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TEXT. 22 What! have ye not houses to eat and drink in? or despise ye the
church of God, and shame them that have not? What shall I say
to you? Shall I praise you in this? I praise you not. 23 For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto
you, That the Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed,
took bread: 24 And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, “ Take, eat;
this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me."
PARAPHRASE. 22 supper one before another a. Have ye not houses to eat and
drink in, at home, for satisfying your hunger and thirst? Or have ye a contempt for the church of God, and take a pleasure to put those out of countenance, who have not wherewithal to feast there, as you do? What is it I said to you,
that I praise you b for retaining what I delivered to you? On 23 this occasion, indeed, I praise you not for it. For what I re
ceived, concerning this institution, from the Lord himself, that I delivered unto you, when I was with you; and it was this,
viz. That the Lord Jesus, in the night wherein he was be24 trayed, took bread: And, having given thanks, brake it, and
NOTES. 21 a To understand this, we must observe,
(1.) That they had sometimes meetings, on purpose only for eating the Lord's supper, ver. 33.
(2.) That to those meetings they brought their own supper, ver. 21.
(3.) That though every one's supper were brought into the common assembly, yet it was not to eat in commou, but every one fell to his own supper apart, as soon as he and his supper were there ready for one another, without staying for the rest of the company, or communicating with them in eating, ver. 21, 33.
In this St. Paul blames three things especially.
Ist, That they eat their common food in the assembly, which was to be eaten at home, in their houses, ver. 22, 34.
2dly, That though they eat in the common meeting-place, yet they eat separately, every one his own supper apart. So that the plenty and excess of some shamed the want and penury of others, rer. 22. Hereby also the divisions amongst them were kept up, ver: 18, they being as so many separated and divided societies, not as one united body of Christians, commemorating their common head, as they should have been in celebrating the Lord's supper, chap. x. 16, 17.
3dly, That they mixed the Lord's supper with their own, eating it as a part of their ordinary meal, where they made not that discrimination between it and
their common food, as they should have done, ver. 29. 22 He here plainly refers to what he had said to them, ver. 2, where he praised
them for remembering him in all things, and for retaining ad παραδόσεις καθώς Trapébwns, what he had delivered to them. This commendation he here retracts; for, in the matter of eating the Lord's supper, they did not retain o taçíowxa, ver. 23, what he had delivered to them, which, therefore, in the immediately following words, he repeats to them again.
TEXT. 25 After the same manner also, he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, “ This cup is the new testament in my blood : this do yè, as
drink it, in remembrance of me.” 26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the
Lord's death till he come. 27 Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the
Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 28 But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and
drink of that cup.
PARAPHRASE. said, “ Take, eat; this is my body which is broken for you: 25 this do in remembrance of me.” So, likewise, he took the
cup also, when he had supped, saying, “ This cup is the new testament in
blood: this do ye, as often as ye do it, in 26 remembrance of me.”. So that the eating of this bread,
and the drinking of this cup of the Lord's supper, is not to
satisfy hunger and thirst, but to show forth the Lord's death, 27 till he comes.
Insomuch that he, who eats this bread, and drinks this cup of the Lord, in an unworthy manner", not
suitable to that end, shall be guilty of a misuse of the body 28 and blood of the Lord. By this institution, therefore, of
Christ, let a man examine himself®; and, according to
NOTES. 27 < 'Ayatlws, " unworthily.” Our Saviour, in the institution of the Lord's sup.
per, tells the apostles, that the bread and the cup were sacramentally his body and blood, and that they were to be eaten and drunk iu remembrance of him; which, as St. Paul interprets it, ver. 26, was to show forth his death till he came. Whoever, therefore, eat and drank them, so as uot solemnly to show forth his death, followed not Christ's iustitution, but used them unworthily, i. e. not to the end to which they were instituted. This makes St. Paul tell them, ver. 20, that their coming together to eat it, as they did, viz. the sacramental bread and wiue promiscuously with their other food, as a part of their meal, and that though in the same place, yet not all together, at one time, and in one company, was not eating of the Lord's supper.
"Evoxos ésxı, shall be liable to the punishmeut due to one, who makes a wrong use of the sacramental body and blood of Christ in the Lord's supper. What
that punishment was, vid. ver. 30. 28 e St. Paul, as we have observed, tells the Corinthians, ver. 20, That to eat it
after the manner they did was not to eat the Lord's supper. He tells them also, ver. 29, That to eat it, without a due and direct imitating regard had to the Lord's body, (for so he calls the sacramental bread and wine, as our Saviour did, in the institution) by separating the bread and wine from the common use of eating and drinking, for huvger aud thirst, was to eat unworthily. To remedy their disorders berein, he sets before them Christ's own institution of this sacrament; that in it they might see the manner and end of its institution; and, by that, every one might examine his own comportment herein, whether it were conformable to that institution, and suited to that end. In the account he gives, of Christ's institution, we may observe, that he parti
TEXT. 29 For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh
damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body.
PARAPHRASE. 29 that', let him eat of this bread, and drink of this cup. For he,
who eats and drinks after an unworthy manner, without a due respect had to the Lord's body, in a discriminating 5 and purely sacramental use of the bread and wine, that represent it, draws
NOTES. ticnlarly remarks to them, that this eating and drinking was no part of common eating and drinking for hunger and thirst, but was instituted in a very solemn mapper, after they had supped, and for another d, viz. to represent Christ's body and blood, and to be eaten and drunk in remembrance of him; or, as St. Paul expounds it, to show forth his death. Another thing, which they might observe in the institution, was, that this was done by all who were present, united together in one company, at the same time. All which, put together, shows us what the examination here proposed is. For the design of the apostle here, being to reforin what he found fault with, in their celebrating the Lord's supper, it is, by that alone, we must understand the directions he gives them about it, if we will suppose he talked pertinently to this captious and touchy people, whom he was very desirous to reduce from the irregularities they were run into, in this matter, as well as several others. And if the account of Christ's institution be not for their examining their carriage by it, and adjusting it to it, to what purpose is it, here? The examination, therefore, proposed, was no other but an examination of their manner of eating the Lord's sopper, by Christ's institution, to see how their behaviour herein comported with the institution, and the end, for which it was instituted. Which farther appears to be so, by the punishment annexed to their miscarriages herein, which was infirmities, sickness, and temporal death, with which God chastened them, that they might not be condemned with the unbelieving world, ver. 30, 31. For if the unworthiness, here spoken of, were either unbelief, or any of those sins, which are usually made the matter of examination, it is to be presumed the apostle would not wholly have passed them over in silence : this, at least, is certain, that the punishment of these sins is infinitely greater than that, which God here inflicts on unworthy receivers, whether they, who are guilty of them, received the sacrament, or no. fkal outws. These words, as to the letter, are rightly translated, “and so." But that translation, I imagine, leaves generally a wrong sense of the place, in the mind of an English reader. For in ordinary speaking, these words, “ Let a man examine, and so let him eat," are understood to import the same with these, “ Let a man examine, and then let him eat;" as if they signified no more, but that examination should precede, and eating follow; which I take to be quite different from the meaning of the apostle here, whose sense the whole design of the context shows to be this : “ I here set before you the institution of Christ : by that let a man examine his carriage, xad outws, and according to that let
him eat: let him conform the manner of his cating to that." 29 Mo) daxpírwr, “not discriminating," uot putting a difference between the sacra.
mental bread and wine (which St. Paul, with our Saviour, calls Christ's body) and other bread and wine, in the solemn and seperate use of them. The Corinthians, as has been remarked, eat the Lord's supper in and with their own ordinary supper; whereby it came not to be sufficiently distinguished (as became a religious and Christian observauce, so soleniwly instituted) from common eating
TEXT. 30 For this cause, many are weak and sickly among you, and many
sleep. 31 For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged. 32 But when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we
should not be condemned with the world. 33 Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, tarry one
for another. 34 And if any man hunger, let him eat at home; that ye come not to
gether unto condemnation. And the rest will I set in order when I come.
PARAPHRASE. 30 punishment " on himself, by so doing. And hence it is, that
many among you are weak and sick, and a good number are 31 gone to their graves. But if we would discriminate ourselves,
i.e. by our discriminating use of the Lord's supper, we should 32 not be judged, i. e. i punished by God. But, being punished
by the Lord, we are corrected", that we may not be con33 demned hereafter, with the unbelieving world. Wherefore,
my brethren, when you have a meeting for celebrating the Lord's supper, stay for one another, that you may eat it all
together, as partakers, all in common, of the Lord's table, 34 without division, or distinction. But if any one be hungry,
let him eat at home to satisfy his hunger, that so the disorder in these meetings may not draw on you the punishment abovementioned. What else remains to be rectified in this matter I will set in order when I come.
NOTES. for bodily refreshment, nor from the Jewish paschal supper, and the bread broken, and the cup of blessing used in that: nor did it, in this way of eating it iu separate companies, as it were in private families, show forth the Lord's death, as it was designed to do, by the concurrence aud cominunion of the whole assembly of Christians, jointly united in the partaking of bread and wine, in a way peculiar to them, with reference solely to Jesus Christ. This was that, as appears by this place, which St. Paul, as we have already explained, calls eating
unworthily. 29" Damnation," by which our translation renders xpixa, is vulgarly taken for
eternal damuation, in the other world; whereas spēsce here signifies punishment
of another nature, as appears by ver. 30, 32. 31 i Asanplvesy does nowhere, that I know, signify to judge, as it is here translated,
but always signifies “ to distinguish," or " discriminate," and in this place has the same signification, and means the same thing, that it does, ver. 29. He is little versed in St. Paul's writings, who has not observed how apt he is to repeat the same word, he had used before, to the same purpose, though in a different, and sometimes a pretty hard construction; as here he applies oraxpire to the persoos discriminating, as iu the 29th verse to the thing to be discriminated,
though in both places it be put to denote the same action. 32 k Maidevóp. 39x properly signifies to be corrected, as scholars are by their master,
for their good.
CHAPTER XII. 1-XIV. 40.
The Corinthians seem to have inquired of St. Paul, “ What order of precedency and preference men were to have, in their assemblies, in regard of their spiritual gifts ?" Nay, if we may guess by his answer, the question they seem more particularly to have proposed was, “ Whether those, who had the gift of tongues, ought not to take place, and speak first, and be first heard in their meetings ?" Concerning this there seems to have been some strife, maligning, and disorder among them, as may be collected from chap. xii. 21-25, and xiii. 4, 5, and xiv, 40.
To this St. Paul answers in these three chapters, as followeth:
1. That they had all been heathen idolaters, and so being deniers of Christ, were in that state none of them spiritual: but that now, being Christians, and owning Jesus to be the Lord (which could not be done without the Spirit of God) they were all aveupałıxol, spiritual, and so there was no reason for one to undervalue another, as if he were not spiritual, as well as himself, chap. xii. 1-3.
2. That though there be diversity of gifts, yet they are all by the same Spirit, from the same Lord, and the same God, working them all in every one, according to his good pleasure. So that, in this respect also, there is no difference or precedency; no occasion for any one's being puffed up, or affecting priority, upon account of his gifts, chap. xii
. 4–11. 3. That the diversity of gifts is for the use and benefit of the church, which is Christ's body, wherein the members (as in the natural body) of meaner functions are as much parts, and as necessary in their use to the good of the whole, and therefore to be honoured, as much as any other. The union they have, as members in the same body, makes them all equally share in one another's good and evil, gives them a mutual esteem and concern one for another, and leaves no room for contests or divisions amongst them, about their gifts, or the honour and place due to them, upon that account, chap. xii
. 12—31. 4. That though gifts have their excellency and use, and those, who have them, may be zealous in the use of them; yet the true and sure way for a man to get an excellency and preference above others, is the enlarging himself in charity, and excelling in that,