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lows the train of exploits. The spirit of French institution which pursues theatric effect, and studiously clothes every modern incident in the antique costume, greatly contributes to assimilate the impression of this composition to that of an epic poem,

A description of the political festival, which succeeded the capture of Milan, by the French troops, may amuse our readers :


The foundation of the French Republic was commemorated in this city on the 22d September 1797, with a solemnity and pomp worthy of the magnitude of the event, and of the sentiments with which it has inspired a new nation, in love with freedom, and grateful to its deliverers.

At dawn, the artillery of the Castle announced the return of a day glorious to France, and memorable to the universe; and every citizen was eager to celebrate it joyfully. At eight o'clock, the general congress, the supreme council, and two other tribunals of jus tice, attended at the municipality; where was assembled a numerous national guard, intermingled with French soldiers, and ranged in files around the vast courts of the Town-hall, and along the street leading to the cathedral. The body of French officers met at the palace Serbelloni, where General and Madame Buonaparte lodged. At nine, the band began to defile, preceded by a detachment of engineers with two pieces of cannon. Next followed a body of French grenadiers, and a detachment of national guards, with military music. The municipality and boards of justice marched in groupes, without any of those vain distinctions which were once held so important, and seemed occupied only with the celebration of a republican festival new to this great city. Arrived at the grand square, they had not long to expect the appearance of the General in chief, and of his brilliant escort of officers of rank. This band arranged itself on the right side of the square: the municipality, the congress, and the other authorities, in a double balcony in front of the cathedral. On the left, were the French troops and the national guards, both on foot. Each side of the entrance was provided with musicians. The cannon placed in front of the palace, heretofore archducal, announced the beginning of the rejoicings. A tree of liberty was planted; and harangues were delivered, relative to the eventful change. General Buonaparte, the commissioner Garreau, and the major officers, all on horseback, formed the principal ornament of the spectacle. The French troops and national guards defiled in platoons before them, and, after having marched round the square, proceeded along the course to the eastern gate: whence the General and his followers returned to the palace Serbelloni. Madame Buona parte enjoyed the sight from the balcony of the Casino di Recreazioni, all the windows of which were crowded with spectators.

At the extremity of the square, a temple had been erected, with a statue of LIBERTY. The goddess herself soon appeared, on a superb triumphal car, drawn by six fine horses. She was personified by a young woman clad in the Greek fashion, and waving a three


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coloured banner. Six young boys surrounded her, decked with garlands, and supporting various emblems of victorious freedom, of vanquished tyranny, and of the COALITION destroyed. Among the wreaths might be read, on a broad inscription, the names of the armies which had deserved well of the country: on the reverse, appeared a figure of Lombardy presented to the goddess by a genius imploring her in behalf of these regions. This car, after having appeared at the palace of the General, paraded through the city, and returned to the Town-hall, during the dinner; at which Buonaparte presided.

At the conclusion of the repast, the whole company withdrew to the course by the eastern gate, and were present at games which recalled the brilliant days of Greece. Horse and foot races, executed by French officers, and by our own citizens, filled up that part of the afternoon; and the evening was crowned by theatrical exhibitions, balls, and by universal exclamations of loud, frolicsome, and roving joy; which broke loose in every street, and shouted on all sides: "Long live the Republic! Long live the birth-day of the Republic !”


The administration was not satisfied with gratifying the people by the exhibition of festivals: it also published addresses, not less encouraging; among which we remark that "To all goad citizens and friends of the country;" of which here follows an extract:

"The element of every social virtue is public instruction. It has ever been to nations the harbinger of happiness: wherever it is seen to dawn, the sun of liberty ascends the horizon. Greece is not less celebrated for letters thau for arms; and the fame of her philosophers vies with that of her Generals. These overthrew tyrants: but those proclaimed aloud what has been repeated from generation to generation; proclamations, at the sound of which every bosom has beaten exultingly; at the sound of which, in spite of all their precautions, the powerful have ever trembled; and which, in spite of every obstacle, still gladens the ears of nations with the glorious name of liberty.

"In our days, France, eclipsing the glory of Greece, has shaken off the yoke, has awakened terror in the tyrants, and hope in the people-but the torch of philosophy had preceded the lightning of her invincible sword. With the arms of reason, she had persuaded the nations to choose to be free; and they became free. She foretold that the energy of one free nation would be an overmatch for all the forces of the coerced and obeying nations of the earth; and the universe has seen all the satellites of the oppressors of the human race fugitive, and scattered before the banners of republicanism.

"Italy first offered an asylum to the sciences and arts of Greece; and if, until now, she never gave proofs of that energy which might have been expected from a country called by its situation, by its populousness, and by its resources, to be a worthy seat of freedom― the causes of this indolence must be sought in the neglect of public instruction, and in the industrious suppression of those germs of independence which the united activity of fanaticism and of tyranny were ever at hand to eradicate.

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"Our first duty, in the present circumstances, is to open a new career to Italian genius; to invite the discussion of those great interests of her collective population, which consist in establishing on their true basis the eternal principles of liberty and equality; the just limits of rights and of duties; and in inculcating the importance of asserting, the facility of recovering, and the dangers of overstepping these just rights. Such is our object in proposing a prize, for the best investigation of the following question: What form of free government is best adapted to the circumstances of Italy?

"O, ye

who cultivate literature in peace, let the love of glory and of your country now call you forth, If you have been condemned to stifle every beneficent thought under the abolished ty ranny, if you have ever felt enmity against institutions under which it was a crime to speak the truth, come forwards confidently now. Under the auspices of a conquering army, of a General not less the favourite of humanity than of victory, fear not to raise the voice of information, but deposit on the altar of publicity the offerings of your meditations and your talents.

"And ye, who still groan under the power of oppression, banish every fear you have in your own hands the speediest means of hurl. ing the usurper from his throne :-Write! Expose to the people their masters in all their nakedness; and they will only excite hatred or contempt. Shew to the people their own strength, and insensibly they will surmount the crouching gait and tame acquiescence which dishonoured the ages of their servitude. Announce to them the victories of their deliverers, and the enviable condition of the cities now severed from the region of despotism. Recall the antient honours of the once venerated name of Italy; indicate her new career; bid her be thrice great; and, above all, paint the horrors of her fall, should she again sink into the lap of tyranny, again find her limbs encircled with the antient chain, her lethargy prolonged with the antient poison, her children reserved for endless slavery, and the curse of posterity inscribed on her sepulchre. Opportunity is present: seize him by the forclock: he is bald behind. So shall this garden of nature and of art become the assembling-place of heroes. So shall every obstacle to the majestic destiny of your country crumble into dust. The distant despot grows pale at the mention of its regeneracy; and the imitators of its glorious exertions shall point to your writings, as to the sparks which fired them to daring. Let no difficulties, no dangers, deter: all is easy to him who wills to be free: dare; write; the hour of liberty is about to strike."

We have been the more diffuse in our extract, as it is very important, now, that our domestic statesmen should observe the methods by which the French open to themselves so easy an admission into all the continental states. 1. They obtain a silent co-operation of the people by flattering them with the hope of better laws: i.e. of laws more favourable to the power of the multitude, which is always the popular definition of better. 2. They pursue an avowed co-operation of literary Rr 3


men in their behalf, by actually investing them with the go vernment of the conquered countries.

The perpetually successful progress of this system of con quest admits, in our apprehension, but of one practicable remedy; and that is, to improve the condition of the multitude so essentially at home, that it shall be for their interest to prefer their present situation to a change. In a question of defence, the mass of property forms in every country an insignificant class. The zeal of the crowd is the only shield. When France was attacked at all points by foreign invaders, her legislature proclaimed universal suffrage; and every arm was raised in her defence. Had Germany or Italy profited by this example, either country would have repelled the intruder. Why is Switzerland omitted in all the French plans of partition and usurpation? Has she been meeker than the Pope, whose Avignon the Constituting Assembly usurped? Has she been more neutral than the King of Sardinia, whose Savoy the Convention usurped? Has she been more friendly than Venice, which the Directorial Constitution not only usurped, but perfidiously gave back to despotism? None of these things:-but her governments being sufficiently free to arm the lowest orders of the people indiscriminately, without apprehending an internal revolution, she may perhaps bid defiance to the French system. Local patriotism is not innate; it is the result of beloved institutions.

We offer these remarks not in order to recommend desperate steps, but to indicate the class of measures towards which, in a real emergency, government should look with exclusive confidence.

ART. XXX. Du Fanatisme, dans la Langue Revolutionnaire, &c. i.e.

Of Fanaticism, as it is called in the Language of the Revolution; or, Of the Persecution excited by the Barbarians of the 18th Century, against the Christian Religion and its Ministers. By JEAN-FRANÇOIS DE LAHARPE. 8vo. pp. 170. 2s. 6d. sewed, Dulau and Co. London. 1797.

F ROM the terrible result of the various experiments in morals made by the pupils of innovation around him, M. J. F. DE LAHARPE appears to have become convinced first of the utility and next of the truth of the religion lately forsaken by his countrymen. It would be fortunate for human society, if his knowlege of the evidences of Christianity equalled his zeal for its inculcation; if the goodness of his style approached that of his intentions; and if his temper indicated any efficacy in the mild precepts of the forgiving Jesus:-but we chiefly meet


with descriptions of desolations quoted from the Jewish prophets, and applied to similar scenes of suffering and destruction in France, which the author infers to have been judgments or visitations of the same offended Deity, from their very real resemblance. His language is coarse and careless, but affectedly free from the innovations of the new school. The invective which abounds is bitter and intolerant in the extreme, but discloses incidentally various important facts, which fully establish that systematical co-operation of the continental infidels to overthrow all religion, which will apparently terminate in some equivocal compromise with the institution of the new Theophilanthropic churches. Our author likes no half-way house: he desires a restoration in toto of Church and Tithe, of Bell, Book, and Candle; and, in the true spirit of a martyr, he closes his work by proclaiming his willingness to suffer in so glorious a


ART. XXXI. Manuel de Philosophie Pratique, &c. i. e. A Manual of Practical Philosophy, &c. Small 8vo. pp. 130. Lausanne. Imported by De Boffe, London.

Is. 6d.

ΤΗ THIS useful little Manual consists principally of a selection of English pieces; the first of which is the celebrated and valuable "Poor Richard" of Franklin. To this are added extracts from the " Evenings at home;" and a number of moral maxims, from the late translations from the Sanscrit, are subjoined. The translator has also given one small essay of his


The preface speaks in terms of high and just praise of English publications for the purpose of education. The translator observes that the mildest philosophy, the greatest simplicity, and the most judicious manner of conveying instruction, distinguish these numerous literary productions. He thinks that the same care has not been bestowed in providing instruction and entertainment for the more advanced periods of life; and this remark deserves attention.

ART. XXXII. Essai sur la Topographie Physique & Medicale de Paris, &c. i. e. An Essay on the Medical and Physical Topography of Paris; or a Dissertation on the Substances which may inAuence the Health of the Inhabitants of that City. With a Description of its Hospitals. By AUDIN ROVIERE, Officer of Health, Member of the two Free Societies of Natural History. 8vo. pp. 142. Paris.


'HE utility of those local inquiries, that investigate the circumstances on which the welfare of any considerable



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