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The following Articles in this volume are copyrighted in the United States of America, vis.-
GALVESTON. Copyright, 1879, by A. & C. BLACK,
GARRISON: an Outline of his Life. Copyright, 1879, by CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS.
GEORGIA: Its History, Condition, and Resources. With Map. Copyright, 1879, by CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS.

The Article GERMANY (PART II., History) is Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year 1979,

by Adam & Charles Black, Edinburgh, Scotland, in the office of the Minister of Agriculture.

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G regresents the beton duf framma, the thinhabbterand the originally brigg and rigg, and are still so in the north of the alphabets derived from the Latin (including our own), It is noteworthy how a g-sound made its appearance in it holds' the place which Z held in the different Greek French at the beginning of words which originally began alphabets. The history of this remarkable change is well with the w-sound. An example is guerre, a borrowed word known. It has been already stated (see letter C) that in from the Teutonic; we see it in Old High German as werra, the 5th century before our era, the distinction between the a quarrel. The Gauls apparently found a difficulty in prok-sound and the g-sound became lost at Rome : apparently ducing the initial German sound, and (there being no the surviving sound was y ; but, at all events, the syinbol difference in the position of the back of the mouth for g and K went out of use, being retained only in a few familiar w, except that the passage between the back-palate and the abbreviations, and C (which was the Latinized form of the tongue is entirely closed for g, but left slightly open for w) Greek ) remained. Thus in the column of Duillius we they did not keep the w pure, but sounded a g before it find C representing the original surd in castreis, cepet, &c., by unintentionally closing the oral passage for a moment. but the sonant in macistratos, leciones, ceset (i.e., gessit), &c. The same thing is seen in guérir, which corresponds to When, in the 3d century, the two sounds were again dis- Gothic varjan; in garant, which we have in English wartinguished, two symbols were again required ; but the K rant; ġarnir corresponds to Anglo-Saxon warnian. In a was not taken again to represent the surd ; C, the old few instances the word so modified seems to have been symbol for the sonant, was put to that use. A new symbol originally Latin, as gaine, a sheath, the Latin vagina, was therefore necessary for the sonant g-sound, and it was This French change has led to a curious result in found by modifying C into G. This G should then have England. Many words were introduced by the Normans replaced C as the third letter of the alphabet, where it into England

their French form, which were already would have stood, as before, between B and D, the sonants s existent there in their Teutonic form. Thus we have such of the labial and dental classes respectively. But this was pairs as wile and guile, wise and guise, warranty and not done. The symbol C was left in its old place with its guarantee, wager and gage, and many others. It is strange new value of k. The new symbol G was set in the seventh that in so many cases each of the pair of words should have place of the alphabet, which had been vacated by Z, the remained in use, and with so little change of meaning. representative of a sound not used by the Romans of that GABELENTZ, Hans CoNoN VON DER (1807–1874), a day. G is found for the first time in the inscription on the distinguished linguist and ethnologist, born at Altenburg, tomb of Scipio Barbatus. Its invention is attributed to October 13, 1807, was the only son of Hans Karl Leopold Spurius Carvilius.

von der Gabelentz, chancellor and privy-councillor of the There can be no doubt that the sound of G in Latin, as duchy of Altenburg. From 1821 to 1825 he attended the of r in Greek, was always the sonant guttural—which we gymnasium of his native town, where he had Matthiæ (the hear in gate, &c. It was not the sonant palatal, which it eminent Grecist) for teacher, and Hermann Brockhaus and represents in gem or gin. Tbis sound began to supplant it Julius Löbe for schoolfellows. Here, in addition to ordinary about the 6th century of our era, but only when it preceded school-work, he carried on the private study of Arabic and e or 3—the two vowels which require a position of the Chinese ; and the latter language continued especially to tongue nearer to the palatal than to the guttural consonants. engage his attention during his undergraduate course, from We find this change of sound in French and in Italian. In 1825 to 1828, at the universities of Leipsic and Göttingen. the Latin part of our vocabulary there is naturally the same In 1830 he entered the public service of the duchy of weakening; whereas, in words of English origin, the Altenburg, where he attained to the rank of privy-councillor original guttural is generally preserved, even before e or in 1843. Four years later he was chosen to fill the post of i, as in get and give. Sometimes it has been weakened "landmarschall” in the grand-duchy of Weimar, and in at the end of a word, as in bridge and ridge, which were 1848 he attended the Frankfort parliament, and represented

the Saxon duchies on the commission for drafting an im- | principal relic of the ancient city is a ruined temple (properial constitution for Germany. In November of the same bably of Juno) on a hill now crowned by the ruins of the year he became president of the Altenburg ministry, but medieval fortress of Castiglione. It is a hexastyle struche resigned office in the following August. From 1851 to ture of uncertain date, uniting the characteristics of Greek 1868 he was president of the second chamber of the duchy and Italian architecture ; but the fragments of the pillars of Altenburg; but in the latter year he withdrew entirely are not sufficient to show whether it belonged to the Ionic from public life, that he might give undivided attention to or the Corinthian order. Its length is about 48 English his learned researches. He died on his estate of Lemnitz, feet. Since 1792, when explorations were commenced by in Saxe-Weimar, on the 3d of September 1874. In the the Prince Borghese, a large number of minor antiquities course of his life he is said to have learned no fewer than have been discovered at Gabii, and the sites of the forum eighty languages, thirty of which he spoke with fluency and and a theatre have been ascertained. The statues and elegance. But he was less remarkable for his power of busts are especially numerous and interesting; besides the acquisition than for the higher talent which enabled him deities Venus, Diana, Nemesis, &c., they comprise Marcus to turn his knowledge to the genuine advancement of Agrippa, Tiberius, Germanicus, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, linguistic science. Immediately after quitting the uni- Trajan and Plotina, Hadrian and Sabina, Aurelius Anversity, he followed up his Chinese researches by a study toninus, L. Septimius Severus, Septimius Geta, Gorof the Finno-Tataric languages, which resulted in the pub- dianus Pius, &c. The inscriptions relate mainly to local lication of his Blémens de la Grammaire Mandchoue in and municipal matters. In the neighbourhood of Gabii 1832. In 1837 he became one of the promoters, and a were valuable and extensive quarries of an excellent buildjoint-editor, of the Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgen- ing stone, known as the lapis Gabinus, which was largely landes, and through this medium he gave to the world his used by the Romans. It was a hard and compact variety Versuch einer mordwinischen Grammatik and other valuable of volcanic tufa, and closely resembled the lapis Albanus, contributions. His Grundzüge der syrjänischen Grammatik to which, however, it was superior. The name of cinctus appeared in 1841. In conjunction with his old school Gabinus was given by the Romans to a peculiar method of friend, Julius Löbe, the Germanist, he brought out a com- girding the toga, with one end thrown over the head and plete edition, with translation, glossary, and grammar, of the other fastened round the waist, which was employed by Ulfilas's Gothic version of the Bible (Leipsic, 1813–46); and the founder of a new town, or by the consul when he from 1847 he began to contribute to the Zeitschrift der "declared war in the name of the Roman people, or devoted deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft the fruits of his himself to death for his country. researches into the languages of the Suahilis, the Samoyeds, Seo Ciampini, Monumenta Vetera (which contains a plan and the Hazaras, the Aimaks, the Formosans, and other widely- elevation of the temple); Gallatti, Gabii antica città di Sabina separated tribes. The Beiträge zur Sprachenkunde (Leipsic, scoperta, 1757; Fea, Lettere sopra la scoperta delle rovine della città 1852) contain Dyak, Dakota, and Kiriri grammars ; to

di Gabio, 1792 ; Visconti, Monumenti Gabini della villa Pinciana, these were added in 1857 a Grammatik u. Wörterbuch der Nibby, Contorni di Roma, and Canina, Storia e topographia di

Rome, 1797, new edition, Milan, 1835; Gell, Rome and its vicinity; Kassiasprache, and in 1860 a treatise in universal gram- Roma antica. An interesting comparison of the temple of Juno mar (Ueber das Passivum). In 1864 he edited the with the similar building at Aricia was contributed by Abeken to Manchou translations of the Chinese Sse-shu, Shu-king, the Annali dell. instit. di corr. arch., Rome, 1841. and Shi-king, along with a dictionary; and in 1873 he GABLER, GEORG ANDREAS (1786-1853), a German completed the work which constitutes bis most important philosophical writer of the school of Hegel, was born at contribution to philology, Die melanesischen Sprachen nach Altdorf, in Bavaria, where his father was professor, on the ihrem grammatischen Bau und ihrer Verwandschaft unter 30th of July 1786. In 1804, when his father was transsich und mit den malaiisch-polynesischen Sprachen untersucht lated to Jena, he accompanied him to that university, where (Leipsic, 1860-73). It treats of the language of the Fiji he completed his studies in philosophy and law, and became Islands, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, one of the most enthusiastic

one of the most enthusiastic of the hearers and disciples of &c., and shows their radical affinity with the Polynesian Hegel. After holding successive educational appointments class. He also contributed most of the linguistic articles at Weimar, Nuremberg, and Ansbach, he, in 1817, became in Pierer's Conversations-Lexicon.

one of the masters in the gymnasium at Baireuth. In 1821 GABII, an old, and at one time important, city of Latium, he was appointed rector, and in 1830 general superintendon the Via Prænestina, or road to Præneste, between 12 and ent of schools. In 1827 he brought out the first volume 13 miles E. of Rome. Long before the foundation of Rome, of a Lehrbuch der philosophischen Propädeutik als Einleitung Gabii appears to have been one of the largest of the Latin zur Wissenschaft, in which his design was to give a popular cities; and, according to an old tradition noticed by exposition of the Hegelian philosophy, which he himself Dionysius and Plutarch, Romulus and Remus were educated regarded as fitted to give absolute satisfaction to the there. During the greater part of the regal period of Rome faculties of thinking and knowing." In 1835 he succeeded Gabii maintained its ground, and it only fell into the hands Hegel in the Berlin chair. His other works were a treatise of Tarquin the Proud through a stratagem contrived by his De verce philosophic erga religionem Christianam pietate son Sextus, who was afterwards slain by the inhabitants, (1836), and Die Hegel'sche Philosophie, a defence of the when, on the expulsion of his family from Rome, he sought Hegelian philosophy against Trendelenburg, which was refuge in the town. After this period Gabii always appears published in 1843. He died at Teplitz, September 13, in history as the ally or dependent of its more powerful 1853. neighbour, and it gradually fell into such a state of decay GABLER, JOHANN PHILIPP (1753-1826), a learned as to become a proverb of desolation—Gabiis desertior. Protestant theologian of the school of Griesbach and EichThe fame of its cold sulphurous waters gave new life to the horn, was born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, June 4, 1753. place in the reign of Tiberius ; and the emperor Hadrian, He had already acquired an extensive acquaintance with one of whose favourite residences was not far distant, at the ancient languages and their literatures, as well as with Tivoli, appears to have been a very liberal patron, building the philosophy of Wolf and the theology of Baumgarten, a town-house (Curia lia Augusta) and an aqueduct. when, in his nineteenth year, he entered the university of After the 3d century Cabii practically disappears from Jena as a divinity student. In 1776 he was on the point history, though its “ bishops "continue to be mentioned in of abandoning theological pursuits, when the arrival of ecclesiastical documents till the close of the 9th. The | Griesbach inspired him with new ardour.

After Daving

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