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Tranfactions. And the relation of Leo Africanus, who describes, as an eye witness, the making of tar on Mount Atlas, agrees in substance, with the methods used by the Macedonians of old, and the people of New England at this day.

18. Jonstonus in his Dendrographia, is of opinion, that pitch was anciently made of cedar, as well as of the pine and fir grown old and oily. It should seem indeed that one and the same word was used by the ancients in a large sense, so as to comprehend the juices issuing from all those trees. Tar and all sorts of exsudations from evergreens are, in a general acceptatiơn, included under the name resin. Hard coarse resin or dry pitch is made from tar, by letting it bláze till the moisture is spent. Liquid refin is properly an oily viscid juice oozing from the bark of evergreen trees, either spontaneoully or by incision. It is thought to be the oil of the bark infpiffated by the sun, As,

it issues from the tree it is liquid, but becomes dry · and hard being condensed by the sun or by fire.

19. According to Theophrastus, resin was obtained by stripping off the bark from pines, and by incisions made in the silver for and the pitch pine. The inhabitants of Mount Ida, he tells us, Atripped the trunk of the pine on the sunny side two or three cubits from the ground. He observes that a good pine might be made to yeild resin every year; an indifferent every other year; and the weaker trees once in three years; and that three runnings were as much as a tree could bear, Ic is remarked by the same author, that a pine doch not at once produce fruit and resin, but the former only in its youth, the latter in its old age.

20. Turpentine is a fine resin. Four kinds of this are in use. The turpentine of Chios' or Cy

prus prus which flows from the Turpentine tree; the Venice turpentine which is got by piercing the Larch tree; the Strasburgh Turpentine which Mr. Ray informs us is procured from the knots of the silver fir; it is fragrant and grows yellow with age: The fourth kind is common turpentine neither transparent, nor so liquid as the former; and this Mr. Ray taketh to flow from the mountain pine, All these turpentines are usefull in the same intentions. Theophrastus faith the best resin or turpentine is got from the Terebinthus growing in Syria and some of the Greek islands. The next best from the silver fir and pitch pine.

21. Turpentine is on all hands allowed to have great medicinal virtues. Tar and it's infusion contain those virtues. Tar-water is extremely pectoral and restorative, and if I may judge, from what experience I have had, it posseffeth the most valuable qualities ascribed to the several ballams of Peru, of Tolu, of Capivi, and even to the balm of Gilead ; such is it's virtue in asthmas and pleurisies, in obstructions and ulcerous erosions of the inward parts. Balsams as hath been already observed are apt to offend the stomach. But tar. water may be taken without offending the stomach. For the strengthening whereof it is the best medicine I have ever tried.

22. The folly of man rateth things by their scarceness, but Providence hath made the most useful things most common. Among those liquid oily extracts from trees and shrubs, which are termed balsams, and valued for medicinal virtues, tar may hold it's place as a most valuable balsam, It's fragrancy sheweth, that it is poffefied of active qualities, and it's oiliness, that it is fitted to retain them. This excellent balsam may be pur

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cha fed

.chased for a penny a pound, whereas the balsam of Judæa, when most plenty, was sold on the very ipot that produced it, for double it's weight in filver, if we may credit Pliny; who also informs us that the best balsam of Judæa flowed only from the bark, and that it was adulterated with resin and oil of turpentine. Now comparing the virtues I have experienced in car, with those I find ascribed to the precious balm of Judæa, of Gilead, or of Mecha (as it is diversly called) I am of opinion, that the latter is not a medicine of more value or efficacy than the former.

23. Pliny supposed amber to be a resin, and to distil from some species of pine, which he gathered from it's smell. Nevertheless it's being dug out of the earth shews it to be a foffil, though of a very different kind from other fossils. But thus much is certain, that the medicinal virtues of amber are to be found in the balsamic juices of pines and firs. Particularly the virtues of the most valuable preparation, I mean fale of amber, are in a great degree answered by tar-water, as a detergent, diaphoretic, and diuretic. ...24. There is, as hath been already observed, more or less oil and balsam in all evergreen trees, which retains the acid fpirit, that principle of life and verdure ; the not retaining whereof in fufficient quantity, causeth other plants to droop and wither. Of these evergreen trees productive of resin, pitch, and tar, Pliny enumerates six kinds in Europe; Jonstonus reckons up thrice that number of the pine and fir family. And indeed, their number, their variety, and their likeness makes it difficult to be exact.

25. It is remarked both by Theophrastus and Jonitonus, that trees growing in low and shady places do not yeild so yood tar, as those which


grow in higher and more exposed situations. And Theophrastus further observes, that the inhabitans of mount Ida in Asia, who distinguish the Idæan pine from the maritime, affirm, that the tar flowing from the former is in greater plenty, as well as more fragrant than the other. Hence it should seem, the pines or firs in the mountains of Scotland, might be employed that way, and rendred valaable; even where the timber, by it's remoteness from water-carriage, is of small value. What we call the Scotch fir is falny so called, being in truth a wild forest pine, and (as Mr. Ray informs us) agreeing much with the description of a pine growing on mount Olymphus in Phrygia, probably the only place where it is found out out of these inands; in which of late years it is so much planted and cultivated with so little advantage, while the cedar of Lebanon might perhaps be raised, with little more Erouble, and much more profit and ornament. ? 26. The pines which differ from the firs in the length and disposition of their leaves and hardness of the wood, do not, in Pliny's account, yeild fo much resin as the fir trees. Several species of both are accurately described and delineated by the naturalists. But they all agree fo far as to seem related. Theophrastus gives the preference to that resin which is got from the silver fir and picch tree findon and witus) before that yeilded by the pine, which yet, he faith, is in greater plenty. Pliny, on the contrary, affirms that the pine producech the smallest quantity. It shou'd feem therefore that the interpreter of Theophraftus might have been mistaken, in rendering worn by pinus, as well as Jonstonus, who likewise takes the pine for the worn of Theoprastus. Hardouin will have the pinus of Pliny to have been by others called woxn, but by Theophrastus witus. Ray thinks the common

fir, or picea of the Latins to be the male fir of Theoprastus. This was probably the spruce fir; for the picea, according to Pliny, yields much relin, loves a cold and mountainous Situation, and is diftinguished, consili facilitate, by it's fitness to be fhorn, which agrees with the spruce fir, whereof I have seen close shorn hedges.

27. There seems to have been some confusion in the naming of these trees, as well among the ancients às che moderns, · The ancient Greek and Lacin names are by later authors applied very differently. Pliny himself acknowledgeth, it is not easy even for the skilful to diftinguish the crees by their leaves, and know their sexes and kinds: and that difficulty is fince much encreased, by the discovery of many new species of that evergreen tribe, growing in various parts of the globe. But dercriptions are not so easily; misapplied as names. Theoprastus tells us, that witus differetb from worn, among other things, in that it is neither so tall nor so ftreight, nor hath fo large a leaf. The fir he distinguisheth into male and female: che latter is fofcer cimber than the male it is also a taller and fairer tree, and this is probably the silver fir.

28. To say no more on this obscure business which I leave to the criticks, I shall observe that according to Theophrastus not only the turpentine trees, the pines, and the firs yield resin or car, but also the cedars and palm trees;, and the words pix and resina are taken by Pliny in so large a sense as to include the weepings of the lentiscus and cypress, and the balms of Arabia and Judæa; all which perhaps are near of kin, and in their most useful qualities concur with common tar, especially the Norvegian, which is the most liquid and best for medicinal uses of any that I have experienced, Those trees that grow on mountains, exposed to


ures of as the most hat cfpeciall.

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