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It was

pretty equally balanced.

But sense of religion. This dispofia then it was obvious, that the sea- tion, which naturally increased son was the immediate causè'which with years, was farther strengthcompelled the enemy to retreatened by the melancholy ariling from Bohemia ; however, the from the early loss of a husband good difpofitions made by the whom she tenderly loved ; and emperor, which equally baffled was latterly finally confirmed by all the efforts made by the King the happy settlement of her nuof Prussia, for gaining his favou. merous offspring, which frceing rite point of a general action, and the mind from care and solicidefeated his views of obtaining tude, tended equally to wean it any sure hold in the country, from the afíairs of the world. tended more remotely to that ef- The event of the late struggle feat. Such a view of the circum. with the king of Prusia, note kances of the campaign, could withstanding ihe immense aflifafford no great encouragement tance the then received, and to an obitinate perseverance in which she could not hope now to the contest. A defensive war, receive, muit have added great however ably conducted, or how- force to these motives, She ever abounding with negative could not will to end her life in success, could by no means, whe- the midst of such a war. ther in point of honour or effect, accordingly, much against the answer the purposes for which it inclination of that great princess was undertaken; and the prof- that the present war was underpects of changing its nature were taken ; and she is said to have confined indeed.

submitted with the greatest réHowever numerous or cogent lućtance to the opinion of her the causes and motives we have council, and the defire of the assigned, or others of a fimilar emperor cn that point. For, nature, might have been on ei. although that prince could only ther fide, for the discontinuance derive his means of action through of an unprofitable war, they the power of his mother ; yet it would have been found unable to would have been a matter of exsubdue the strong passions by ceeding difficulty to her, directwhich they were opposed, if ano- ly to thwart the opinion and inther, of greater power than the clinations of a son, who was in whole taken together, had not, the highest degree deservedly dear happily for Germany, and per- to her, who was to be her fole and haps for no small part of the rest immediate successor, and who of Europe, supervened in rellor- scarcely stood higher in her affec. ing the public tranquility. The tion than in her esteem. It was late illustrious Maria Theresa, probably this reluctance to the along with her other eminent war, on the side of the Empressvirtues and great qualities, pof- Queen, which produced those fessed at all times, however coun- various appearances, of Auctuateracted by the operation of a high tion in the councils, or of irreio. and powerful ambition, a mind lution and indecision in the conkrongly imprefied with an aweful duct of the court of Vienna, of

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which have formerly taken upon by the court of Vienna to notice.

support. She muft therefore, in The ineffectiveness of the cam- any situation, in which she was paign, the equal fortune of the not dispered to become an abso. war, and the ceffation of action lute party in the conteit, wish to occasioned by the winter, served, be relieved from this dilemma. all together, to produce a state of But her war with England, and teinper and difpofition, which was her views with respect to Amefar more favourable to the pacific rica, operated more forcibly upon views and wishes of the cmpress, her conduct on this occasion, than than that which had hitherto pre- any German treaties or connecvailed. She perceived, and fciz- tions. In the contemplation and ed the opportunity; and imme. pursuit of these grand and capital diately applying her powerful in. objects, the necesity of keeping Auence to remove the obitacles her force whole, her attention unwhich food in the way of an ac- divided, and of restoring peace commodation on the one side, had upon the continent, wereall equal. Soon the fatisfaction of discovering ly obvious, and were all mutually that her views were well seconded, dependent. No wisdom could by the temperate disposition which foresee, or venture to prescribe, prevailed on the other.

what unexpected connections and It is however to be observed, alliances might spring up, and that the mediation of the court what new collisions of intereits of Versailles, and the powerful might take place, under a further interpofition of the court of Peters- progress of the war. France could burg, contributed essentially to not recollect the ruin brought further the work of peace. France upon her in the late war, without was bound by the treaty of 1756, shuddering at the thoughts of Gerto afilist the court of Vienna with many. It is not then to be won. a considerable body of forces, in dered, that she was equally fina case of a war in Germany, and cere and zealous in her endeaThe had been called upon carly in voors to reitore tranquility on the. the present contett to fulfil that continent. engagement. The court of Ver

The court of Petersburg had. failles was likewise disposed to from the beginning thewn and exwith well to the house of Austria presied the strongest disapproba. from private motives; as well as iion of the conduct, and paid no. to cultivate and cement the new favourable attention to the claims, friend hip and alliance from pub. of that of Vienna; and had early lic. But France being likewise a avowed a full intention of effeca guarantee of the treaty of Weft. tually supporting the rights of the phalia, her old engagements mi. Germanic body; at the same time litated totally whith her new in that preparations were actually the present instance; the being made, for the march of a large thereby bound to resiít all fuch body of Rukan troops. Her infractions and invasions of the powerful interpofition, through sights of the Germanic body, as The medium of her minister Prince those which he was now called Repnin, had no small effect in 6


facilitating the negociations for place, the garrison being prepeace.

viously withdrawn, the Imperial Under such circumstances, and and Prufian minifters, with those the offices of such mediators, little of all the princes engaged or indoubt was to be entertained of the terefted in the present contest, as event. Whether it proceeded from well as of the two mediating pow. a view of giving weight to theirers, were affembled, immediately claims in the expected treaty, or after the publication of the armis, from any jealousy in point of arms tice. And so happy were the diror honour, which might have lain positions which now prevailed behind from the preceding cam. among the contending parties, and paign, however it was, the Au. so efficacious the endeavours of the krians attacked with extraordinary mediators, that the peace Mayı 3th. vigour, and with no small degree was finally concluded in of success, several of the Prullian two months. posts on the side of Silesia and the By this treaty, the late conven, county of Glatz, soon after the tion between the court of Vienna commencement of the year. The and the Elector Palatine was toliveliness of these insults did not tally annulled; and the former induce the king to any eagerness restored all the places and districts of retaliation. °Points of honour which had been seized in Bavaria, of that nature weighed but little excepting only the territory apwith him. He forefaw that an pertaining to the regency of Burgaccommodation would take place; haufen, which was ceded to the and he knew that no advantages house of Austria, as an equivawhich could now be gained would lcnt or indemnification for her te!l in the account upon that set- claims and pretensions. That tlement; whilf a number of brave court likewise gave up to the men would be idly lost without Elector Palatine, all the Fiefs March 10th. obje&t or equivalent. which had been possessed by the

An armistice on all late Elector of Bavaria; and agreed 1779.

fides was, however, also to pay to the court of Saxony, published, before the season could as an indemnification for the allo. have admitted the doing of any dial estates, and other claims on thing essential, if such had even that fide, the sum of fix millions been the intention.

of forins; (amounting to some, The Congress which was to pre- thing near 600,000 pounds sterferve Germany, from the most ling) to be paid in the course of alarming and dangerous war to twelve years, without interest, by which it could have been exposed, ftipulated half-yearly payments. was held at Teschen in Austrian Some cessions were likewise made Silefia; a town and district, which by the elector, in favour of the the emperor had generously con. house of Saxony; and some equisented to confitute into a Duchy, valent satisfaction promised by the under the title of Saxe-Teschen, emperor to the Duke of Deux in favour of Prince Albert of Sax: Ponts, on his succession to the ony, upon his marriage with an double electorate. All former Arch-Duchess in 1765. At that treaties between the court of

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Vienna and the King of Pruslia' for ever have kept open a fource were renewed and confirmed; and of litigation, trouble, mischief, the right of the king to succeed to and war. To which may be added the margraviates in the remote that the establishment of a fixed younger branches of his own fa- and permanent barrier and bounmily, upon the failure of issue in dary between the two states, seems the immediate poffeffors, (a right to be a measure fraught with which had been only called in greater advantage to the Elector of question through the vexation of Bavaria, as the weaker prince, the late contest) was now fully than to the Arch-Duke of Austria, acknowledged and established. who is fo abundantly his fuperior The ducal house of Mecklen- in strength. It may likewise be burgh was put off without any farther observed, that several parts other advantage in lieu of its of the ceded territory, were, what claims, than the promise of some may be called, debateable land ; new privilege with respect to ap- the titles being disputed, opposite peals.

claims laid, and they having been Upon the whole, few treaties of heretofore, at different times, ob. peace have been conducted upon jects of great conteft. more equitable principles, than Such was the early and happy those which seem to have prevail- termination of the German war, ed in the present. The territory A war of the greatest expectation; acquired by the house of Austria is not more from the great power, not inconsiderable; being about than from the great abilities of the 70 English miles in length, and principal parties. fomething from about half to a Many circumftances attending third of that extent in breadth. the late war and peace between This acquisition lies between the Rusia and the Porte, could not Danube, the river Inn, the Saltza, fail to sow the feeds of future and the borders of Austria; in- discontent, jealousy, ill-will, and cluding the towns of Scharding, litigation, between the parties. Ried, Altheim, Braunau, Burs: Extraordinary success and triumph haufen, Fryburg, and some others; on the one side, with an equal deforming, all together, a strong grce of loss and disgrace on the barrier, and a fixed unequivocal other, are little calculated to proboundary, the limits of which are mote any intercourse of frienddecisively marked out by those ship, or cordiality of sentiment, great rivers, between that arch- among men; nor will a recollecduchy, and the present domi- tion of the hard necessity under nions of Bavaria. This accession which a peace was subscribed, of territory, the court of Vienna serve at all to render palateable the feems, however, to have purchaf- bitterness of its conditions. ed at something about a fair price; the other hand, the victors are partly to be paid in money, and sure to consider the vanquished as partly by a renunciation of old, owing them too much. They are vexatious, and otherwise inextin- apt to think, that they have alguishable claims, which however, ways a right to claim those advan, in general, unproductive, would tages, which they omitted to fe:


as fre.

cure in the moment of their for- commerce on that sea. It may tune; and which they look upon then be fairly presumed, without as rights exitting though neglected, an absolute poffeffion of facts, that as they could not at that time commercial avidity was continualhave been refused if demanded. ly increased, in proportion to the

The navigation of the Black number, magnitude, novelty, and Sea, the opening the gates of the value, of the objects which were Dardanelles and Bosphorus, so as gradually opened to its view; and to admit a free intercourse from that thus, new, and perhaps un. the White Sea to the Black, the reasonable claims, were affairs of the Crimea, with those quently started on the one side, of the Greek dependent provinces as an indisposition to comply with of Moldavia and Walachia,' af- the fair and literal terms of the forded the grounds of those dif- treaty, was prevalent on the other. : putes between the two empires, The second ground of dispute, which were now risen to such a seemed still more difficult and deheight, as seemed to render a new licate. The Porte had unwilling: war inevitable.

ly consented by the late treaty, to With respect to the first of these admit or acknowledge the indearticles, we have formerly had pendence of the Crimea. That occasion to observe, that nothing independence must be considered Jess than the most urgent neceflity, only as nominal. Between such under the pressure of immediate powers as Turkey and Rullia, and imminent danger, could have such a power as the Khân of the induced the Porte to admit Russia Criin Tartars, cannot be really to the navigation of the Black independent. The Turks were Sea. It might be compared in in hopes, as that prince and his private life, but under circum- subjects are Mahometans, to weakitances of infinitely greater dan- en the force of that article, by their ger and loss, to a surrender of the natural inclination to the Porte. benefits, navigation and fisheries Otherwise they would have confi: of a fine lake, lying in the cen- dered their concession in a still ter of an etate, into the hands of worse light. To have thrown that a powerful and litigious neigh- whole country, situated as it is, bour, who was watching only for with its own and the adjoining nameans and opportunities to grasp tions of Tartars, together with at every part of the whole manor. the reigning family, the immeIt is not then to be doubted, that diate descendants of Tamerlanc, che Porte used every possible eva- and in direct succession to the Ot. fion to avoid a compliance with, toman throne, entirely into the and threw every obstacle in the hands of Russia, were circumway which could tend to render ftances exceedingly grievous to a ineffective, that article of the late power, which used to give and treaty. It seems however, that not to receive the law. Yet this the Russians had notwithstanding, was already the disagreeable and .. with wonderful spirit and industry, alarming confequence of that con. very speedily adyanced large ca cession. For’Ruflia, by a judicious pitals, and opened a considerable but unfparing distribution of pre

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