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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, AND GENERAL LITERATURE

Aintb Edition-Popular Reprint

VOLUME XX

NEW YORK
HENRY G. ALLEN AND COMPANY

PUBLISHERS

1888.

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

PRESS, PAINTING AND BJOKBINDING,

265 & 2.7 CHERRY ST., N. Y,

VOL. XX.-(PRU-ROS).

Total number of Articles, 539

PRINCIPAL CONTENT S. PRUSSIA. J. F. MUIRHEAD.

REFORMATION. J. Basg MULLINGER, M.A., LibraPRUSSIC ACID. Prof. W. DITTMAR, F.R.S.

rian, St John's College, Cambridge. PRYNNE. S. R. GARDINER, LL.D., and OSMUND AIRY. REFORMATORY. J. E. Davis, Legal Advisor to PSALMS. Prof. W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.

Metropolitan Police Commissioners, London.
PSYCHOLOGY. JAMES WARD, M. A., Fellow of Trinity RELICS. Rev. J. G. CAZENOVE, D.D.
College, Cambridge.

RELIGIONS. Prof. C. P. TIELE, University of Loyden. PTERODACTYLE E. T. NEWTON, Palæontologist to REMBRANDT. J. F. WHITE, M.A. the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom.

RENAISSANCE. J. A. SYMONDS, M.A., Author of PTOLEMY. Prof. G. JOHNSTON ALLMAN, LL.D., F.R.S.,

“Renaissance in Italy." and E. H. BUNBURY, M.A.

RENI. W. M. ROSSETTI, Author of " Lives of Famous PUBLIC HEALTH, JAMES WILLIAMS, B.C.L.

Poets.” PUFENDORF. Prof. ERNEST Nys, University of REPRODUCTION. PATRICK GEDDES, and 3. H. VINES, Brussels.

F.R.S. PUNCHINELLO. R. MORTIMER WHEELER.

REPTILES. ALBERT GÜNTHER; M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., PUNJAB. Gen. R. MACLAGAN, RE.

and ST GEORGE MIVART, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. PUSEY. Rev. EDWIN HATCH, D.D., Vice-Principal, RESPIRATION. Prof. ARTHUR GAMEE, M.D., F.R.S. St Mary Hall, Oxford.

REVELATION, BOOK OF. ADOLF HARNACK, PYM. S. RAWSON GARDINER, LL.D.

D.D., Professor of Church History, University of PYRAMID. W. M. F. PETRIE, Author of “Life and

Giessen. Work at the Great Pyramid."

REYNOLDS. JOHN M. Gray, Curator Scottish PYROMETER. W. N. Shaw, M. A., Demonstrator of

National Portrait Gallery. Experimental Physics, University of Cambridge. RHEA. Prof. A. NEWTON. PYROTECHNY. ORME MASSON, M.D., D.Sc.

RHETORIC. R. C. JEBB, LL.D., Professor of Greek, PYTHAGORAS

University of Glasgow.
PHILOSOPHY. ANDREW SETH, M.A., Professor of Logic RHEUMATISM. J. O. AFFLECK, M.D.

and Philosophy, University College of South Wales RHODE ISLAND. W. E. FOSTER, Librarian, Public GEOMETRY. Prof. G. J. ALLMAN, LL.D.

Library, Providence, Rhode Island. QUAKERS. Right Hon. Sir EDWARD FRY, F.R.8. RICHARD I.-III. G. W. PROTHERO, M.A. QUARANTINE. CHARLES CREIGHTON, M.A., M.D. RICHARD OF CIRENCESTER. J. BASS MULLINGER. QUATERNIONS. P. G. TAIT, M.A., Professor of RIMINI. Prof. PASQUALE VILLARI, Senatore del Natural Philosophy, University of Edinburgh.

Regno, Florence. QUEBEC. GEORGE STEWART, Jun., Editor of the RIVER ENGINEERING. L. F. VERNON-HARCOURT, “Chronicle;" Quebec.

C.E., Author of “Rivers and Canals." QUEENSLAND. JAMES BONWICK, Author of "The ROADS AND STREETS. Thomas CODRINGTON, C.E., Lost Tasmanian Race."

Local Government Board, Whitehall. QUESNAY. J. K. INGRAM, LL D., Librarian, Trinity ROBBIA. Prof. J. H. MIDDLETON. College, Dablin.

ROBESPIERRE. H. MORSE STEPHENS, QUEVEDO. A. MOREL-FATIO, Ecole Nationale des ROBIN HOOD. J. WESLEY HALES, M. A., Professor of Chartes, Paris.

English Literature, King's College, London. QUININE E. M. HOLMES, Curator of Museum, Phar- RODNEY. G. F. HOOPER, Admiralty Library, White. maceutical Society, London.

hall. QUINTILIAN. J. S. REID, D. Litt., Fellow and Tutor ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. P. L. CONNELLAY, of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

Rome. RABBI. S. M. SCHILLER-SZINESSY, M.A., Ph.D., ROMANCE. H. R. TEDDER, and MICHAEL KERNEY. Reader in Talmudic Literature, Cambridge.

ROMANCE LANGUAGES. JOHAN STORM, LL.D., RABELAIS. GEORGE SAINTSBURY, Author of “Short

Professor of Philology, University of Christiania. History of French Literature."

ROMAN LAW. JAMES MUIRHEAD, LL.D., Professor RABIES. GEORGE FLEMING, LL.D., Principal Veteri

of Civil Law, University of Edinburgh. nary Surgeon, War Office, London.

ROMAN LITERATURE. W. Y. SELLAR, LL.D., ProRACKETS. H. F. WILKINSON.

fessor of Humanity, University of Edinburgh. RADIATION. Prof. P. G. Tait.

ROMANS, EPISTLE TO THE. E. SOHÜRER, ProRAILWAY. D. KINNEAR CLARK, C. E., London ; Prof. fessor of New Testament Theology, University of A. T. HADLEY, Nen Haven, Conn.; A. M. WELLING

Giessen. TON, C.E., and S. WRIGHT DUNNING, New York. ROMERAINBAND, RAINGAUGE. H. R. MILL, B.Sc.

HISTORY-ANCIENT. H. F. PELLAM, M.A., Fellow RALEIGH. 8. RAWSON GARDINER, LL.D.

and Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. MEDLEVAL RAPHAEL. J. HENRY MIDDLETON, Slade Professor of

AND RECENT. Prof. PASQUALE VILLABI. Fine Art, University of Cambridge.

TOPOGRAPHY AND ARCHÆOLOGY. Prof. J. HENRY RATIONALISM. Rev. J. F. SMITH.

MIDDLETON. READE. Prof. W. MINTO.

ROPE. JAMES Paton, Curator, Corporation Galleries REAL ESTATE. JAMES WILLIAMS.

of Art, Glasgow. RECORDS. A. O. EWALD, F.S.A., Public Record Office, ROSA. W. M. ROSSETTI. London.

ROSSETTI. THEODORE WATTS.

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