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pass the lacteals and other finer vessels, nor yet; perhaps, readily impart those virtues to a menftruum, that may with safety and speed convey them throughout the human body. Upon all which accounts, I believe tar-water will be found to have singular advantages. It is observed that acid spirits prove the stronger, by how much the greater degree of heat is required to raise them. And indeed, there seemeth to be no acid more gentle than this, obtained by the simple affüsion of cold water ; which carries off from the subject the most light and subcile parts, and, if one may fo speak, the very flower of it's specific qualities. And here it is to be noted, that the volatile salt and spirit of vegetables do, by gently stimulating the solids, attenuate the fluids contained in them, and pronote secretions, and that they are pene." trating and active, contrary to the general natureof other acids.
51. It is a great maxim for health, that the juices of the body be kept fluid in a due propora tion. Therefore, the acid volatile. fpiric in tar-' water, at once attenuating and cooling in a moderate degree, must greatly conduce to health, as a mild falutary deobitruent, quickening the circulacion of the Auids without wounding the folids, thereby gently removing or preventing those obftructions, which are the great and general cause of most chronical diseases ; in this manner answer. ing to the antihyfterics, asfa fætida, galbanum, myrrh, amber, and, in general, to all the resins and gums of crees or Thrubs useful in nervous cales.
52. Warm water is it self a deobftruent. Therefore the infusion of tar drunk warm, is easier infinuated into all the nice capillary veftels, and acts, not only by virtue of the balsam, but also by that
of the vħicle. It's taste, it's diuretic quality, it's being so great a cordial, shew the activity of this medicine. And at the same time that it quickens the Nuggish blood of the hysterical, it's balsamic oily nature abates the too rapid motion of the sharp thin blood in thofe, who are hectic, There is a lentour and fmoothness in the blood of healthy Itrong people; on the contrary, there is often an acrimony and solution in that of weakly morbid persons. The fine particles of tar are not only warm and active, they are also balsamic and emolfient, sofrening and enriching the sharp and vapid blood, and healing the eroftons occafioned thereby in the blood vessels and glands.
53. Tar-water poffefseth the stomachic and cardiac qualities of Elixir proprietatis, Stoughton's drops, and many such tinctures and extracts, with this difference, that it worketh it's effect more safely, as it hath nothing of that spirit of wine, which, however mixed and disguised, may yet be well accounted a poison in some degree.
54. Such medicines are supposed to be diapha retic, which being of an active and subtile nature, pass through the whole system, and work their effect in the finest capillaries and perspiratory ducts, which they gently cleanse and open. Tar. water is extremely well fitted to work by such an insensible diaphoresis, by the fineness and activity of it's acid volatile spirit. And surely thofe parts ought to be very fine, which can scour the perfpiratory duets, under the scarf skin or cuticle, if it be true that one grain of sand would cover the mouths of more than a hundred thoufand:
55. Another way wherein tar-water operates, is by urine, than which perhaps none is more fafe and effectual, for cleanging the blood and carrying
off it's falts. But it seems to produce. it's principal effect as an alterative, fure and easy, much fafer than those vehement purgative, emetic, and salivating medicines, which do violence to nature,
56. An abstruction of some vessels cauleth the blood to move more swiftly in other vesels, whicla are not obstructed. Hence manifold disorders. A Jiquor that dilutes and attenuates' resolves the cons cretions which obstruct. Tar-water is such a li' quor,' It may be said, indeed, of common water, that it attenuates, also of mercurial preparations that they attenuatę. But it should be considered that mere water only distends the vessels and thereby weakens their tone ; and that Mercury by it's great momentum may juftly be suspected of hurting the fine capillaries, which two deobftruents therefore might easily overact their parts, and (by lellening che force of the elastic veffels) remotely produce those concretions they are intended to remove.
57. Weak and rigid fibres are looked on by the most able phyGcians, as sources of two different classes of distempers : a sluggish motion of the liquids occasions weak fibres, therefore tar-water is good to strengthen them as it gently accelerates cheir contents. On the other hand, being an unEtuous bland Auid it moistens and softens the dry and stiff fibres : and so proves a remedy for both extremes.
- 58. Common soaps are compositions of lixivial salt and oil. The corrosive acrimony of the faline particles, being softened by the mixture of an unctuous substance they insinuate themselves into che small ducts with less difficulty and danger. The combination of these different substances makes up a very subtile and active medicine, fitsed for mixing with all humours, and
all obstructions. Soap therefore is justly esteemed a most efficacious medicine in many diftem pers. Alcaline soap is allowed to be cleansing, attenuat. ing, opening, resolving, sweetening; it is pectoral, vulnerary, diuretic, and hath other good qualities which are also to be found in tar-water. It is granted, that oyl and acid salts combined together exist in vegetables, and that consequently there are acid foaps as well as alcaline, And the fa ponaceous nature of the acid vegetable spirits, is what renders them so diuretic, sudorific, penetrating, abstersive and resolving. Such, for instance, is the acid fpirit of Guaiacum. And all these fame virtues seem to be in tar-water in a mild and falutary degree.
59. It is the general opinion that all acids coa. gulate the blood. Boerhaave excepts vinegar, which he holds to be a soap, inasmuch as it is found to contain an oyl as well as an acid spirit. Hence it is both unctuous and penetracing, a powerful antiphlogistic, and preservative against corruption and ipfection. Now it feems evident that tar-water is a soap as well as vinegar. For though it be the character of resin, which is an inspiffated grofs oyl, not to dissolve in water (a), yet the sales ate tract some fine particles of effential oyl: which fine gyl serves as a vehicle for the acid salts, and shews itself in the colour of the. tar-water ; for all pure salts are colourless. And though the resin will not diffolve in water, yeţ the subtile oyl, in which the vegetable falts are lodged, may as well mix with water as vinegar doch, which contains both oyl and salt. And as the oyl in tar-water discovers itself to the eye, so the acid falcs do manifest
themselves to the taste. Tar-water therefore is a soap, and as such hath the medicinal qualities of soaps... ser.....
60. It operates more gently as the acid falts lofe their acrimony being sheathed in oyl, and thereby approaching the nature of neutral fairs, are more benign and friendly to the animal fy.' stem: and more effectually, as by the help of a volatile smooth insinuating oyl, those fame salts are more easily introduced into the capillary ducts. Therefore in fevers and epidemical distemper's it is (and I have found it so ) as well as in chroni. cal diseases, a moft safe and efficacious medicine, being good against too great Acidity as a ballamic, and good against viscidity as a soap. There is something in the fiery corrosive nature of lixi.' vial falts, which makes alcaline soap a dangerous remedy in all cases where an inflammation is apprehended. And as inflammations are often occasioned by obstructions, it should seem an acid soap was much the safer deobftruent.
- 61. Even the best curpentines, however famous for their vulnerary and detergent qualities, have yet been observed by their warmth to dispose to inflammatory tumours. But theacid spirit (a) being in fo great proportion in tar-water renders it a cooler and safer medicine. And the ætherial oyl of turpentine, though an admirable dryer, healer, and anodyne, when outwardly applyed to wounds and ulcers, and not less useful in cleansing the urinary passages and healing their ulcerations, yet is known to be of a nature so very relaxing as sometimes to do much mischief. Tar-water is not attended with the fame ill effects, which I believe are owing in a great measure to the ætherial oyls being deprived
a) Sect. 7, 8.