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105. The hardness of stubbed vulgar constitutions, renders them insensible of a thousand things, that fret and gall those delicate people, who, as if their skin was peeled off, feel to the quick every thing that touches them. The remedy for this exquisite and painful sensibility is commonly sought from fermented, perhaps from distilled, liquors, which render many lives wretched, that would otherwise have been only ridiculous. The tender nerves, and low spirits of such poor creatures, would be much relieved by the use of Țar-water, which might prolong and cheer their lives. I do there . fore recommend to them the use of a cordial, not only safe and innocent, but giving health and spirit as surely as other cordials destroy them.

106. Į do verily think, there is not any other medicine whatsoever, fo effectual to restore a crazy constitution, and cheer a dreary mind, or so likely to subyert that gloomy empire of the spleen (a) which tyraniseth over the better fort ( as they are called) of these free nations; and maketh them, in spight of their liberty and property, more wretched Naves than even the subjects of absolute power, who breath clear air in a funny climate. While men of low degree often enjoy a tranquillity and content, that no advantage of birth or fortune can equal. Such, indeed, was the case, while the rich alone could afford to be debauched; but when even beggars became debauchees, the case was altered.

107. The public virtue and spirit of the British legislature, never shewed itself more conspicuous in any act, than in that for fuppresling the immoderate use of spirituous liquours among the people, whose strength and numbers constitute the true wealth of a nation : though evasive arts

fa) 103.

will, it is feared, prevail so long as distilled spirits of any kind are allowed, the character of Englishmen in general, being that of Brutus, Quicquid vult, valde vult. But why should such a canker be tolerated in the vitals of a state, under any pretence or in any shape whatsoever ? Better by far, the whole present set of distillers were penfioners of the public, and their trade abolifhed by law; since all the benefit thereof put together would not balance the hundredth part of its mischief.

108. To prove the destructive effects of such spirits with regard both to the humane species and individuals, we need not go so far as our colonies, or the favage natives of America. Plain proof may be had nearer home. For, albeit there is in every town or district throughout England, some tough dram-drinker, set up as the Devil's decoy, to draw in profelytes; yet the ruined health and morals, and the beggary of such numbers evident. Jy shew that we need no other enemy to compleat our destruction, than this cheap luxury at the lower end of the state, and that a nation lighted up at both ends must soon be consumed.

109. It is much to be lamented that our InfuJars, who act and think so much for themselves, should yet from grossness of air and diet, grow stupid or doat sooner than other people, who, bý virtue of elastic air, water-drinking, and light food, preserve their faculties to extreme old age; an advantage which may perhaps be approached, if not equalled, even in these regions, by tarwater, temperance, and early hours ; the laft is á fure addition to life, not only in regard of time, which, being taken from deep, the image of death, is added to the waking hours, but also in regard of longevity and duration in the vulgat

sense.

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senfe. I may say too, in regard of spirit and vivacity, which, within the fame compass of duration, may truly' and properly be affirmed to add to man's life: it being manifest, that one man, by a brisker moción of his spirits and succession of his ideas, shall live more in one hour, than another in two: and that the quantity of life is to be estimated, not merely from the duration, but also from the intenseness of living. Which intense living, or, if I may so fay, lively life, is not more promoted by early hours as a regimen, than by tar-water as a cordial ; which acts, not only as a now medicine, but hath also an immediate and cheerful (a) effect on the spirits.

110. It must be'owned, the light attracted secreted and detained in tar, (b) and afterwards drawn off in its finest balsamic particles,by the gentle menstruum of cold water, is not a violent and sudden medicine, always to produce its effect at once, (such, by irritating, often do more mischief than good) but a safe and mild alterative, which penetrates the whole system, opens, heals, and strengthens the remote vessels, alters and propels their contents, and enters the minutest capillaries, and cannot therefore, otherwise,' than by degrees and in time work a radical cure of chronic distempers. It gives nevertheless speedy relief in most cases, as I have found by my self 'and many others, 1 have been surprised to see persons fallen away and languishing under a bad digestion, after a few weeks recover a good stomach, and with it flesh and strength, so as to seem renewed, by the drinking of tar-water. The strength and quantity of this water to be taken by each individual person is best determined from experience. And as for the time

(a) 66.

(6) 8, 29, 40.

of

of taking, I never knew any evil ensue from its being continued ever so long; but, on the contrary, many and great advantages, which sometimes would not perhaps begin to sew themselves till it had been taken two or three months.

111. We learn from Pliny, that in the first ferment of new wine or mustum, the ancients were wont to sprinkle it with powdered rosin, which gave it a certain sprightliness, quædam faporis acumina. This was esteemed a great improver of its odour and taste, and was, I doubt not, of its falubrity also. The brown old rosin, that is to say, harden'd tar, as being more easily pulverized and fifted, was most in request for this purpose. They used likewise to seafon their wine-vessels with pitch or rolin.

And I make no doubt, that if our vintners would contrive to medicate their wines with the same ingredients, they might improve and preserve them, with less trouble and expence to themselves, and less danger to others. He that would know more particulars of this matter may confult Pliny and Columella. I shall only add, that I doubt not a similar improvement may be made of malt liquor.

112. The pintívn of Theophrastus and resina of Pliny are sometimes used in a general sense, to signify all sorts of oily viscid exsudations from plants or trees. The crude watery juice, that riTeth early in the spring, is gradually ripened and inspissated by the solar heat, becoming in orderly Tuccellion with the seasons an oil; a balsam, and at dast a resin. And it is observed by chemists, that turpentine diffolved over a gentle fire, is, by the constant operation of heat, successively transform.. ed into oil, balsam, pitch, and hard friable resin, which will incorporate with oil or rectified spirit, but not with water,

113. Sir

113. Sir John Floyer remarks, that we want a method for the use of turpentine, and again, he who shall' hit, faith he, on the pleasantest method of giving turpentine, will do great cures in the gout, stone, catarrhs, dropsies and cold fcurvies, rheus matisms, ulcers, and obstructions of the glands. Lastly, he subjoins, that for the use of altering and amending the juices and fibres, it must be given frequently, and in such small quantities at a time, and in so commodious a manner, as will agree best with the stomach (a), stay longest in the body, and not purge itself off ; for large doses (sạith he) go through too quick, and besides offend the head. Now the infusion of tar or turpentine in cold water seems to fupply the very method that was wanted, as it leaves the more unctuous, and gross parts behind (b) which might offend the stomach, intestines and head; and as it may be easily taken; and as often, and in such quantity and such degree of strength, as suits the case of the patient. Nor should it feem, that the fine spirit and volatile oil, obtained by infusion of tar (c) is inferior to that of turpentine, to which it fuperadds the virtue of wood foot, which is known to be very great with respect to the head and nerves; and this appears evident from the manner of obtaining tar (d). And as the fine volatile parts of tar or tur. pentine are drawn off by infusion in cold water and easily conveyed throughout the whole system of the human body; so it should seem the fame method may be used with all sorts of balsams or resins whatsoever, as the readiest, easiest, and most inoffensive, as well as in many cases the most effectual way of obtaining and imparting their virtues.

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