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among those to whom he is indebted; and considers himself as eminently honoured by the several masterly engravings which have been presented to him. He also observes that the additions made to the history of the city, both antient and modern, are numerous and extensive; and he concludes his preface as follows:
In the general course of this work, many parts, which no antiquary's torch had yet illumined, are brought to view; it is presumed that the inhabitant of this city, if he has not made antiquities his study, may find in it observations that are new to him, discussions that are curious if not satisfactory, and illustrations, not fanciful, though in some instances not demonstrative: and that the stranger, whose curiosity cannot but be excited on his entrance into Worcester, may find no ordinary or inadequate guide to gratify it, but an intel ligencer, who has laboured to convey to him, the exactest information, derived from the most authentic sources, and rendered with a faithfulness on which he may rely, although not dressed in a garb he may admire.'
It fares with Worcester, as with other cities and towns, and as with nations, that its very antient history is inveloped in darkness. Whether it was a British or even a Roman city is problematical. Mr. Green seems willing to allot it to each, and produces arguments not unfavorable to his idea. That it was Saxon is unquestionable. Edgar's tower witnesses this; though the style of the present structure leads us to the reign of king John, in whose time it was repaired and almost entirely rebuilt. The cathedral, denominated St. Mary's, employs a very considerable part of Mr. Green's first volume. It was first erected by Bishop Oswald, the great patron of the Monks, and finished, A. D. 983. Bishop Wulstan, who is said to have possessed a magnificent spirit, laid the foundation of a new church in 1084, and in 1089 he completed both that and the monastery. The following anecdote is not unworthy of notice.
It is related of him*, that, on seeing the workmen taking down the old church, he wept. One of his attendants expos tulating with him, and reminding him that he ought rather to rejoice, as he was preparing an edifice of greater splendor, and more proportioned to the enlarged number of his Monks, he replied, I think far otherwise; we, poor wretches, destroy the works of our forefathers, only to get praise to ourselves; that happy age of holy men knew not how to build stately churches, but under any roof they offered up themselves living temples unto God, and by their example excited those under their care to do the same, but we on the contrary, neglecting the care of souls, labour to heap up stones +."-Presuming + P. 35
* Malms. lib. iv. P. 160.
that the above is faithfully tranflated, we have given the extract, as an instance of greater rationality and sensibility than are usually found in times so productive of bigotry and superstition.-Oswald's bones, and also those of Wulstan, had the reputation of working miracles: but the relics of Oswald, when they were last carried in procession, A. D. 1139, being then wholly ineffectual, lost their credit; and the soldiers of the Empress Maude, regardless of the ceremony, forced their way into the city, and plundered it without mercy.
Passing by the investigations concerning king John's tomb *, with several other curious particulars, we observe the following paragraph-The present times have much to lament the effects of those differences which formerly subsisted on the notable choice of two words,-altar or table, and also about where the article meant by either was to be placed for use: hence the incongruous appearance they make in our old churches, &c.'-The author chiefly censures this on account of the injury which architectural forms and embellishments are supposed thus to have received: but permit us to ask whether the term altar ought not to be entirely rejected, as fanatical and superstitious, misleading and deceiving the mind, and quite unsuitable to the purity and simplicity of Christian truth? A quotation from Thorndike seems here very apposite, when that writer speaks of the erection of an altar on the spot in which the remains of a supposed saint were deposited, and mentions their vast increase so as to exceed all bounds: but, he adds, this evil cured itself; for the respect due to them from their votaries was at length abated by the imposition of false relics, insomuch that when it was found that the same saint or martyr had more heads than one, and that it was become a dispute whether the right one was at Canterbury, or some other place, it was with some embarrassment that a priest of principle could repeat the litanies, the supplications, and the prayers ordered by the church for the true saint, to a doubtful one, and thereby abuse the faith of his auditors. Possibly, roads, now entirely removed, might at the first have a good intention: an image of Christ on the cross, erected just over the passage from the church to the chancel, and placed in a loft, was called the road. The mystery, (Mr. Green observes,) covered by this device, is said to be the church militant denoted by the body or the nave of the church, and the church triumphant signified by the chancel or choir, and that those who will pass from the sanctum to the sanctorum,-must go under the cross, and suffer affliction, ere they can arrive at that felicity. This conceit
*See a pamphlet by Mr. G. on this subject, in this month's Catalogue.
exactly corresponds with the ancient heathen probation through the temple of honour in their progress to the fane of virtue. —The author's meaning is evident, though he has not expressed it with accuracy:-but we shall only observe that the erection of the rocd needed an apology, and it ought to be esteemed an advantage when such means of deception and false religion are utterly taken out of the way.-We are inclined to ask whether this gentleman does not considerably err in his conclusion, that at the important period of the reformation was introduced the practice of common swearing: he seems to suppose, to use his own words, that those oaths and asseverations which had heretofore been decently addressed to crosses and images, blindly adored, were now heard on all and every frivolous occasion.'-We apprehend that the phrases by the rood, and by the mass, here particularly specified *, might be as prevalent before the happy period of reform as they can have been since: it is well known that our antient kings had their peculiar oaths, connected with popery; and it is by no means wonderful if the frequent repetition of certain phrases, sometimes unintelligible or unmeaning, in what are termed devotions, should bring them into use in the common intercourse of men.
The chapel of prince Arthur, elder brother of Henry VIII., is a very curious remnant of former, though not very antient, times. A part of its internal decoration was for a length of years concealed from notice: A. D. 1788, the author of these volumes expressed his apprehension that beneath a quantity of rough plaster-work something well worthy attention might be concealed; and, on permission to remove the obstruction, he found his conjecture verified, to his own and to general satisfaction; images and other embellishments were discovered, an account of which was in the subsequent year presented to the Royal Society. From among other observations made on this chapel, we select the following passages:
The general design of this chapel is the history of the union of the two contending parties, that, under the distinct banners of a white and a red rose, had recently deluged an innocent and an unoffending nation, with a waste of kindred blood, that would have appalled a savage to contemplate.-The closing of this direful scene, the skilful hand of an unknown sculptor has treated with all the faithfulness and becoming decency, that the hand of pity itself would have bestowed, in veiling over a story never to be repeated, but with indignant execration on the in
* To which " By our Lady!" contracted to By'r Lady," and "By Lady," may be added, as still very common in many parts of England.
human sacrifice made of the simple many to the sanguinary pur poses of a tyrannical and ungrateful few.'
Concerning the architecture of the cathedral at Worcester, we select the following remark.—There are few examples to be found among our ancient churches, in which such a variety of stile of building is combined, and it has proved from hence an object of no small difficulty to divide and arrange those parts of which it is composed, and which vary so much in the time of their erection, and also in the mode of their construction.'— Shrines, fonts, painted glass, pictures, relics, organs, bells, clocks, dials, &c. employ several pages, and occasion some remarks, which we can but slightly notice: a little bell, still found in several churches, was formerly called the sanctes bell, because it was only used and rung out when the words, Sancte, sancte, sancte, Dominus Deus Sabaoth, were pronounced, that those who could not, or did not personally attend, might know the solemn part of the service which was then performed.'-In another place it is remarked,The company of waxchandlers was in a flourishing state during the times of the Romish church: gratitude for saints called frequently for lights. Candlemas wasted its thousands, and those all blessed by the priests, and charged in solemn terms, "I adjure thee, O waxen creature, that thou repel the devil and his sprights."- Mr. Green does not countenance, nor excuse, as some ecclesiastical antiquaries have been inclined to do, the fopperies and impositions of popery; nor does he with an unthinking bigotry bewail the destruction of relics and trumpery, or the downfall of craft and superstition; although he laments the indiscriminate outrage which on such occasions has too often prevailed, and the ruin of manuscripts; which, as far as they were of value, is certainly to be regretted.
Monumental memorials are here rendered more interesting than is frequently the case in compilements of this kind. Bishop Hough meets with that attention to which his memory is so justly entitled: There are few great men (says this writer) whose characters may be taken from their epitaphs. Impartial history too often gives the lie to sepulchral marbles. But it is not so with the memory of Bishop Hough. The English history has embalmed it. Satire, that is wont to be unsparing of mitres, has acknowledged his to shine unsullied 'The list of Bishops, from the foundation of the see to the present time, contains some very respectable names. Thomas Bourchier may be recollected with regard, as having been, it is said, a primcipal instrument of introducing the inestimable art of printing in the reign of Edward IV.' Hugh Latimer will surely be respected to the end of time: his injunctions to the clergy prove,
if other proofs failed, how requisite was a reformation: among the instructions, this is remarkable;-" That ye and every one of you provyde to have of youre owne a Hole Byble, yf ye can convenyently, or at leaste a New Testament both in Latin and Englishe."-It leaves no ill impression, that John Bell his successor, resigned the diocese, and retired to private life, for what cause, is unknown; but, when the state of things at that period is considered, it is natural to conclude that it was from a conscientious regard to truth and rectitude. Nicholas Heath, who followed, was displaced from a like principle, as it should seem, though on a different side; and John Hooper, who stands next in the catalogue, bravely suffered.-It is recorded of John Prideaux, who was raised to this prelacy in 1641, that, in his youth, his highest ambition was to be promoted to the clerkship of a country parish; he laudably aspired, (says Mr. Green,) but met with a sore repulse, for a competitor outsang him he forgot not this incident in aftertimes, when his language was, if I could have been clerk of Ugborow, I should not have been bishop of Worcester;" however, such was the calamity of the time, that it is added, he probably had not died much poorer, had he lived and died clerk of the parish of Ugborow.'-Dr. Hough appears again to advantage in this list; which we particularly notice, on account of that pious and pleasant letter which was written by him to Lord Digby about three weeks before his decease, and which is here inserted.The names of Stillingfleet, Loyd, &c. merit particular notice: but we observe that the characters in general seem to be ably drawn, both as to style and sentiment.
Among the Deans of this see, we observe Roger Manwaring, 1633, one of the most abject tools of power.' Mr. Green adds, It was the general desire of the nation to see such an apostle of slavery punished :'-nevertheless, the unwary and unhappy Charles granted him full pardon, and zealously promoted
We meet with several instances of just and liberal sentiments in this work; as one proof of which we insert a short remark, concerning the manor of Pirie attached to an hospital in this city;— In this manor lies Perrywood, famous for Cromwell's encampment, and not less so, for being named as the scene of his interview with the infernal monarch; a tale that tarnishes Mr Echard's history.'-It may perhaps be thought that, when in another part of this volume he is led to speak of the plunder of the city by the forces of Cromwell, the author's language is not quite so temperate:- The parliament-army gave way to the most atrocious acts of outrage that the meanness of rapacity could-stimulate in the dark mind of a sanguinary puritan.—