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writer, apparently a native of Spain, who flourished ing of Truth and Wisdom for Versailles (Louvre), and of during the latter half of the 4th century and in the begin. Diana and Jupiter for the Gallery of Antiquities in the ning of the 5th. According to the meagre and vague auto- Louvre. In 1808 he exhibited Crime pursued by Vengebiographical notices given by himself in the preface to his ance and Justice (Louvre, engraved by Royer), which had poems he was born in the year 348, and, after receiving a been commissioned for the assize courts, and Psyche carried liberal education, practised at the bar and subsequently off by Zephyrs (engraved by Vassard). These two remarkheld judicial office in two important cities. At the time able compositions brought Prud'hon the Legion of Honour; of the publication of his poems in 405 he held from the his merit was widely recognized; he received innumerable emperor a high military appointment at court. Of his orders, and in 1816 entered the Institute. Easy as to subsequent history nothing is known.

fortune, and consoled for the misery of his marriage by His extant works, besides the preface already referred to and an the devoted care of his excellent and charming pupil

, epilogue, are the following :-(1) Cathemerinon Liber, a series of Mademoiselle Mayer, Prud'hon's situation seemed enviable; twelve hymns (wao nuepirŵr ius wo) in various metres to be repeated but Ma.emoiselle Vayer's tragical suicide on 26th May or sung at particular periods of the day or seasons of the year ; (2) Apotheosis, a poem of 1085 hexameter verses on the divinity of 1821 brought ruin to his hone, and two years later (16th Christ; (3) Hamartigenia (967 hexameter verses) on the origin of February 1823) Prud'hon followed her to the grave. The evil and sin ; (4) Psychomachia, or the conflict between virtue and classic revival which set in towards the close of the 18th vice for the soul (915 hexameter verses) ; (5) Contra Symmachum, two books, of 658 and 1131 hexameter verses respectively, directe century, and of which Louis David was the academic chief, against the petition of Symmachus to the emperor for the restora

found in Prud'hon an interpreter whose gifts of grace and tion of the altar and statue of Victory whích Gratian had cast naiveté tempered by seriousness atoned by the personal down ; (6) Peristephanon Liber, fourteen poems in various metres, charm which they imparted to all he did for the want of in honour of certain saints who had won the crown of martyrdom severity and correctness in his execution. Mademoiselle and graphic, aro generally considered to show Prudentius at his Mayer (1778-1821) was his ablest pupil. Her Abanbest ; (7) Diptychon or Dittochæon, a series of forty-nine hexameter doned Mother and Happy Mother are in the Louvre. tetrastichs on various events and characters mentioned in Scripture. Voiart, Nolice historique de la vie et auvres de P. Prud'hon; Tho edilio princeps appeared at Deventer in 1472; among modern Arch. de rart français ; Qu. de Quincy, Discours prononcé sur la editions may be named those of Faustus Arevalus (2 vols., Rome, tombe de Prud'hon, Fev. 1823 ; Eugène Delacroix, rev. des Deux 1788-89), Obbarius (Tübingen, 1845), and Dressel (Leipsic, 1860). Mondes, 1846 ; Charles Blanc, Hist. des peintres français.

PRUD’HON, PIERRE (1758-1823), French painter, born PRÚ'SSIA (Ger., Preussen ; Lat., Borussia), a kingdom at Cluny on the 4th of April 1758, was the third son of a of northern Europe and by far the most important mem

The monks of the abbey undertook his education. ber of the German empire, occupies almost the whole of The paintings which decorated the monastery excited his northern Germany, between 5° 52' and 22° 53' E. long. emulation and by the aid of Moreau, bishop of Mâcon, he and 49° 7' and 55° 53' N. lat. It now forms a tolerably was placed with Devosges, director of the art school at compact mass of territory, with its longest axis from southDijon. In 1778 Prud'hon went to Paris armed with a west to north-east; but within the limits just indicated lie letter to Wille, the celebrated engraver, and three years the "enclaves" Oldenburg, Mecklenburg, Brunswick, and later he obtained the triennial prize of the states of other small German states, while beyond them it possesses Burgundy, which enabled him to go to Rome, where he Hohenzollern, in the south of Würtemberg, and other became intimate with Canova. He returned to Paris in “exclaves ” of minor importance. On the N. Prussia is 1787, and led for some time a precarious existence, paint bounded by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic; on ing portraits and making designs for booksellers. The the E. by Russia and Poland; on the S. by Austrian illustrations which he executed for the Daphnis and Chloe Silesia, Moravia, Bohemia, Saxony, the Thuringian states, published by Didot brought him into notice, and his Bavaria, Hesse-Darmstadt, the Khenish Palatinate, and reputation was extended by the success of his decorations / Lorraine; and on the W. by Luxemburg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. With the exception of the sea on the Elbe on the west to the Oder and the Vistula on the east north and the mountain-barrier on the south-east, the is a question mainly of antiquarian interest and one upon frontiers are political rather than geographical, a fact that which authorities are not wholly agreed. In the openhas always been characteristic of Prussia's limits and that ing centuries of the Christian era we find it occupied by has had considerable influence in determining its history. Slavonic tribes, whose boundaries reach even to the west The Prussian monarchy, with an area of 134,490 square of the Elbe, and the conquest and absorption of these by miles, comprises nearly two-thirds of the entire extent of the growing German power form the subject of the early the German empire. Its kernel is the Mark of Branden- history of Brandenburg. Hand in hand with the territorial burg, round which the rest of the state has been built up extension of the Germans went the spread of Christianity, gradually, not without costly and exhausting wars. The which, indeed, often preceded the arms of the conquering territory ruled over by the first Hohenzollern elector race. The Slavs to the east of the Elbe were left un(1415-40) did not exceed 11,400 square miles, an area molested down to the foundation of the German monarchy, that had been quadrupled before the death of the first king established by the successors of Charlemagne about the in 1713. Frederick the Great left behind him a realm of middle of the 9th century. Then ensued the period of 75,000 square miles, and the following two monarchs, by formation of the German “marks” or marches, which served their Polish and Westphalian acquisitions, brought it to a at once as bulwarks against the encroachments of external size not far short of its present extent (122,000 square enemies and as nuclei of further conquest. The North miles in 1803). After the disastrous war of 1806 Prussia Mark of Saxony, corresponding roughly to the northern shrank to something smaller than the kingdom of Frederick part of the present province of Saxony, to the west of the the Great (61,000 square miles), and the readjustment Elbe, was established by the emperor Henry I. about the of Europe in 1815 still left it short by 14,000 square year 930, and formed the beginning of the Prussian state. miles of its extent in 1803. Fully one-fifth of its present The same energetic monarch extended his career of conarea is due to the war of 1866, which added Hanover, quest considerably to the east of the Elbe, obtaining more Hesse-Cassel


, Hesse-Nassau, Schleswig-Holstein, and the or less firm possession of Priegnitz, Ruppin, and the district city of Frankfort-on-the-Main to the Prussian dominions. round the sources of the Havel, and even carried his

arms to the banks of the Oder. His son Otho I. (936HISTORY.

973) followed in his father's footsteps and founded the The claims which Prussian history makes upon our bishoprics of Havelberg and Brandenburg, the latter taking attention are based neither upon venerable antiquity nor its name from the important Wendish fortress of Branupon uniformity of origin. The territorial and political nibor. Towards the end of the 10th century, however, dovelopinent of the country has taken place wholly within the Wendish flood again swept over the whole territory the last thousand years; and the materials out of which it to the east of the Elbe, and the Germans were confined to has been built up-marquisates and duchies, ecclesiastical the original limits of the North Mark. Christianity was principalities and free imperial cities--are of the most rooted out and the bishop of Brandenburg reduced to an heterogeneous description. The history of Prussia acquires episcopus in partibus. The history of the next century and its primary significance from the fact that this state was a half is simply a record of a series of desultory struggles the instrument by which the political regeneration of between the margraves of the North Mark and the encomGermany was ultimately effected from within, and the passing Wends, in which the Germans did no more than unity and coherence of the narrative are best observed hold their own on the left bank of the Elbe. when we consider it as a record of the training that fitted Things begin to grow a little clearer in 1134, when the the country for this task. This rôle was forced upon emperor Lothair rewarded the services of Albert the Prussia rather by the exigencies of its geographical position Bear, a member of the house of Anhalt and one of the than by its title to be racially the most representative most powerful princes of the empire, by investing him German state. The people who have established the power with the North Mark. Albert seems to have been a man of Germany cannot rank in purity of Teutonic blood with of great vigour and considerable administrative talent, the inhabitants of the central, western, and southern parts / and by a mixture of hard fighting and skilful policy he exof the empire. The conquest of the Slavonic regions that tended his power over the long-lost territories of Priegnitz, form so great a part of modern Prussia did not occur Ruppin, the Havelland, and the Zauche. He also shifted without a considerable intermingling of race, and Prussia the centre of power to the marshy district last-mentioned may perhaps be added to the list of great nations that and changed his title to margrave of Brandenburg. The seem to owe their pre-eminence to the happy blending of North Mark henceforth began to be known as the Altmark, their composite parts. It is perhaps also worthy of remark or Old Mark, while the territory round Brandenburg that this state, like its great rival, was developed from was for a short time called the New Mark, but more pera marchland of the German empire,—Prussia arising from manently the Mittelmark, cr Middle Mark. The soil of the North Mark erected against the Wends, and Austria Albert's new possessions was for the most part poor and from the East Mark erected against the Hungarians. unpromising, but he peopled it with industrious colonists

In tracing the early development of Prussia three main from Holland and elsewhere, and began that system of currents have to be noticed, even in a short sketch like the painstaking husbandry and drainage which has gradually present, which do not completely unite until the beginning converted the sandy plains and marshes of Brandenburg of the 17th century; indeed many writers begin the history into agricultural land of comparative fertility. The clergy of modern Prussia with the accession of the Great Elector were among his most able assistants in reclaiming waste in 1640. We have (1) the history of the Mark of Bran- land and spreading cultivation, and through them Christdenburg, the true political kernel of the modern state; ianity was firmly established among the conquered and (2) the history of the district of Preussen or Prussia, Germanized Slavs. Albert's descendants, generally known which gave name and regal title to the morarchy; and as the Ascanian line from the Latinized form of the name (3) the history of the family of Hohenzollern, from which of their ancestral castle of Aschersleben, ruled in Brandensprang the line of vigorous rulers who practically deter- burg for nearly two hundred years; but none of them seem mined the fortunes of the country.

to have been on a par with him in energy or ability. On Mark of Brandenburg. Whether Teutons or Slavs were the whole, however, they were able to continue in the course the earlier inhabitants of the district extending, from the marked out by him, and, in spite of the pernicious practice

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