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TEXT. 7 Which is not another ; but there be some that trouble you, and would

pervert the Gospel of Christ. 8 But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other Gospel unto

you, than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed. 9 As we said before, so say I now again, if any man preach any other

Gospel unto you, than that ye have received, let him be accursed. 10 For do I now persuade men, or God? Or do I seek to please men ?

For, if I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ.

PARAPHRASE. 7 in Christ) unto another sort of Gospel ; Which is not owing to

any thing else 4, but only this, that ye are troubled by a certain sort of men, who would overturn the Gospel of Christ, by mak

ing circumcision, and the keeping of the law, necessary under 8 the Gospel. But if even I myself, or an angel from heaven,

should preach any thing to you for gospel, different from the 9 Gospel I have preached unto you, let him be accursed. I say it

again to you, if any one, under pretence of the Gospel, preach

any other thing to you, than what ye have received from me, 10 let him be accursedc. For can it be doubted of me, after

having done and suffered so much for the Gospel of Christ, whether I do now', at this time of day, make my court to

NOTES. 7:40 8x işı öz do I take to signify " which is not any thing else.” The words

themselves, the context, and the business the apostle is upon here, do all concur to give these words the sense I hare taken them in. For, 1, If à had referred to avayyehes, it would have been more natural to have kept to the word étepov, and not have changed it into anno. 2. It can scarce be supposed, by any one who reads what St. Paul says, in the following words of this verse, and the two adjoining; and also chap. iii. 4, and ver. 2–4, and 7, that St. Paul should tell them, that what he would keep them from, “is not another Gospel." 3. It is suitable to St. Paul's design here, to tell them, that to their being removed to “ another Gospel,” nobody else had contributed, but it was wholly owing to those Judaizing seducers.

See Acts xv. 1, 5, 23, 24. 9 -“ Accursed.” Though we may look upon the repetition of the anathema here,

to be for the adding of force to what he says, yet we may observe, that by joining himself with an angel, in the foregoing verse, he does as good as tell them, that he is not guilty of what deserves it, by skilfully insinuating to the Galatians, that they might as well suspect an angel inight preach to them a Gospel different from his, i. e. a false Gospel, as that he himself should : and then, in this verse, lays

the anathema, wholly and solely, upon the Judaizing seducers. 10 d"Aplı, “dow," and ito, " yet,” cannot be understood without a reference to

soniething in St. Paul's past life ; what that was, which he had particularly then in his mind, we may see by the account he gives of himself, in what immediately follows, viz. that before his conversion he was employed by men, in their designs, and made it his business to please them, as may be seen, Acts ix. 1, 2. But wheu God called him, he received his commission and instructions from him alone, and set immediately about it, without consulting any man whatsoever,



11 But I certify to you, brethren, that the Gospel, which was preached

of me, is not after man. 12 For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the

revelation of Jesus Christ. 13 For ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews' re

ligion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God,

and wasted it: 14 And profited in the Jews' religion above many my equals in mine

own nation, being more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my fathers.


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men, or seek the favoura of God? If I had hitherto made it

my business to please men, I should not have been the servant 11 of Christ, nor taken up the profession of the Gospel. But I

certify you, brethren, that the Gospel, which has been every

whereb preached by me, is not such as is pliant to human in12 terest, or can be accommodated to the pleasing of men (For I

neither received it from man, nor was I taught it by any one,

as his scholar); but it is the pure and unmixed, immediate 13 revelation of Jesus Christ to me. To satisfy you of this, my

behaviour, whilst I was of the Jewish religion, is so well known, that I need not tell you how excessive violent I was in per

secuting the church of God, and destroying it all I could ; 14 And that being carried on by an extraordinary zeal for the

traditions of my forefathers, I out-stripped many students of


preaching that, and that only, wbich he had received from Christ. So that it
would be sevseless folly in him, and no less than the forsaking his Master, Jesus
Christ, if he should now, as was reported of him, mix any thing of men's with
the pure doctrine of the Gospel, which he had received immediately by revelation
from Jesus Christ, to please the Jews, after he had so long preached only that ;
and had, to avoid all appearance or pretence to the contrary, so carefully shuuned
all communication with the churches of Judea ; and had not, until a good while
after, and that very sparingly, conversed with any, and those but a few, of the
apostles themselves, some of whom he openly reproved for their Judaizing. Thus
the narrative, subjoined to this verse, explains the “now," and “yet," in it,
and all tends to the same purpose.
Telow, translated “persuade," is sometimes used for making application to any
ove to obtain his good will, or friendship ; and hence, Acts xii. 20, welowles
Braço is translated “having made Blastus their friend :" the sense is here the
same which, 1 Thess. ii. 4, he expresses in these words, óx ws dv@pústrois diféoxovies

aand to ev, “not as pleasing inen, but God."
11 Tè evayyenoo bày ús' éping " which has been preached by me :” this, being spoken

indefinitely, must be understood in general, every where, and so is the import of the foregoing verse.

TEXT. 15 But when it pleased God, who separated me from my mother's

womb, and called me by his grace, 16 To reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the heathen,

immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood : 17 Neither went I up to Jerusalem, to them which were apostles before

me; but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus. 18 Then after three years, I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter, and

abode with him fifteen days. 19 But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother. 20 Now the things which I write unto you, behold, before God, I lie

not. 21 Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia:


15 my own age and nation, in Judaism. But when it pleased

God (who separated me from my mother's womb, and by his

especial favour called me to be a Christian, and a preacher of 16 the Gospel). To reveal his Son to me, that I might preach

him among the Gentiles, I thereupon applied not myself to any 17 man', for advice what to dod. Neither went I up to Jeru

salem to those who were apostles before me, to see whether they approved my doctrine, or to have farther instructions

from them: but I went immediatelye unto Arabia, and from 18 thence returned again to Damascus. Then after three years',

I went up to Jerusalem, to see Peter, and abode with him 19 fifteen days. But other of the apostles saw I none, but James, 20 the brother of our Lord. These things, that I write to you,

I call God to witness, are all true; there is no falsehood in 21 them. Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria and Ci

NOTES. 15 * “ Separated.” This may be understood by Jer. i. 5.

b“ Called." The history of this call, see Acts ix. 1, &c. 16 -“Flesh and blood," is used for man, see Epb. vi. 12.

d“ For advice:" this, and what he says in the following verse, is to evidence to the Galatians the full assurance he had of the truth and perfectiou of the Gospel, which he had received from Christ, by immediate revelation; and how little he was disposed to have any regard to the pleasiug of men in preaching it, that he did not so much as communicate, or advise, with any of the apostles about it,

to see whether they approved of it. 17 • Eudéws, immediately, though placed just before x and a posarebéury, '“ I conferred

not ;" yet it is plaiu, by the sense and design of St. Paul here, that it priucipally relates to, “I weut into Arabia ;" his departure into Arabia, presently upon his conversion, before he had consulted with any body, being made use of, to show that the Gospel he had received by immediate revelation from Jesus Christ was complete, aud sufliciently instructed and enabled him to be a preacher and an apostle to the Gentiles, without borrowing any thing from any man, in order thereuuto; no not with any of the apostles, no one of whom he saw, until three

years after. 18 1" Three years," i. e. from his conversion.

TEXT. 22 And was unknown by face unto the churches of Judea, which were

in Christ. 23 But they had heard only, that he, which persecuted us in times

past, now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed. 24 And they glorified God in me,

PARAPHRASE. 22 licia. But with the churches of Christs in Judea, I had had

no communication : they had not so much as seen my face"; 23 Only they had heard, that I, who formerly persecuted the

churches of Christ, did now preach the Gospel, which I once 24 endeavoured to suppress and extirpate. And they glorified

God upon my account.

NOTES. 22 8“ In Christ," i. e. believing in Christ, see Rom. xvi. 7.,

- This, which he so particularly takes notice of, does nothing to the proving that he was a true apostle; but serves very well to show, that, in what he preached, he had no communication with those of his own nation, nor took any care to please the Jews.


TEXT. 1 Then fourteen years after, I went up again to Jerusalem, with

Barnabas, and took Titus with me also. 2 And I went up by revelation, and communicated unto them that Go

spel, which I preach among the Gentiles, but privately to them which were of reputation, lest by any means I should run or had run in vain.

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PARAPHRASE. 1 Then_fourteen years after, I went up again to Jerusalem, 2 with Barnabas, and took Titus also with me. And I went

up by revelation, and there laid before them the Gospel which 1. preached to the Gentiles, but privately, to those who were

NOTES. 1 *“ I communicated." The conference he had in private with the chief of the

church of Jerusalem, concerning the Gospel which he preached among the Gentiles, seems not to have been barely concerning the doctrine of their being free from the law of Moses, that had been openly and hotly disputed at Antioch, aud was known to be the business they came about to Jernsalet; but it is probable,

TEYT. 3 But peither Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled

- to be circumcised :

PARAPHRASE. of note and reputation amongst them; lest the pains that I

have already taken“, or should take in the Gospel, should be 3 in vain b. But though I communicated the Gospel, which I

preached to the Gentiles, to the eminent men of the church at Jerusalem, yet neither o Titus, who was with me, being a Greek,

NOTES. it was to explain to them the whole doctrine he had received by revelation, by the fulness and perfection whereof, (for it is said, ver. 6, that, in that conference, they added nothing to it) and by the miracles he had done in confirm. ation of it, (see ver. 8) they might see and own what he preached to be the truth, and him to be one of themselves, both by commission aud doctrine, as indeed they did ; autrīs, “them," signifies those at Jerusalem; xar" 18lav 8à tois Boxovor, are exegetical, and show the particular manner and persons, import “pempe privatim, eminentioribus.” It was enough to his purpose to be owned by those of greatest authority, and so we see he was, by James, Peter, and John, ver. 9, and therefore it was safest and best to give an account of the Gospel he preached in private to them, and not publicly to the whole church. 3“ Running,” St. Paul uses for taking pains in the Gospel. See Phil. ii. 16. A metaphor, I suppose, taken from the Olympic games, to express his utmost endeavours to prevail in the propagating the Gospel. b" In vain :" He seems here to give two reasons why, at last, after fourteen years, he communicated to the chief of the apostles at Jerusalem, the Gospel that he preached to the Gentiles, when, as he shows to the Galatians, he had formerly declined all communication with the convert Jews. 1. He seems to intimate, that he did it by revelation. 2. He gives another reason, viz. That, if he had not communicated, as he did, with the leading men there, and satisfied them of his doctrine and mission, his opposers might unsettle the churches he had, or should plant, by urging, that the apostles knew not what it was that he preached, por had ever owned it for the Gospel, or him for an apostle. Of the readiness of the Judaizing seducers, to take any such advantage against him, he had lately an

example in the church of Corinth. 3 cu x kvayxáo on is rightly translated, “ was not compelled," a plain evidence to

the Galatians, that the circumcising of the convert Gentiles was no part of the Gospel which he laid before these inen of note, as what he preached to the Gentiles. For if it had, Titus must have been circumcised; for no part of his Gospel was blamed, or altered by them, ver. 6. Of what other use his mentioning this, of Titus, here can be, but to show to the Galatians, that what he preached, contained nothing of circumcising the convert Gentiles, it is hard to find. If it were to show that the other apostles, and church at Jerusalem, dispersed with circumcision, and other ritual observances of the Mosaical law, that was need. less; for that was sufficiently declared by their decree, Acts xv. which was made and communicated to the churches, before this epistle was writ, as may be seen, Acts xvi. 4; much less was this of Titus of any force, to prove that St. Paul was a true apostle, if that were what he was here labouring to justify. But considering his aim here, to be the clearing bimself from a report, that he preached up circuincision, there could be nothing more to his purpose, than this instance of Titus, whom, uncircumcised as he was, he took with him to Jerusalem ; uncir.

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