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the original inhabitants of Italy and of Gaul, and to Chinese language.
The four next volumes are consecrated to a refutation, in detail, of Sir Isaac Newton's Chronology. The multitude of well-defended objections cannot but satisfy the learned inquirer of the radical imperfection of this system: but, when FRERET undertakes the defence of his own peculiar theory, this again seems able to difficulties as inextricable, and to inconsistencies. as irreconcileable. Usher, Marsham, Newton, and FRERET, all receive the Jewish chronology of Josephus, without investigating whether it be compatible with the evidence of the Hebrew Scriptures; and this plunges them into endless embarrassment. Yet however objectionable their schemes of synchronism may be, they have certainly thrown great light on the probable succession of local event.-This work formerly made its appearance apart.
In the eleventh and twelfth volumes we have an examination of the Chronicle of Paros, the æra of the Seleucides, the re-, formation of the Calendar by Julius Caesar, the Babylonian and the Cappadocian year.
The thirteenth and fourteenth volumes contain some farther remarks on the Bythinian year, and on the canon of Theon of Alexandria, but are chiefly occupied in the investigation of Chinese chronology. Some questionable Jewish dates are also considered.
The fifteenth and sixteenth volumes comprehend only geographical memoirs, dissertations on the antient measures of length, on the extent of Babylon, on the progressive prolongation of Egypt, on various itinerary columns, and on the deluges of Deucalion and of Ogyges.
The seventeenth volume discusses the horsemanship and games of the Greeks, and the origin of chess: the eighteenth, various points of mythology, as the oracles and idols of antient nations. Throughout this collection of learned memoirs, we perceive very few symptoms of an irreligious cast of mind; and in the refutation of Newton's Chronology, many marks of reverence for the Old Testament are apparent.
The nineteenth and twentieth volumes contain what are called the posthumous works of FRERET, published, it is said, by Alonsieur de Septchenes; and consisting of a Critical Examination of the Apologists for Christianity, which unsparingly attacks revelation; and of the letters of Thrasybulus, which are hostile to natural religion also. These works are confidently ascribed by the Abbé Barruel to the antichristian club of Holbach, and have every mark of being literary forgeries. The former of them, the Critical Examination, displays sufficient
learning to be well entitled to an answer from some respectable friend to the Christian cause.
We have purposely avoided any extracts or local criticisms, as all these works have long since been accessible to the literary world: but we conceived that it might be agreeable to our readers in general to know what are the topics discussed, and the inquiries collected, in this new and only complete edition of the works of so celebrated a scholar as FRERET.
ART. XI. Nekrolog gesammelt von FRIEDERICH SCHLICHTECROLL e. Necrology collected by FREDERIC SCHLICHTEGROLL. 12 Vols. 8vo. 360 Pages in each. Printed at Gotha.
HIS periodical work began in the year 1791, and was not discontinued in a former part of 1797. One volume appears half-yearly, and contains biographical notices of the more eminent persons who have been removed by death during the foregoing twelve months. It is chiefly valuable to the curious in German biography; as one or another of our own periodical publications mostly furnishes the requisite intelligence, concerning the losses sustained by literature and the arts in other countries, from sources similar to those consulted by M. SCHLICHTEGRoll. As Englishmen cannot be expected to take much interest in the less celebrated writers of foreign countries, our extracts will be very cursory.
1791. Vol. I. The more remarkable lives are these: John Howard, abridged from the English of Dr. Aikin-Joseph II. whose epitaph is well turned:
"Popularis justus indefessus
e regum fortuna
Nil nisi curas ad se pertinere arbitrans."
and Gesner, the idyl-writer.
Vol. II. Elliot, Lord Heathfield:-John Bernard Basedoru, whose love of gradual innovation and progressive institutions, whose zeal in the defence of rational Christianity, whose efforts to found an academy for educating young men in the principles of cosmopolitism, whose numerous works on education and in controversy, all of a reforming tendency, and whose frequent struggles with intolerance, assimilate him much to the venerable exile of Birmingham.
1792. Vol. I. J. F. Jacobi was nominated a Professor at the university of Göttingen on its foundation in 1737, and was the only one who lived to celebrate the jubilee of its foundation in 1787; on which occasion the degree of Doctor was first conferred on him. He distinguished himself as an acute metaphyNn 2
sician of the sceptical school,, but, accepted as satisfactory the evidences of revelation.
Vol. II. 7. S. Semler attained to high rank in the Prussian church under the great Frederic, and contributed by his numerous works to give a degree of liberality to the religious opinions of his countrymen, and especially of the clergy. His writings display a sincere zeal for moral purity, and a varied erudition more industrious perhaps than discerning. They are peculiarly adapted to the study of an established clergy, as they distinguish nicely between public and private religion; and maintain that the right of the magistrate to patronize the speeific opinions which he deems most useful, and the obligation of the priesthood officially to conform herein to the public law, do not at all invalidate the rights of ministers of the gospel, individually and in their personal character of citizens, to advise the magistrate as to the amendment of the public ritual.
7. N. von Hontheim, a learned Catholic bishop, is deservedly praised as author of the Historia Trevirensis Diplomatica, and of the very remarkable book Justini Febronii Icti de Statu Ecclesia Liber singularis, which makes an era in the ecclesiastical history of Germany, by the freedom with which it investigates the rights of the papál see.
1793. Vol. I. C. F. Bahrdt, a much calumniated man, is here delineated with great fairness and impartiality.
Vol. II. The life of Leopold II. strikes us as the neatest and most interesting in this subdivision.
1794. Vol. I. and II. comprise no very prominent characters. 1795. Vol. I. The lives of Mauvillon, a patriot of the French school, and of Breitkopf the printer, are valuable. The following epitaph was composed for the latter:
"Aldos Stephanos, Plantinos, Elzevirosque,
Vol. II. The death of Godfred Augustus Bürger, on the 8th of June, is thus announced: A man is torn from us who will for ever remain dear to his country, and whose celebrity can only perish with its language. The German nation can not but desire a detailed account of the life of this immortal poet, especially as his fortunes had much influence on the manner and the subject of his song. As the editors of his works promise an attentive biography, The Necrology will await these particulars to characterise so distinguished a man. Perhaps some gleanings may be transmitted to us which will render a subsequent account rot superfluous.'
The life of G. H. Martini, distinguished for his knowlege in numismatics, for his dissertation on the Sun-dials of the An
tients, and for the work intitled " Pompeii resurgent," also
J. C. F. Bach, the musical composer, and J. A. Ebert, the German translator of Young's Night Thoughts, are characterised in 1796.
This work appears to us too much crowded with names of inferior importance: were each yolume a yearly instead of a half-yearly present, the redundant matter would naturally fall away. The lives are not drawn up with sufficient regard for foreign readers, who are necessarily ignorant of many particulars, the recital of which may appear superfluous in Germany s such as the quality and dates of an author's leading publications. Neither is the art of individualizing his characters understood by the compiler: his praise is too perpetual, too equal, and not sufficiently pointed at the peculia merit of each personage. Almost all the people in his list appear to be just, and wise, and good; and that in the same plain style and manner. They do not seem to be men of clay, but citizens of the New Jerusalem,
ART. XII. Briefe des ervigen Juden, &c. i. e. Letters of the Wandering Jew, concerning his own Times. Second Edition, corrected and enlarged. 2 Vols. 8vo. Offenbach. 1796.
T HE first edition of this very original novel was printed in 1791, probably at Vienna, where it soon obtained the honour of insertion in the catalogue of prohibited books. It consists of a series of philosophical letters, addressed to the more celebrated Rabbies who have illustrated the schools of the Jews in Syria and in Spain, during the eighteen centuries which have elapsed since the crucifixion. The more prominent events of civil tradition, and especially those of ecclesiastical history, are noticed and discussed with boldness in this correspondence; which every where inculcates a spirit of very liberal thinking in religion. Some may imagine that there is nothing incredible in the fiction which forms the substratum of the work, Dr. Priestley, who is by no means one of the most superstitious of the Christian priesthood, deems it probable that Enoch, Moses, Elias, and other holy persons, who were thought worthy of immediate resurrection, may be in the practice of wandering among men, to instruct and to console the faithful. Farther opinions might be adduced in favor of the occasional visitations of the Wandering Jew; but we wish · for the proofs.
We will now translate the first letter, to Flavius Josephus
Far from me is fled the peace of the Lord, and I daily feel with a deeper shudder the force of those words, which Jesus of Nazareth pronounced over me as he was led to death. Woe is upon me! Horrible are my feelings! For years I have been wandering about with a mark set upon me, like another Cain, and no where can I find rest for my foot, no where a destroying angel who will lead me to, the grave, and trample me into annihilation. Not to be able to die! Canst thou imagine all the horror of my doom, if his sentence were to be fulfilled: "Thou shalt not rest: thou shalt not die until t come again." He, the crucified Nazarene, come again?-no. Yet I shudder miserably at the thought of his curse, who blessed all other men, I know not, Josephus, how it is that I tremble for the future. Jehovah is my God; with him there is mercy.
Thou hast asked for an account of his execution. Wilt thou insert it in the history which thou art composing? I can tell thee all-I beheld it all: but it is knit with recollections that provoke the ravings of despair. I feel that I shall break away from my recital, and tell thee only half.
Scarcely had the Roman pronounced an unwilling condemnation, when active preparations began for the execution. He was yet in the hands of Roman soldiers, who had scourged and ill-treated him. They now snatched from him the mock diadem, the purple robe, the sceptre, and all those ensigns of royalty with which we and the Romans had made so merry. He was again clad in his own garment, The town, on account of the approaching festival, was crouded with people, and all turned their eyes towards the pretended Messiah. Four or five days before, he had made his triumphal entry: he was now to be led to death. No delay was to be expected. His disciples, one only excepted, did not make their appearance, but wandered abroad trembling and intimidated, and ventured not to approach their teacher. His female friends were more courageous. When they saw him tottering beneath the heavy cross, which he had to carry to the place of martyrdom, yet calm and resigned, they burst into loud sobbings, and followed him with breaking hearts. Jesus was affected by their pity, and comforted them: their future woes seemed to sit heavier on his soul than all which he had to undergo.
The Roman centurion, who was charged with the conduct of the execution, must have been an humane man; for when he saw that Jesus, exhausted with watching, with wandering, and with illusage, was about to sink under his burden, he called to the next best man of strength in the croud to lend his help, and to carry the cross for the debilitated culprit ;-but I-monster that I now seem to my, self! Jesus wished to rest awhile at my door-and I thrust him inbumanly out. At length he arrived at the destined spot, called the place of skulls, and with him two ruffians who were to be crucified at the same time. To them was given, as usual, the bitter draught, which benumbs the condemned against the pain of death: but he took none. It wanted yet three hours of noon, when the cross was at length fastened, Jesus wholly stripped, and lifted up to it. First,