ever and

ever.

6 0 thou enemy, destructions are come to a perpetual end: and thou hast destroyed cities; their memorial is perished with them.

7 But the LORD shall endure for ever: he hath prepared his throne for judgment.

8 And he shall judge the world in righteousness, he shail minister judgment to the people in uprightness.

9 The LORD also will be a refuge for the oppressed, a refuge in times of trouble.

10 And they that know thy name will put their trust in thee: for thou, LORD, hast not forsaken them that seek thee.

11 Sing praises to the LORD, which dwelleth in Zoon: declare among the

PSALM IX.

people his doings.

{for victory.

12 When he maketh inquisition for blood, he remembereth them: he forgetteth not the cry of the humble.

13 Have mercy upon me O LORD; consider my trouble which I suffer of them that hate me, thou that liftest me up from the gates of death:

14 That I may shew forth all thy praise in the gates of the daughter of Zion: I will rejoice in thy salvation.

15 The heathen are sunk down in the pit that they made in the net which they hid is their own foot taken.

16 The LORD is known by the judgment which he executeth : the wicked is snared in the work of his own hands. Higgain. Selah.

17 The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God.

18 For the needy shall not alway be forgotten: the expectation of the poor shall not perish for ever.

19 Arise, O LORD; let not man prevail: let the heathen be judged in thy sight.

20 Put them in fear, O LORD: that the nations may know themselves to be but men. Selah. (D)

EXPOSITION.

14 Psalm of David—in thanksgiving for motary.-There seems no doubt but this was a song of triumph and thanksgiving for a sigual victory over some poa

erful pagan adversary, whose object seem to have been the overthrow of the Jewis church and state. David, however, pious attributes his victory to divine interferenc and thanks his deliverer for rescuing hi from the gates of death, which had probab

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