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105. The hardness of stubbed vulgar constitutions, renders them insensible of a thoufand things, that fret and gall those delicate people, who, as if their skin was peeled off, seel to the quick every thing that touches them. The remedy for this exquisite and painsul sensibility is commonly sought from sermented, perhaps from distilled, liquors, which render many lives wretched, that would otherwise have been only ridiculous. The tender nerves, and low spirits of such poor creatures, would be much relieved by the use of Tar-water, which might prolong and cheer their lives. I do therefore recommend to them the use of a cordial, not only fase and innocent, but giving health and spirit as surely as other cordials destroy them. - 106. J do verily think, there is not any other medicine whatsoever, so effectual to restore a crazy constitution, and cheer a dreary mind, or so likely to subvert that gloomy empire of the spleen (a] which tyraniscth over the better sort ( as they are called) of these free nations; and maketh them, in spight of their liberty and property, more wretched staves than even the subjects of absolute power, -who breath clear air in a sunny climate. While men of low degree oftep enjoy a tranquillity and content, that no advantage of birth or fortune can equal. Such, indeed, was the cafe, while the rich alone could afford to be debauched; but when even beggars became debauchees, the case was altered.

107. The public virtue and spirit of the British legislature, never shewed itself more conspicuous jo any act, than in that for suppressing the immoderate use of spirituous liquours among the people, whose strength and numbers constitute £he true wealth of a nation: though evasive arts will, it is seared, prevail so long as distilled spirits of any kind are allowed, the character of English* men in general, being that of Brutus, Quicquid vult, valde vult. But why should such a canker be tolerated in the vitals of a state, under any pretence or in any stupe whatsoever? Better by far* the whole present set of distillers were pensioners of the public, and their trade abolished by law $ since all the benefit thereof put together would not balance the hundredth part of its mischief.

108. To prove the destructive effects of such spirits with regard^joth to the humane species and individuals, we need not go so far as our colonies, or the favage natives of America. Plain proof may be had nearer home. For, albeit these is in every town or district throughout England, some tough dram-drinker, set up as the Devil's decoy, to draw in proselytes; yet the ruined health and morals, and the beggary of such numbers evident* ly shew that we need no other enemy to compleat our destruction, than this cheap luxury at the lower end of the state, and that a nation lighted up at both ends must soon be consumed.

109. It is much to be lamented that our Insu^ lars, who act and think so much for themselves, should yet from groflhess of air and diet, grow stupid or doat sooner than other people, who, by virtue of elastic air, water-drinking, and light food, preserve their faculties to extreme old age; an advantage which may perhaps be approached, if not equalled, even in these regions, by tarwater, temperance, and early hours; the last is a sure addition to lise, not only in regard of time, which, being taken from sleep, the image of death, is added to the waking hours, but also in regard of longevity and duration in vulgar.

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sense. I may fay too, in regard of spirit and vivacity, which, within the fame compass of duration, may truly and properly be affirmed to add to man's. lise: it being manisest, that one man, by a brisker motion of his spirits and succession of Jiis ideas, shall live more in one hour, than another in two: and that the quantity os lise is so be estimated, not merely from the duration, but also from the intenseness of living. Which intense living, or, if I may so soy, lively lise, is not more promoted by early hours as a regimen, than by tar-water as a cordial; which acts, not only as a flow medicine, but hath also an immediate and cheerful (a) effect on the spirits.

iio. It must be owned, the light attracted secreted and detained in tar, (b) and afterwards drawn off in its finest balfamic particles,by the gentle menstruum of cold water, is not a violent and sudden medicine, always to produce its efsect a"t once, {such, by irritating, often do more mischief than good) but a fase and mild alterative, which penetrates the whole system, opens, heals, and strengthens the remote vessels, alters and propels their contents, and enters the minutest capillaries, and cannot therefore, otherwise,' than by degrees and in time work a radical cure of chronic distempers. It gives nevertheless speedy relief in most cases, as 1 have found by my self and many others. I liave been surprised to see persons fallen away and languishing under a bad digestion, after a sew -weeks recover a good stomach,and with it flesh and strength, so as to seem renewed, by the drinking of tar-water. The strength and quantity of this water to be taken by each individual person is best determined from experience. And as for the time

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Of taking, I never knew any evil ensue from ita being continued ever so long; but, on the contrary, many and great advantages, which sometimes would not perhaps begin to sliew themselves till it had been taken two or three months.

in. We learn from Pliny, that in the first serment of new wine or mustum, the ancients were wont to sprinkle it with powdered rosin, which gave it a certain sprightliness,quædam faporis acumina. This was esteemed a great improver of its odour and taste, and was, I doubt not, of its falubrity also. The brown old rosin, that is to fay, harden'd tar, as being more easily pulverized and sifted, was most in request for this purpose. They used likewise to season their wine-vessels with pitch or rosin. And I make no doubt, that if our vintners would contrive to medicate their wines with the fame ingredients, they might improve and preserve them, with less trouble and expence to themselves, and less danger to others. He that would know more particulars of this matter may consult Pliny and Columella. I shall only addi that I doubt not a similar improvement may be made of malt liquor.

i!2. The pVn'v>i of Theophrastus and resina of Pliny are sometimes used in a general sense, to signify all forts of oily viscid exsudations from plants or trees. The crude watery juice, that rileth early in the spring, is gradually ripened and inspissated by the solar heat, becoming in orderly ^succession with the seasons an oil, a balfam, and at -last a resin. And it is observed by chemists, that turpentine-dissolved over a gentle fire, is, by the constant operation of heat, successively transform-, ed into oil, balfam, pitch, and hard friable resin, which will incorporate with oil or rectified spirit, bu: not with water,

; 113. Sir

t13. Sir John Floyer remarks, that we want a method for the use of turpentine, and again, he who (hall hit, faith he, on the pleafantest method of giving turpentine, will do great cures in the gout, stone, catarrhs, dropsies and cold scurvies, rheumatisms, ulcers, and obstructions of the glands. Lastly, he subjoins, that for the use of altering and amending the juices and fibres, it must be given frequently, and in such small quantities at a time, and in so commodious a manner, as will agree best with the stomach (rt), stay longest in the body, and not purge itself off; for large doses (faith he) go through too quick, and besides ofsend the head. Now the insusion of tar or turpentine in cold water seems to supply the very method that was wanted, as it leaves the more unctuous, and gross parts behind (b) which might offend the stomach, intestines and head; and as it may be easily taken, and as often, and in such quantity and such degree of strength, as suits the case of the patient. Nor should it seem, that the fine spirit and volatile oil» obtained by insusion of tar (c) is inserior to that of turpentine, to which it superadds the virtue of wood foot, which is known to be very great with respect <o the head and nerves; and this appears evident from the manner of obtaining tar id). And as the fine volatile parts of tar or turpentine are drawn off by insusion in cold water and easily conveyed throughout the whole system of the human body; so it should seem the fame method may be used with all sorts of balfams or resins whatsoever, as the readiest, easiest, and most inoffensive, as well as in many cases the most effectuaJ way of obtaining and imparting their virtues.

(a) 9. Q) 47. it) 7i 4J, jg. (4 13.

114. After

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