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which sheweth an acid to abound and diffuse' hlelf throughout the air.

139. By this fame air fire is kindled, the lamp of lise preserved, respiration, digestion, nutrition^ the pulse of the heart and motion of all the muscles seem to be performed. Air therefore is a general agent, not only exerting its own, but calling forth the qualities or powers of all other bodies, by a division, comminution, and agitation of their1 particles, causing them to fly off and become vo* latile and active.

140. Nothing serments, vegetates, or putrefies -without air, which operates with all the virtues of the bodies included in it; that is, of all nature i there being no drug, falutary or poisonous, whose virtues are not breathed into the air. The air there-' fore is an active mass of numberless different principles, the general source of corruption and generation; on one hand dividing, abrading, and carrying off the particles of bodies, that is, corrupt* ing or dissolving them; on the other, producing new ones into being ; destroying and bestowing forms without intermission.

141. The seeds of things seem to lye latent iri the air, ready to appear and produce their kind, whenever they light on a proper matrix. The extremely small seeds of sern, mosses, mushrooms* and some other plants are concealed and wafted about in the air, every part whereof seems replete with seeds of one kind or othen The whole at* mosphere seems alive. There is every where acid to corrode, and seed to engender. Iron will rust* and mold will grow in all places. Virgin earth becomes sertile, crops of new plants ever and anon Ihew themselves; all which demonstrates the air to be a common seminary and receptacle of all vivifying principles. 1

i* 142.

142- Air may also be faid to be the seminary of minerals and metals, as it is of vegetables. Mr. Boyle informs us, that the exhausted ores of tin and iron being exposed to the air become again impregnated with metal, and that ore of alum having lost itYfalt recovers it after the fame manner. And numberless instances there are of falts produced by the air, that vast collection or treasury of active principles, from which all sublunary bodies seem to derive their forms, and on which animals depend for their lise and breath.

143. That there is some latent vivifying spirit dispersed throughout the air common experience sheweth; inasmuch as it is necessary both to vegetables and animals (b) whether terrestrial or aquatic, neither beasts, insects, birds, nor fishes being able to subsist without air. Nor doth all air suffice, there being some quality or ingredient, of which when air is deprived, it becometh unfit to maintain either lise or flame. And this even though the air fliould retain it's elasticity; which, by the bye, is an argument that air doth not act only as an antagonist to the intercostal muscles. It hath both that and many other uses. It gives and preserves a proper tone to the vessels: this elastic fluid promotes all secretions: it's oscillations keep every part in motion: it pervades and actuates the whole animal system, producing great variety of effects, and even opposite in different parts, cooling at the fame time and heating, distending and contracting, coagulating and resolving, giving and taking, sustaining life and impairing it, pressing without and expanding within, abrading some parts, at the fame time insinuating and supplying others, producing various vibrations in the fibres, and fer

(b) 138, 139.

ment merits in the fluids; all which must needs ensue from such a subtile, active, heterogeneous and elastic fluid. 5

144. But there is, as was before observed, some one quality or ingredient in the air, on which lif« more immediately and principally depends. What that is, though Men are not agreed, yet it is agreed it must be the fame thing that supports the vital and the common flame; it being found that when air, by often breathing in it, is become unfit for the one, it will no longer serve for the other. The like is observable in poisonous damps or steams, wherein flame cannot be kindled. As is evident in the Grotto del cane near Naples. And here it 00 curs, to recommend the plunging them into cold -water, as an experiment to be tried on persons affected by breathing a poisonous vapour in old vaults, mines, deep holes or cavities under ground "Which, I am apt to think, might fave the lives of several, by what I have seen practised on a dog convulsed and in all appearance dead, but instantly reviving on being taken out of the abovementioned grotto and thrown into a lake adjacent.

145. Air, the general menstruum and seminary, seemeth to be only an aggregate of the volatile parts of all natural beings, which variously combined and agitated produce many various effects. Small particles in a near and close situation strongly act upon each other, attracting, repelling, vibrating. Hence divers sermentations, and all the variety of meteors, tempests, and concussions both of earth and firmament. Nor is the microcosm less affected thereby. Being pent up in the viscera, vessels, and membranes of the body, by it's falts, sulphurs, and elastic power, it engenders cholics, spasms, hysteric disorders and other maladies.

146. The specific quality of air is taken to be

12 permanent permanent elasticity. Mr. Boyle is exprefly of this opinion. And yet, whether there be any such thing as permanently elastic air may be doubted, there being many things which seem to rob the air of this quality, or at least lessen and suspend it's exertion. The falts and sulphurs, for instance, that float in the air abate much of it's elasticity by their attraction.

147. Upon the whole it is manisest, that air is no distinct element, but a mass or mixture of things the most heterogeneous and even opposite to each other (m)t which become air, by acquiring an elasticity and volatility from the attraction of some active, subtile substance; whether it be called fire, æther, light, or the vital spirit of the world in like manner as the particles of antimony, of themselves not volatile, are carried off in sublimation and rendered volatile, by cohering with the particles of fal ammoniac. But action and reaction being equal, the spring of this æthereal spirit is diminished by being imparted. It's velocity and subtilty are also left from it's being mixed with grosser particles. Hence found moves flower than light, as mud than water.

148. Whether air be only freed and fixed, or generated and destroyed, it is certain that air begins and ceases to exert or shew itself. Much by experiments seems to be generated, not only from animals, fruits, and vegetables, but also from haed bodies. And it is observed by Sir Ifaac Newton, that air produced from hard bodies is most elastic. The transmutation of elements, each into other, hath been anciently held. In Plutarch we find it was the opinion of Heraclitus, that the death of sire was a birth to air, and the death of air a birth to water. This opinion is also maintained by Sir Ifaac Newton. Though it may be questioned, whether what is thought a change be not only a disguise.

149. Fire seems the most elastic and expansive of all bodies. Ic communicates this quality to moist vapours and dry exhalations, when it heats and agitates their parts, cohering closely with them, overcoming their former mutual attraction, and causing them, instead thereof, reciprocally to repel each other and fly asunder, with a force proportionable to that wherewith they had cohered.

150. Therefore in air we may conceive two parts, the one more gross which was raised and carried off from the bodies of this terraqueous mass: the other a fine subtile spirit by means whereof the former is rendered volatile and elastic. Together they compose a medium, whose elasticity is less than that of pure æther, fire, or spirit, in proportion to the quantity of falts, vapours, and heterogeneous particles contained therein. Hence it follows, that there is no such thing as a pure simple elementof air. It follows also, that on the highest mountains air should be more rare than in proportion to the vulgar rule, of the spaces being reciprocally as the pressures: and so in fact it is faid to have been found, by the gentlemen of the French Academy of Sciences.

151. Æther, fire, or spirit being attracted and clogged by heterogeneous particles becometh less active; and the particles cohering with those of æther, become more active than before. Air therefore is a mass of various particles, abraded and sublimated from wet and dry bodies of all forts, cohering with particles of æther; the whole permeated by pure æther, or light, or fire: for these words are used promiscuoufly by ancient philosophers.

152. This

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