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TEXT. 19 My little children, of whom I travail in birth again, until Christ be

formed in you, 20 I desire to be present with you now, and to change my voice ; for I

stand in doubt of you.

PARAPHRASE. 19 when I am present with you, My little children, for whom

I have again the pains of a woman in child-birth, until Christ

be formed in you", i. e. till the true doctrine of Christianity 20 be settled in your minds. But I would willingly be this very

moment with you, and change my discourse, as I should find occasion ; for I am at a stand about you, and know not what to think of

you.

to me.

NOTES. tioned, as peculiarly deserving their affection, to which the rule given in this verse could refer. He had said, ver. 17, IndoJo no úvās, "they affect you ;" and Free autous Graoûte, “that you might affect them ;” this is only of persons, and therefore Snacão9a1 ły xahơ, which immediately follows, may be best understood of a person ; else the followiug part of the verse, though joined by the copulative xal, and, will make but a disjointed sense with the preceding. But there can be nothing plainer, nor more coherent than this, which seems to be St. Paul's sense here : “You were very affectionate to me, when I was with you. You are since estranged from me; it is the artifice of the seducers that have cooled you

But if I am the good man you took me to be, you will do well to continue the warmth of your affection to me, when I am absent, and not to be well affected towards me, only when I am present among you.” Though this be his meaning, yet the way he has taken to express it is much more elegant, modest, and grace

ful. Let any one read the original, and see whether it be not so. 19 e Jf this verse be taken for an entire sentence by itself, it will be a parenthesis,

and that not the most necessary, or congruous, that is to be found in St. Paul's epistles; or Sd, but, must be left out, as we see it is in our translation. But if τεκνία μου, my little children," be joined, by apposition, to úpās, you, the last word of the foregoing verse, and so the two verses, 18 and 19, be read as one seutence, ver. 20, with 8d, but, in it, follows very naturally. But, as we now read it in our English Bible, od, but, is forced to be left out, and ver. 20 stands

alone by itself, without any connexion with what goes before, or follows. 20 f'Arrasar Purinn, “ to change the voice," seems to signify the speaking higher or

lower ; changing the tone of the voice, suitably to the matter one delivers, v. g. whether it be advice, or commendation, or reproof, &c. For each of these have their distinct voices. St. Paul wishes himself with them, that he might accommodate himself to their present condition and circumstances, which he confesses himself to be ignorant of, and in doubt about.

SECTION IX.

CHAPTER IV. 21.-V. 1.

CONTENTS. He exhorts them to stand fast in the liberty, with which Christ hath made them free, showing those, who are so zealous for the law, that, if they mind what they read in the law, they will there find, that the children of the promise, or of the new Jerusalem, were to be free; but the children after the flesh, of the earthly Jerusalem, were to be in bondage, and to be cast out, and not to have the inheritance.

TEXT. 21 Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law? 22 For it is written, that Abraham bad two sons; the one by a bond

maid, the other by a free-woman. 23 But he who was of the bond-woman was born after the flesh : but

he of the free-woman was by promise. 24 Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the

one from the Mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is

Agar. 25 For this Agar is Mount Sinai, in Arabia, and answereth to Jerus

salem, which now is, and is in bondage with her children.

PARAPHRASE. 21 Tell me, you that would so fain be under the law, do you

not acquaint yourselves with what is in the law, either by 22 reading“ it, or having it read in your assemblies ? For it is

there written, Abraham had two sons, one by a bond-maid, 23 the other by a free-woman. But he that was of the bond

woman was born according to the flesh, in the ordinary course of nature; but he that was of the free-woman Abra

ham had by virtue of the promise, after he and his wife were 24 past the hopes of another child. These things have an alle

gorical meaning: for the two women are the two covenants,

the one of them delivered from Mount Sinai, and is represented 25 by Agar, who produces her issue into bondage. (For Agar is

Mount Sinai, in Arabia, and answers to Jerusalem, that now

NOTES. 21 • The vulgar has, after some Greek manuscripts, Read. 22 Written there, viz. Gen. xvi. 15, and xxi. 1. The term, Law, in the foregoing

verse, comprehends the five books of Moses.

TEXT. 26 But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all. 27 For it is written, Rejoice, thou barren, that bearest not; break forth

and cry, thou that travailest not: for the desolate hath many more

children than she which hath an husband. 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as, then, he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that

was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless, what saith the Scripture? Cast out the bond-woman

and her son; for the son of the bond-woman shall not be heir with

the son of the free-woman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bond-woman, but of

the free. V. 1. Stand fast, therefore, in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made

us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.

PARAPHRASE. 26 is, and is in bondage with her children.) But the heavenly

Jerusalem, which is above, and answers to Sarah, the mother

of the promised seed, is free, the mother of us all, both Jews 27 and Gentiles who believe. For it was of her, that it is writ

ten', “Rejoice, thou barren, that bearest not; break out into loud acclamations of joy, thou that hast not the travails of

child-birth; for more are the children of the desolate than 28 of her that hath an husband.” And it is we, my brethren, 29 who, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. But as, then,

Ishmael, who was born in the ordinary course of nature",

persecuted Isaac, who was born by an extraordinary power 30 from heaven, working miraculously; so is it now. But what

saith the Scripturee?" Cast out the bond-woman and her son:

for the son of the bond-woman shall not share the inherit31 ance with the son of the free-woman.” So then, brethren,

we, who believe in Christ, are not the children of the bondV. 1. woman, but of the free'. Stand fast, therefore, in the liberty,

wherewith Christ hath made you free, and do not put on again a yoke of bondage, by putting yourselves under the law.

NOTES. 27 Written, viz. Isaiab liv. 1. 29 d'o xalà oápxa yernbeds, “ born after the flesh ;” and tèy xalà avrūmuo, “boro

after the Spirit." These expressions have, in their original brevity, with regard to the whole view, wherein St. Paul uses them, an admirable beauty and force,

which cannot be retained in a paraphrase. 30 Scripture, viz. Gen. xxi. 10. 31 “The apostle, by this allegorical history, shows the Galatians, that they who

are sous of Agar, i.e. under the law giveu at Mount Sinai, are iu boudage, and intended to be cast out, the inheritance being designed for those only, who are the free born sons of God, under the spiritual covenant of the Gospel. And thereupon he exhorts them, in the following words, to preserve themselves in that state of freedom.

SECTION X.

CHAPTER V.2-13.

CONTENTS.

It is evident from verse 11, that, the better to prevail with the Galatians to be circumcised, it had been reported, that St. Paul himself preached up circumcision. St. Paul, without taking express notice of this calumny, chap. i. 6, and ii. 21, gives an account of his past life, in a large train of particulars, which all concur to make such a character of him, as renders it very

incredible, that he should ever declare for the circumcision of the Gentile converts, or for their submission to the law. Having thus prepared the minds of the Galatians to give him a fair hearing, as a fair man, ζηλούσθαι εν καλώ, he goes on to argue against their subjecting themselves to the law. And having established their freedom from the law, by many strong arguments, he comes here at last openly to take notice of the report had been raised of him, [that he preached circumcision] and directly confutes it.

1. By positively denouncing to them, himself, very solemnly, that they, who suffer themselves to be circumcised, put themselves into a perfect legal state, out of the covenant of grace, and could receive no benefit by Jesus Christ, ver. 2–4.

2. By assuring them, that he, and those that followed him, expected justification only by faith, ver. 5, 6.

3. By telling them, that he had put them in the right way, and that this new persuasion came not from him, that converted them to christianity, ver. 7, 8.

4. By insinuating to them, that they should agree to pass judgment on him, that troubled them with this doctrine, ver. 9, 10.

5. By his being persecuted, for opposing the circumcision of the Christians. For this was the great offence, which stuck with the Jews, even after their conversion, ver. 11.

6. By wishing those cut off, that trouble them with this doctrine, ver. 12.

This will, I doubt not, by whoever weighs it, be found a very skilful management of the argumentative part of this epistle, which ends here. For, though he begins with sapping the foundation, on which the Judaizing seducers seemed to have laid their main stress, viz. the report of his preaching circumcision; yet he reserves the direct and open confutation of it to the end, and so leaves it with them, that it may have the more forcible and lasting impression on their minds.

TEXT. 2 Behold, I, Paul, say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall

profit you nothing 3 For I testify, again, to every man that is circumcised, that he is a

debtor to do the whole law. 4 Christ is become of no effect unto you ; whosoever of you are justified

by the law, ye are fallen from grace. 5 For we, through the Spirit, wait for the hope of righteousness by faith. 6 For in Jesus Christ, neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor un

circumcision ; but faith, which worketh by love. 7 Ye did run well: who did hinder you, that ye should not obey the

truth?

PARAPHRASE. 2 Take notice that I, Paula, who am falsely reported to preach up

circumcision in other places, say unto you, that if you are cir3 cumcised, Christ shall be of no advantage to you. For I repeat,

here again, what I have always preached, and solemnly testify to every one, who yields to be circumcised, in compliance with those who say, That now, under the Gospel, he cannot be saved

without it, ihat he is under an obligation to the whole law, and 4 bound to observe and perform every tittle of it. Christ is of no

use to you, who seek justification by the law: whosoever do so, be ye what

ye

will, ye are fallen from the covenant of grace. 5 But I', and 'those, who with me are true Christians, we, who

follow the truth of the Gospel, and the doctrine of the Spirit d

of God, have no other hope of justification, but by faith in 6 Christ. For in the state of the Gospel, under Jesus, the

Messiah, it is neither circumcision nor uncircumcision that is

of any moment; all that is available is faith alone, working by 7 love. When you first entered into the profession of the

Gospel, you were in a good way, and went on well : who has

NOTES. 2 • '18è, fyù laūhos, “ Behold, I Paul," I the same Paul, who am reported

to preach circumcision, noplúpouane do váhov favl &y9púrw, v, 3, witness again, continue my testimony, to every man, to you and all men. This so emphatical way of speaking may very well be understood to have regard to what he takes notice, ver. 11, to be cast upon him, viz. his preaching circumcision, and is a very

significant vindication of himself. 3 v« Cannot be saved." This was the ground, upon which the Jews and Judaizing

Christians urged circumcision. See Acis xv. 1. 5 €“ We.” It is evident, from the context, that St. Paul here means himself.

But We is a more graceful way of speaking than 1; though he be vindicating himself alone from the imputation of setting up circumcision. o “Spirit.” The law and the Gospel opposed, under the titles of Flesh and Spirit,

we may see, chap. iii. 3, of this epistle. The same opposition it stands in here 6 to the law, in the foregoing verse, points out the same signification.

o“Which worketh by love." This is added to express the animosities which were amongst them, probably raised by this question about cireumcision. Sec ver. 11-15.

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