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TEXT. 6 Who also hath made us able ministers of the New Testament, not

of the letter, but of the spirit ; for the letter killeth, but the spirit

giveth life. 7 But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones,

was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses, for the glory of his countenance, which glory

was to be done away ; 8 How shall not the ministration of the Spirit be rather glorious ?

PARAPHRASE. sufficiency, my ability, to perform any thing, is wholly from 6 God: who has fitted and enabled me to be a minister of the

New Testament, not of the letter', but of the spirit; for the 7 letter kills 5, but the spirit gives life. But, if the ministry of

the law written in stone, which condemns to death, were so glorious to Moses, that his face shone so, that the children of

Israel could not steadily behold the brightness of it, which was 8 but temporary, and was quickly to vanish”; How can it be

NOTES. or if noyioachau shall rather be thought to signify here to discover by reasoning, then the apostle's sense will run thus: “Not as if I were sufficient of myself, by the strength of my own natural parts, to attain the knowledge of the Gospel truths, that I preach ; but my ability herein is all from God." But, in whatever sense aoyboaciau is here taken, it is certain pl, which is translated “any thing," must be limited to the subject in hand, viz. the Gospel that he preached to

them. 6 f Où ypáje palos, ånad freúpatos, "not of the letter, but of the spirit.” By ex

pressing himself, as he does here, St. Paul may be understood to intimate, that & the New Testament, or covenant," was also, though obscurely, held forth in the law: For he says, he was constituted a minister, freuatos, “ of the spirit,” or spiritual meaning of the law, which was Christ, (as he tells us himself, ver. 17) and giveth life, whilst the letter killeth. But both letter and spirit must be understood of the same thing, viz. “the letter of the law, and the spirit of the law.” And, in fact, we find St. Paul truly a minister of the spirit of the law; especially in his epistle to the Hebrews, where he shows what a spiritual sense ran through the Mosaical institution and writings. 3The letter kills,” i. e. pronounciog death, without any way of remission, on all transgressors, leaves them under an irrevocable sentence of death. But the

Spirit, i. e. Christ, ver. 17, who is a quickening Spirit, 1 Cor. xv. 45, giveth life. 7 b Kalapyouuévno, “done away,” is applied here to the shining of Moses's face,

and to the law, ver. 11, and 13. In all which places it is used in the present tense, and has the signification of an adjective, standing for temporary, or of a duration whose end was determined ; and is opposed to tý vévoyle, “ that which remaineth," i.e. that which is lasting, and hath no predetermined end set to it, as ver. 11, where the Gospel dispensation is called có péros, " that which remaiveth." This may help us to understand ano 86Ěns eis sóćav, ver. 18, “ from glory to glory,” which is manifestly opposed to 867 xatapyouuérn, “the glory done away," of this verse ; and so plainly signifies a continued, lasting glory of the ministers of the Gospel; which, as he tells us there, consisted in their being

TEXT. 9 For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more dotha

the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory. 10 For even that, which was made glorious, had no glory, in this

respect, by reason of the glory that excelleth, 11 For if that which is done away was glorious, much more that which

remaineth, is glorious. 12 Seeing then that we have such hope, we use great plainness of speech :

PARAPHRASE. otherwise, but that the ministry of the Spirit, which giveth

life, should confer more glory and lustre on the ministers of 9 the Gospel ? For if the ministration of condemnation were

glory, the ministry of justification', in the Gospel, doth cer10 tainly much more exceed in glory. Though even the glory,

that Moses's ministration had, was no glory, in comparison of 11 the far more excelling glory of the Gospel ministry k. Farther,

if that which is temporary, and to be done away, were deli

vered with glory, how much rather is that which remains, 12 without being done away, to appear in glory'? Wherefore,

having such hope ", we use great freedom and plainness of

NOTES. changed into the image and clear representation of the Lord himself; as the glory of Moses consisted in the transitory brightness of his face, which was a

faint reflection of the glory of God, appearing to him in the mount. gi Asaxovla tñs 80%accouns, “the ministration of righteousness ;" so the ministry

of the Gospel is called, because, by the Gospel, a way is provided for the justification of those who have transgressed : but the law has nothing but rigid con. dempation for all transgressors; and, therefore, is called here “ the ministra

tion of condemnation." 10 k Though the showing, that the ministry of the Gospel is more glorious than

that of the law be what St. Paul is upon here, thereby to justify himself, if he has assumed some authority and commendation to himself, in his ministry and apostleship; yet in his thus industriously placing the ministry of the Gospel, in honour, above that of Moses, may he not possibly have an eye to the Judaizing false apostle of the Corinthians, to let them see what little regard was to be had

to that ministration, in comparison of the ministry of the Gospel ? II ' Here St. Paul mentions another pre-eminency and superiority of glory, in the

Gospel over the law, viz. that the law was to cease, and to be abolished; but

the Gospel to remain, and never be abolished. 12 * “Such hope :" that St. Paul, by these words, means the so honourable em

ployment of an apostle and minister of the Gospel, or the glory belonging to his ministry in the Gospel, is evident, by the whole foregoiug comparison, which he has made, which is all along between osaxovla, “the ministry" of the law, and of the Gospel, and not between the law and the Gospel themselves. The calling of it “ hope," instead of glory, here, where he speaks of his having of it, is the language of modesty, which more particularly suited his present purpose. For the conclusion, which, in this verse, he draws from what went before, plainly shows the apostle's design, in this discourse, to be the justifying his speaking freely of himself and others; his argument amounting to thus much :

TEXT. 13 And not as Moses, which put a veil over his face, that the children

of Israel could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is abolished. 14 But their minds were blinded ; for until this day remaineth the

same veil untaken away, in the reading of the Old Testament; which veil is done away in Christ.

PARAPHRASE. 13 speech. And not as Moses, who put a veil over his face, do

we veil the light; so that the obscurity of what we deliver should hinder the children of Israel from seeing, in the law,

which was to be done away, Christ, who was the end of the 14 law. But their not seeing it, is from the blindness of their

own minds: for, unto this day, the same veil remains upon their understandings, in reading of the Old Testament; which veil is done away in Christ; i. e. Christ, now he is come, so

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NOTES. “Having, therefore, so honourable an employment, as is the ministry of the Gospel, which far exceeds the ministry of the law in glory; though even that gave so great a lustre to Moses's face, that the children of Israel could not with fixed eyes look upon him; I, as becomes one of such hopes, in such a post as sets me above all mean considerations and compliances, nse great freedom and

plainness of speech, in all things that concern my ministry."
13 n npòs ad men åtorioai, &c. “That the children of Israel could not stedfastly

look," &c. St. Paul is here justifying, in himself, and other ministers of the
Gospel, the plainness and openness of their preaching, which he had asserted in
the immediately preceding verse. These words, therefore, here, must of neces-
sity be understood, not of Moses, but of the ministers of the Gospel ; viz. that it
was not the obscurity of their preaching, not any thing veiled, in their way of
proposing the Gospel, which was the cause why the children of Israel did not
understand the law to the bottom, and see Christ, the end of it, in the writings
of Moses. What St. Paul says, in the next verse, “But their minds were
blinded : for until this day remaineth the same veil untaken away,” plainly
determines the words we are upon to the sense I have taken them in : for what
sense is this? “Moses put a veil over his face, so that the children of Israel
could not sce the end of the law; but their minds were blinded; for the veil
remains upon them until this day. But this is very good sense, and to St. Paul's
purpose, viz. “We, the ministers of the Gospel, speak plainly and openly, and
put no veil upon ourselves, as Moses did, whereby to hinder the Jews from seeing
Christ, in the law; but that, which hinders them, is a blindness on their miods,
which has been always on them, and remains to this day." This seems to be
an obviating an objection, which some among the Corinthians might make to his
boasting of so much plainness and clearness in his preaching, viz. If you preach
the Gospel, and Christ, contained in the law, with such a shining clearness and
evidence, how comes it that the Jews are not converted to it? His reply is,
“ Their unbelief comes not from any obscurity in our preaching, but from a
blinduess, which rests upon their minds to this day; which shall be taken away
when they turn to the Lord.”
• Vid. Rom. x. 2–4.

TEXT. 15 But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the veil is upon their

heart. 16 Nevertheless, when it shall turn to the Lord, the veil shall be taken

away. 17 Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is,

there is liberty. 18 But we all, with open face, beholding, as in a glass, the glory of the

PARAPHRASE.

exactly answers all the types, prefigurations, and predictions of him in the Old Testament, that presently, upon turning our eyes upon him, he visibly appears to be the person designed, and all the obscurity of those passages concerning him, which

before were not understood, is taken away, and ceases. 15 Nevertheless, even until now, when the writings of Moses are

read, the veil P remains upon their hearts, they see not the 16 spiritual and evangelical truths contained in them. But,

when their heart shall turn to the Lord, and, laying by prejudice and aversion, shall be willing to receive the truth, the

veil shall be taken away, and they shall plainly see him to be 17 the person spoken of, and intended . But the Lord is the

Spirit', whereof we are ministers; and they, who have this

Spirit, they have liberty S, so that they speak openly and freely. 18 But we, all the faithful ministers of the New Testament, not

veiled, but with open countenances, as mirrors, reflecting the

NOTES. 15 P St. Paul, possibly, alludes here to the custom of the Jews, which continues still

in the synagogue, that, when the law is read, they put a veil over their faces. 16 . When this shall be, see Rom. xi. 25—27. 17 ''odè Kúpros ad aveữuá ésir,“ but the Lord is that Spirit." These words relate

to ver. 6, where he says, that he is a minister, not of the letter of the law, not of the outside and literal sense, but of the mystical and spiritual meaning of it, which he here tells us is Christ. • " There is liberty;" because the Spirit is given only to sons, or those that are

free. See Rom. viii. 15. Gal. iv. 6, 7. 18 St. Paul justifies his freedom and plaidness of speech, by his being made, by

God himself, a minister of the Gospel, which is a more glorious ministry than that of Moses, in promulgating the law. This he does from ver. 6 to ver. 12, inclusively. From thence, to the end of the chapter, he justifies his liberty of speaking; in that he, as a minister of the Gospel, being illuminated with greater and brighter rays of light than Moses, was to speak (as he did) with more freedom and clearness than Moses had done. This being the scope of St. Paul, in this place, it is visible, that all from these words, “ who put a veil upon his face," ver. 13, to the beginning of ver. 18, is a parenthesis ; which being laid aside, the comparison between the ministers of the Gospel and Moses stands clear: “Moses, with a veil, covered the brightness and glory of God, which shone in his countenance;" but we, the ministers of the Gospel, with open countenances,

TEXT. Lord, are changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as

by the Spirit of the Lord. IV. i Therefore, seeing we have this ministry, as we have received

mercy, we faint not:

PARAPHRASE. glory of the Lord, are changed into his very image, by a continued succession of glory, as it were, streaming upon us

from the Lord, who is the Spirit who gives us this clearness IV. 1 and freedom. Seeing, therefore, I am intrusted with such

a ministry as this, according as I have received great mercy, being extraordinarily and miraculously called, when I was a persecutor, I do not fail", nor flag: I do not behave myself

NOTES. na707 Tpos6uevos, reflecting as mirrors the glory of the Lord. So the word wałortpie Xómeros must signify here, and not “beholding as in a mirror ;” because the comparison is between the ministers of the Gospel and Moses, and not between the ministers of the Gospel and the children of Israel: now the action of “beholding” was the action of the children of Israel; but of “shining, or reflecting the glory received in the mount,” was the action of Moses; and, therefore, it must be something answering that, in the ministers of the Gospel, wherein the comparison is made; as is farther manifest, in another express part of the comparison between the veiled face of Moses, ver. 13, and the open face of the ministers of the Gospel, in this verse. The face of Moses was veiled, that the bright shining, or glory of God, remaining on it, or reflected from it, might not be seen ; and the faces of the ministers of the Gospel are open, that the bright shining of the Gospel, or the glory of Christ, may be seen. Thus the justness of the comparison stands fair, and has an easy sense, which is hard to be made out, if xatomiposó queros be translated “beholding as in a glass.”

Tilv autey eixóvæ petajoppoúhes, “we are changed into that very image,” i. e. the reflection of the glory of Christ, from us, is so very bright and clear, that we are changed into his very image; whereas the light that shone in Moses's couptenance was but a faint reflection of the glory which he saw, when God showed him his back parts, Exod. xxxiii. 23.

'ATO SÓEns eis 86[av, “from glory to glory,” i. e, with a continued influx and renewing of glory, in opposition to the shining of Moses's face, which decayed and disappeared in a little while, ver. 7.

Kabáñep áno Kupiau, arsúparos, “ as from the Lord, the Spirit,” i. e. as if this irradiation of light and glory came immediately from the source of it, the Lord himself, who is that Spirit, whereof we are the ininisters, ver. 6, which giveth life and liberty, ver. 17.

This liberty he here speaks of, ver. 17, is to approla, “liberty of speech,' mentioned ver. 12, the subject of St. Paul's discourse here; as is farther manifest, from what immediately follows, in the six first verses of the next chapter, wherein an attentive reader may find a very clear comment on this 18th verse

we are upon, which is there explained in the sense we have given of it. Σ' Ουκ εκκακούμεν, « we faint not,” is the same with πολλη σαρρησία χρώμεθα,

“ we use great plainness of speech," verse 12, of the foregoing chapter ; aud signifies, in both places, the clear, plain, disinterested preaching of the

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