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child which could not be brought todrink tar-water as the rest had done'.
3. Several were preserved from taking the smallpox by the use os this liquor: others had it in the mildest manner, and others that they might be able to take the insection, were obliged to intermit drinking the tar-water. I have found it may be drunk with great fasety and success for any length Of time, and this not only before, but also during ishe distemper. The general rule for taking it is, about half a pint night and morning on an empty stomach, which quantity may be varied, according to the case and age of the patient, provided it be always taken on an empty stomach, and about twa hours before or after a meal
4. It seemed probable, that a medicine of such efficacy in a distemper attended with so many purulent ulcers, might be also usesul in other foulnesses of the blood; accordingly I tried it on several persons insected with cutaneous eruptions and ulcers, who were soon relieved, and soon after cured. Encouraged by these successes I ventured ta advise it in the foulest distempers, wherein if proved much more successsul than falivations and wood-drinks had done.
5. Having tried it in a great variety of cases, I found it succeed beyond my hopes in a tedious and painsul ulceration of the bowels, in a consumptive cough and (as appeared by expectorated pus) an ulcer in the lungs; in a pleurisy and perpineumony. And when a person, who for some years had been subject to erysipelatous severs, perceived the usual fore-running symptoms to come on, I advised her to drink tar-water which prevented the erysipelas.
6. I never knew any thing so good for the stomach as tar-water: it cures indigestion and gives
a good t good appetite. It is an excellent medicine in an althma. It imparts a kindly warmth and quick circulation to the juices without heating, and is therefore usesul, not only as a pectoral and balfamic, but also as a powersul and fase deobstruent isl cachectic and hysteric cases. As it is both healing and diuretic, it is very good for the gravel. I believe it to be of great use in a dropsy, having known it cure a very bad anafarca in a person y/hose thirst, though very extraordinary, was in a short time removed by the drinking of tar-water.
7. The usefulness of this medicine in inflammatory cases is evident, from what has been already pbserved (a). And yet some perhaps may suspect that, as the tar itself is sulphureous, tar-water must be of a hot and inflaming nature. But it is to be noted, that all balfams contain and acid spirit, which is in truth a volatile fait. Water is a menstruum that dissolves all forts of silts, and draws them from their subjects. Tar, therefore, being a balfam, it's falutary acid is extracted by water, which yet is incapable of dissolving it's gross resinous parts, whose proper menstruum is spirit of wine. Therefore tar-water, not being impregnated with resin, may be fasely used in inflammatory cases: and in fact it hath been found an admirable sebrisuge, at once the fasest cooler and cordial.
8. The volatile falts seperated by insusion from tar, may be supposed to contain it's specific virtues. Mr. Boyle and other later chemists are agreed, that fixed falts are much the fame in ail bodies. But it is well known that volatile falts do greatly differ, and the easier they are separated from the subject, the more do they possess of i:*s specific qualities. Now the most easy separation is by insusion of tar in cold water, which to smell
ifl) Sect. 5.
ani and fast shewing it self well impregnared, may be presumed to extract and retain the most pure volatile and and active particles of that vegetable balfam.
9. Tar was by the ancients esteemed good against poisons, ulcers, the bites of venomous creatures, also for pthifical, scrophulous, paralytic and asthmatic persons. But the method of rendering it an inoffensive medicine and agreeable to the stomach, by extracting it's virtues in cold water, was unknown to them. The leaves and tender tops of pine and fir are in our times used for diet-drinks, and allowed to be antiscorbutic and diuretic. But the most elaborate juice, falt, and spirit of those evergreens are to be found in tari whose virtues extend not to animals alone, but also to vegetables. Mr. Evelyn in his treatise on Forest trees observes with wonder, that stems of trees, smeared over with tar, are preserved thereby from being hurt by the invenomed teeth of goats and other injuries, while every other thing of an unctuous nature is highly prejudicial to them.
10. It seems that tar and turpentine may be had more or less, from all sorts of pines and firs whatsoever; and that the native spirits and essential falts of those vegetables are the fame in turpentine and common tar. In effect this vulgar tar, which cheapness and plenty may have rendered contemptible, appears to be an excellent balfam, containing the virtues of most other balfams, which it easily imparts to water, and by that means readily and inoffensively insinuates them into the habit of the body.
11. The resinous exfudations of pines and firs are an important branch of the materia medica, and not only usesul in the prescriptions of physicians, but have been also thought otherwise conducive clucive to health. Pliny tells us, that wines in the time of the old Romans were medicated with pitch and refin; and Jonstonus in his Dendrographia observes, that it is wholesome to walk in groves of pine trees, which impregnate the air with balfamic particles. That all turpentines and resins are good for the lungs, against gravel also and obstructions, is no secret. And that the medicinal properties of those drugs are found in tar-water, without heating the blood, or disordering the stomach, is confirmed by experience: and particularly that pthisical and asthmatic persons receive speedy and great relies from the use of it.
12. Balfams, as all unctuous and oily medicines, create a nauseating in the stomach. They cannot therefore be taken in substance, so much or, so long, as to produce all those falutary effects, which, if thoroughly mixed with the blood and juices, they would be capable of producing. It must therefore be a thing of great benefit, to be able tp introduce any requisite quantity of their volatile parts into the finest ducts and capillaries, so as not to ofsend the stomach, but, on the contrary, to comfort and strengthen it in a great degree.
13. According to Pliny, liquid pitch (as he calls it) or tar was obtained by setting fire to billets of old fat pines or sirs. The first running was i;ir, the latter or thicker running was pitch. Theophrastus is more particular: he tells us the Macedonians made huge heaps of the eleven trunks of those trees, wherein the billets were placed erect beside each other. That such heaps or piles ot wood were sometimes a hundred and eighty cubits round, and sixty or even a hundred high: and that having covered them with sods of earth to prevent the flame from bursting forth (in which case the tar was lost) they set on sire those huge
heads heaps of pine or fir, letting the tar and pitch run out in a channel.
14. Pliny faith, it was customary for the ancients, to hold fleeces of wool over the steam of boiling tar, and squeeze the moisture from them, which watery substance was called pisilnum. Ray will have this to be the fame with the piflelæum. of the ancients but Hardouin in his notes on Pliny, thinks the pisselæum to have been produced from the cones of cedars. What use they made of these liquors anciently I Know not: but it may be presumed they were used in medicine, though at present, for ought I can'find, they are pot used at all.
15. From the manner of procuring tar (b) it plainly appears to be a natural production, lodged in the vessels of the tree, whence it is only freed and let lose (not made) by burning. If we may believe Pliny, the first running or tar was called cedrium, and was of such efficacy to preserve from putrefaction, that in Egypt they embalmed dead. bodies with it. And to this he ascribes their mum-' mies continuing uncorrupted for so many ages.
16. Some modern writers inform us that tar flows from the trunks of pines and fits, when they are very old, through incisions made in the bark near the root; that pitch is tar inspissated; and both are the oyl of the tree grown thick and black with age and sun. The trees, like old men, being unable to perspire, and their secretory ducts obstructed, they are, as one may fay, choaked and stuffed with their own juice.
17. The method used by our colonies in America, for making tar and pitch, is in effect the fanie with that of the ancient Macedonians; as appears from the account given in the Philosophical
(a) Sect. 13.