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Egypt. by a young Venetian merchant, of rendering Gedda, “ The reader must not here figure to himself a number Egret.

the port of Mecca, an emporium for all the commerce of complicated and artificial movements; such as those

of India; and even imagined he should be able to make which, within the last century, have reduced war with Proposes to

Ther ab. make Mec- the Europeans abandon the passage to the Indies by us to a science of system and calculation. The Asiatics ca the er, the Cape of Good Hope. With this view, he fitted are unacquainted with the first elements of this conduct. th d uf porium of out some vessels at Suez; and manning them with Their armies are mere mobs, their marches ravages, carrying East Indian

Mamlouks, commanded the bey Hasian to fail with their campaigns-inroads, and their battles bloody frayson Wal. them to Gedda, and seize upon it, while a body of The Itrongelt or the most adventurous party goes in cavalry under Mohammed Bey advanced against the quest of the other, which frequently flies without nia.

Both these commissions were executed accord. king any refittance. If they stand their ground, they ing to his wish, and Ali became quite intoxicated with engage pell-mell, discharge their carbines, break their his success. Nothing but ideas of conquest now occu- spears, and hack each other with their fabres; for they pied his mind, without considering the immense dif- have seldom any cannon, and when they have, they are proportion between his own force and that of the but of little service. A panic frequently diffuses itself Grand Signior. Circumstances, it muit be owned, without cause ; one party flies, the other shouts vicwere at that time very favourable to his schemes. The tory; the vanquished submit to the will of the conqueSheik Daher was in rebellion against the Porte in ror, and the campaign often terminates without a Syria; and the pacha of Damascus had so exasperated battle.

. 113 the people by his extortions, that they were ready for “ Such, in a great measure, were the military opeHis ex pedi-a revolt. Having therefore made the necessary prepa- rations in Syria in the year 1771. The combined ar. Syria. rations, Ali Bey dispatched in 1770 about Mam

500 my of Ali Bey and Sheik Daher marched to Damaf. louks to take postellion of Gaza, and thus secure an The Pachas waited for them; they approachentrance into Paleitine. Osinan the pacha of Damascus, ed, and, on the 6th of June, a decisive action tock however, no sooner heard of the invasion than he prepared place : the Mamlouks and Safadians rushed on me for war with the utmost diligence, while the troops of Turks with such fury, that, terrified at their courage, Ali Bey held themselves in readiness to fly on the first they immediately took to flight, and the Pachas were attack. They were relieved from their embarrassment not the last in endeavouring to make their escape The by Sheik Daher, who haftened to their assistance, while allies became matters of the country, and took poslefOsman fied without even offering to make the least re- fion of the city without opposition, there beug neiliftance; thus leaving the enemy matters of all Palestine ther walls nor soldiers to defend it. The catle alone without striking a ftroke. About the end of February refifted. Its ruined fortifications had not a angle can1771, the grand army of Ali Bey arrived; which, by non, much less gunners ; but it was furrcinded by a

the representations made of it in Europe, was suppo muddy ditch, and behind the ruins were ofted a few Volney's sed to confift of 60,000 men. M. Volney, however, musketeers; and these alone were sufficiet to check account of informs'ùs, that this army was far from containing this army of cavalry. As the besieged, however, were }his army. 60,000 foldiers; though he allows that there might be already conquered by their fears, they apitulated the

two-thirds of that number, who were classed as follows: third day, andthe place was to be surrendred next morn-
1. Five thousand Mamlouks, conftituting the whole ing, when, at day-break, a moft extrardinary revolu-

, .
effective part of the army.
2. Fifteen hundred Arabs

tion took place.”
from Barbary on foot, conftituting the whole infantry This was no less than the defection of Mohimmed Defence
of the army. Besides these, the servants of the Mam- Bey himself, whom Osman had gained over in a con-of Ali Beris
louks, each of whom had two, would constitute a ference during the night. At the moment, thưefore, general.
body of 10,000 men. A number of other servants that the signal of surrender was expected, this teache-
would conftitute a body of about 2000; and the rest rous general founded a retreat, and turned towds E.
of the number would be made up by futlers and other gypt with all his cavalry, flying with as great recipi-
usual attendants on armies. It was commanded by tation as if he had been pursued by a superit army.
Mohammed Bey the friend of Ali. “ But (says our Mohammed continued his march with suchcelerity,
author) as to order and discipline, these mult not be that the report of his arrival in Egypi reacted Cairo
mentioned. The armies of the Turks and Mamlouks only fix hours before him. Thus Ali Bey sund him-
are nothing but a confused multitude of horfemen, self at once deprived of all his expećtaries of con-
without uniforms, on horses of all colours and sizes, quest; and what was worse, found a trait whom he
without either keeping their ranks or observing any durft not punish at the head of his forces A sudden
regular order.” This rabble took the road to Acre, reverse of fortune now took place. Seves vessels laden
leaving wherever they passed sufficient marks of their with corn for Sheik Daher were take by a Russian
rapacity and want of discipline. At Acre a junction privateer ; and Mohammed Bey, whomie designed to
was formed with the troops of Sheik Daher, confift- have put to death, not only made his efpe, but was so
ing of 1500 Safadians (the name of Shaik Daher's well attended, that he could not be atcked. His fol.
subjects, from Safad, a village of Galilee, originally lowers continuing daily to increase in amber, Moham-
under his jurisdiction). These were on horseback, and med foon became fufficiently strong march towards 117
accompanied by 1200 Motualis cavalry under the com- Cairo ; and, in the month of April 772, having de. He is dri
mand of Sheik Nasif, and about 1000 Mogrebian in- feated the troops of Ali iti a rencriter, entered the ven out of
fantry. Thus they proceeded towards Damascus, city sword in hand, while the latt, had scarce time to Cairo, an
while Osman prepared to oppose them by another ar- make his escape with 800 Mamlos. With difficulty cuky gets
my equally numerous and ill regulated : and M. Vol. he was enabled to get to Syriby the assistance of into srika
ney gives the following description of their operations. Sheik Daher, whom he iminately joined with the



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Egypt. troops he had with him. The Turks under Osman poffeffion of, and then marched towards a fortified Egypt.

were at that time befieging Sidon, but raised the siege town named Yafa. The history of this fiege M. Vol. 118 Defears the on the approach of the allied army, consisting of about ney gives as a specimen of the Aliatie manner of conTurks, and 7000 cavalry. Though the Turkish army was at least three ducting operations of that kind.

* Yafa (saya he), he liege of

Account of retrieves times their number, the allies did not hesitate to attack the ancient Joppa, is fituated on a part of the coast, y fa: bis affairs. them, and gained a complete vi&tory. Their affairs the general level of which is very little above the sea. specimen of now began to wear a more favourable aspect ; but the The city is built on an eminence, in the form of a su.the asiatic

meth d of military operations were retarded by the fiege of Yafa, gar loaf, in height about 130 feet perpendicular. The belieging a place which had revolted; and which, though defend- houses, distributed on the declivity, appear rising above ed only by a garden wall, without any ditch, held out each other, like the fteps of an amphitheatre. On the for eight months. In the beginning of 1773 it capi- summit is a small citadel, which commands the town ; tulated, and Ali Bey began to think of returning to the bottom of the hill is surrounded by a wall without Cairo. For this purpose Sheik Daher had promised a rampart, of 12 or 14 feet high, and two or three in

to furnih him with succouis ; and the Ruffians, with thickness. The battlements on the top are the only 119

whom he had now contracted an alliance, made hiin a tokens by which it is distinguished from a common He is ruin

promise of the like kind. Ali, however, ruined every garden wall. This wall, which has no ditch, is envie ed by his own inpa

thing by his own impatience. Deceived by an aftro- poned by gardens, where lemons, oranges, and citrons · tience. loger, who pretended that the auspicious moment when grow in this light foil to a most prodigious fize. The

he was highly favoured by the stars was just arrived, he city was defended by five or fix hundred Safadians and
would needs set out without waiting for the arrival of as many inhabitants, who, at the fight of the enemy,
his allies. He was also farther deceived by a stratagem armed themselves with their sabres and muskets ; they
of Mohammed, who had by force extorted from the had likewise a few brass cannon, 24 pounders, without
friends of Ali Bey letters presling his return to Cairo, carriages; these they mounted as well as they could,
where the people were weary of his ungrateful flave, on timbers prepared in a hurry; and supplying the
and wanted only his presence in order to expel him. place of experience by hatred and courage, they replied
Confiding in these promises, Ali Bey imprudently set to the summons of the enemy with menaces and cannon--
out with his Mamlouks and 1500 Safadians given him shot.
by Daher ; but had no sooner entered the defert which “ Mohammed, finding he must have recourse to
separates Gaza from Egypt, than he was attacked by force, formed his camp before the town ; but was so
a body of 1000 chosen Mamlouks who were lying in little acquainted with the business in which he was en-
wait for his arrival. They were commanded by a gaged, that he advanced within half cannon-shot. The
young Bey, named Mourad; who, being enamoured bullets, which showered upon the tents, apprizing him
of the wife of Ali Bey, had obtained a promise of her of his error, he retreated; and, by making a fresh ex-
from Mohammed, in case he could bring him her periment, was convinced he was still too near. At
husband's head. As soon as Mourad perceived the dust length he discovered the proper distance, and set up his
by which the approach of Ali Bey's army was announ. tent, in which the most extravagant luxury was dif-
ced, he rushed upon him, attacked and took prisoner played: around it, without any order, were pitched
Ali Bey himself, after wounding him in the forehead those of the Mamlouks, while the Barbary Arabs form-
with a sabre. Being conducted to Mohammed Bey, ed huts with the trunks and branches of the orange and
the latter pretended to treat him with extraordinary re. lemon-trees, and the fo lowers of the army arranged
spect, and ordered a magnificent tent to be erected for themselves as they could: a few guards were distribu---
him ; but in three days he was found dead of his ted here and there ; and, without making a single en- -
wounds, as was given out; though fome affirm, per- trenchment, they called themselves encamped.
haps with equal reason, that he was poisoned.

“ Batteries were now to be erected ; and a spot of: A fucceded After the death of Ali Bey, Mohammed Bey took up rising ground was made choice of to the south-east. by Moham-on him the supreme dignity; but this change of masters ward of the town, where, behind some garden walls, miej Bey proved of very little service to the Egyptians. At eight pieces of cannon were pointed, at' 200 paces

first he pretended to be only the defender of the rights from the town; and the firing began, notwithitanding
of the Sultan, remitted the usual tribute to Conftan. the musketry of the enemy, who, from the tops of:
tinople, and took the customary oath of unlimited obe. the terraces, killed several of the

dience ; after which he solicited permiffion to make war " It is evident that a wall only three feet thick, and
upon Sheik Daher, the ally of Ali Bey. The reason without a rampart, muft foon have a large breach in it;:
of this request was a mere personal pique ; and as soon and the question was not how to mount, but how to
as it was granted, he made the most diligent prepara- get through it. The Mamlouks were for doing it on
tions for war. Having procured an extraordinary horseback ; but they were made to comprehend that:
train of artillery, he provided foreign gunners, and this was impossible ; and they consented, for the first
gave the command of them to an Englishman named time, to march on foot. It must have been a curious,

Robinson. He brought from Suez a cannon 16 feet fight to see them, with their huge breeches of thick
dition a.

long, which had for a considerable time remained use. Venetian cloth, embarrassed with their tucked up gainft Sheik less; and at length, in the month of February 1776, beniches, their crooked sabres in hand, and piftols Daher. he appeared in Syria with an army equal in-number to hanging to their fides, advancing and tumbling among

that which he had formerly commanded when in the the ruins of the wall. They imagined that they had service of Ali Bey. Daher's forces, despairing of be conquered every difficulty when this obstacle was fur. ing able to cope with such a formidable armament, mounted ; but the besieged, who formed a better s abandoned Gaza, which Mohammed immediately took judgment, waited till they arrived at the empty space:







121 expe:

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Egypt between the city and wall; where they assailed them a short time, however, they returned and defeated their Egypt.

from the terraces and windows of the houses with such enemies though three times their number ; but not.
a shower of bullets, that the Mamlouks did not so much withstanding this success, it was not in their power
as think of setting them on fire, but retired under a totally to suppress the party. This indeed was owing
persuasion that the breach was utterly impra&icable, entirely to their unskilfulness in the art of war, and
lince it was impossible to enter it on horseback. Morad their operations for some time were very trifling. At
Bey brought them several times back to the charge, lait, a new combination having been formed among
but in vain.

the beys, five of them were sentenced to banishment
“Six weeks passed in this manner; and Moham. in the Delta. They pretended to comply with this
med was distracted with rage, anxiety, and despair. order, but took the road of the desert of the Pyra-
The belieged however, whose numbers were diminish- mids, through which they were pursued for three days
ed by the repeated attacks, became weary of defend- to no purpose. At last they arrived safe at Miniah,
ing alone the cause of Daher. Some persons began a village situated on the Nile, 40 leagues above Cairo.
to treat with the enemy; and it was proposed to aban- Here they took up their residence, and being masters
don the place, on the Egyptians giving hostages. Con of the river, foon reduced Cairo to distress by inter-
ditions were agreed upon, and the treaty might be cepting its provisions. Thus a new expedition became
considered as concluded, when, in the midit of the se necessary, and Ibrahim took the command of it upon
curity occasioned by this belief, foine Mamlouks en himself. In the month of October 1783, he fet

" tered the town; numbers of others followed their ex- out with an army of 3000 cavalry; the two armies The town ample, and atteinpted to plunder. The inhabitants foon came in sight of each other, but Ibrahim thought

taken and defended themselves, and the attack recommenced: proper to terminate the affair by negociation. This
the inhabi.
tants malla- the whole army then rushed into the town, which suf- gave such offence to Morad, who suspected some plot
cred. fered all the horrors of war; women and children, against himself, that he left Cairo. "A war betwixt

young and old men, were all cut to pieces, and Moham- the two rivals was now daily expected, and the armies
med, equally mean and barbarous, caused a pyramid continued for 25 days in light of each other, only fe-
formed of the heads of these unfortunate fufferers to parated by the river. Negociations took place; and the
be raised as a monument of his victory."

five exiled beys, finding themselves abandoned by Mo-
By this disaster the greatest terror and consternation rad, took to fight, but were fpursued and brought
were every where diffused. Sheik Daher himself fled, back to Cairo. Peace seemed now to be re-established;
and Mohammed soon became master of Acre also. but the jealousy of the two rivals producing new in-
Here he behaved with his usual cruelty, and abandoned trigues, Morad was once more obliged to quit Cairo
the city to be plundered by his foldiers. The French in 1784. Forming lis camp, however, directly at
merchants claimed an exemption, and it was procured the gates of the city, he appeared fo terrible to Ibrahim,
with the utmost difficulty: nor was even this likely to that the latter thought proper in his turn to retire to the
be of any consequence; for Mohammed, informed that desert, where he remained till March 1785. A new
the treasures of Ibrahim Kiaya of Daher had been treaty then took place; by which the rivals agreed to
deposited in that place, made an immediate demand share the power between them, though there was cer-
of them, threatening every one of the merchants with tainly very little probability that such a treaty would

death if the treasures were not instantly produced. A be long observed. Since that time we have no acDeath of day was appointed for making the research; but before counts of any remarkable transaction in Egypt; nor Moham

this came, the tyrant himself died of a malignant fever indeed can we reasonably expect any thing of consemed Bey. after two days illness. His death was no sooner known quence in a country where matters are managed, as

than the army made a precipitate retreat, such as has M. Volney expresses himself, by a series of " cabals,
been already mentioned from Damascus. Sheik Da- intrigues, treachery, and murders.”
her continued his rebellion for some time, but was at Of late Egypt has been visited by several travellers,
laft entirely defeated, and his head sent to Conftanti, all of whom have published descriptions of the couna

noplc by Hassan Pacha the Turkish high-admiral. try, its productions, inhabitants, &c. The latest are History of

The death of Mohammed was no sooner known in M. Savary, M. Volney, the baron de Tott, and Mr Egypt from Egypt, than Morad Bey haftened to Cairo in order Bruce; and from the accounts published by those that time to dispute the sovereignty with Ibrahim Bey, who had gentlemen the following geographical description is to the year been entrusted with the government on his departure principally compiled. 1786.

126 from that place for Syria. Preparations for war were This country is still divided into two principal parts, Account of made on both fides; but at laft, both parties finding called the Upper and Lower Egypt. According to M. thecountry. that the conteit must be attended with great difficulty, Savary, the former is only a long narrow valley begin. as well as very uncertain in the event, thought pro- ning at Sienna and terminating at Cairo. It is boundper to come to an accommodation, by which it was ed by two chains of mountains running from north to agreed that Ibrahim should retain the title of Shaik El south, and taking their rise from the latt cataract of Beled, and the power was to be divided between them. the Nile. On reaching the latitude of Cairo they se. But now the beys and others who had been promoted parate to the right and left; the one taking the diby Ali Bey, perceiving their own importance totally rection of mount Colzoum, the orber terminating in anuihilated by this new faction, resolved to shake off forne land-banks tear Alexandria ; the former being the yoke, and therefore united in a league under the composed of high and steep rocks, the latter of sandy title of the House of Ali Biy. They conducted their mat. hillocks over a bed of calcareous stone. Beyond these ters with so much filence and dexterity, that both Mo- mountains are deserts bounded by the Red Sea on the sad ard Ibrahim were obliged to abandon Cairo. In cait, and on the well by other parts of Africa; having N° 110.




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[ 393 )


Egypt in the middle that long plain which, even where widest, ing them by removing the mud deposited by the river Egypt.

is not more than nine leagues over. Here the Nile since the Turks have made themselves maiters of E-
is confined in its course betwixt these insuperable bar- gypt, the country they pass through would be again
riers, and during the time of its inundation overflows fertilized, and the Delta recover a third of its great-
the country all the way to the foot of the mountains; ness."
and Mr Bruce observes that there is a gradual flope Concerning this island, it has been the opinion of a Savary's
from the bed of the river to those mountains on both great many, even from very ancient times, that it was

acco. nt of

the forma-
fides. The baron de Tott says, that the mountains four produced by the mud brought down by the inundacion of the
leagues from the Nile, and facing Cairo, " are only a tions of the Nile ; and this opinion we find adopted in Delta.
ridge of rocks about 40 or 50 feet high, which divide the Itrongest manner by M. Savary. His account of
Egypt from the plains of Libya ; which ridge accom- the supposed rise of the Delta, and indeed of the
panies the course of the river, at a greater or leffer greateft part of Egypt, is to the following purpose.
dittance, and seems as if only intended to serve as a În those early ages where history has not fixed any
bank to the general inundation.”

epoch, a certain people descended from the mountains
Lower Egypt, according to M. Savary, compre- near the cataracts, into the valley overflowed by the
hends all the country between Cairo, the Mediterra. Nile, and which was then an uninhabitable morass
nean, the Isthmus of Suez, and Libya. “ This im- overgrown with reeds and canes. In what manner, or
mense plain (says he) presents on the borders of its from what motive, these people were induced to de-
parching fands a stripe of lands cultivated along the scend from their ancient habitations to such a place, or
canals of the river, and in the middle a triangular island how they found means to penetrate into a morass
to which the Greeks gave the name of Delta;" at the which he expressly tells us was impenetrable, we are not
top of the angle of which the Baron de Tott informs informed, neither is it to our present purpose to in-
us the rocks of Libya and the coasts of Arabia open quire. At that time, however, the sea bathed the
and recede from each other towards the east and west, feet of those mountains where the pyramids are built,
parallel to the Mediterranean. This great extent of and advanced far into Libya. It covered also part
country, from the kingdom of Barca to Gaza, is ei- of the lsthmus of Suez, and every part of what we
ther overflowed by the river, or capable of being fo; now call the Delta formed a great gulph. After
which thus fertilizes in a high degree a tract of coun. many ages the Egyptians, by what means is un.
try seemingly devoted to perpetual barrenness on ac. known, at least not fpecified by our author (though
count of the want of rain and the heat of the cli. they ought to have been so, as the country it seems was

then overflowed not only by the river but by the ocean),
Craft of E. According to the testimonies of both Mr Bruce formed canals to carry off the stagnant waters of the
gypt ex.

and M. Volney, the coast of Egypt is so extremely low, Nile ; opposed strong dykes to its ravages; and, tired tremely that it cannot be discovered at fea till the mariners of dwelling in the caverns of rocks, built towns and cilow.

come within a few leagues of it. In ancient times the ties upon spots elevated either by nature or art. Al-
sailors pretended to know when they approached this ready the river was kept within its bounds, the habi-
country by a kind of black mud brought up by their tations of men were out of the reach of its inundations,
sounding-line from the bottom of the sea : but this and experience had taught the people to foresee and
notion, though as old as the days of Herodotus, has announce them. One of the kings of Egypt under-
been discovered to be a mistake by Mr Bruce ; who took to change the course of the river. After running
found the mud in question to arise while the vessel was 150 leagues between the barriers already mentioned,
opposite to the deserts of Barca. All along the coast meeting with an unsurmountable obstacle to the right,

of Egypt a strong current sets to the eastward. it turned suddenly to the left ; and taking its course
Of the fer-

In former times Egypt was much celebrated for to the southward of Memphis, it spread its waters thro' tility of an-its fertility; and there is great reason to believe, that the sands of Libya. The prince we speak of caused a cient and

were the same pains bestowed upon the cultivation of new bed to be dug for it to the east of Memphis; and

the ground, and the distribution of the waters of the by means of a large dyke obliged it to return between
Nile in a proper manner, the same fertility would fill the mountains, and discharge itself into the gulph
be found to remain. The cause of decrease in the pro- that bathes the rock on which the castle of Cairo is
duce of Egypt we shall describe in the words of M. built. The ancient bed of the river was still to be seen

“ The canals,” says he, speaking of the in the time of Herodotus, and may even be traced at
Delta, “ which used to convey fertility with their wa. this day across the deserts, passing to the westward of
ters, are now filled. The earth no longer watered, the lakes of Natrum. The Arabs still beltow upon it
and continually exposed to the burning ardour of the the name of Bahr Bela ma," or sea without water,” and
sun, is converted into a barren sand. In those places it is now almost choaked up. To the labours of this
where formerly were seen rich fields and flourishing monarch Egypt is indebted for the Delta. A reflux
towns, on the Peluliac, the Tarietic, and the Mende- of the sea was occafioned by the enormous weight of
fian branches, which all strike out from the canal of the waters of the Nile, which precipitated themselves
Damietta, nothing is to be found at this day but a into the bottom of the gulph. Thus the sands and
few miserable hamlets, surrounded by date-trees and mud carried along with them were collected into heaps;
by deserts. These once navigable canals are now no and thus the Delta, at first very incontiderable, rose
more than a vain resemblance of what they were : they out of the sea of which it repelled the liinits. It was
have no communication with the lake Menzall, but a gift of the river, and it has since been defended from
what is merely temporary, on the swelling of the Nile; the attacks of the ocean by raising dykes around it. Five
they are dry the remainder of the year. By deepen, hundred years before the Trojan war, according to He-
Vol. VI. Part I.







[ 394 1

Egypt. rodotus, the Delta was in its infancy; cight cubits of ing up the gulph into which it falls, has placed in the Egypo.

water being then sufficient to overflow it. Strabo tells middle of the land the town of Miletis, formerly a ce.
us, that boats passed over it from one extremity to the lebrated harbour. It is thus that the Tigris and the
other; and that its towns, built upon artificialeminences, Euphrates, let loose from the Armenian hills, and
resembled the islands of the Egean Sea. At the time sweeping with them in their course the sands of Me.
that Herodotus visited this country, 15 cubits were ne- sopotamia, are imperceptibly filling up the Persian
cessary to cover all the Lower Egypt; but the Nile then gulph.”
overflowed the country for the space of two days jour- There are the reasons afligned by M. Savary for Mr Bruet's
ney to the right and left of the island. Under the Roman thinking that the Delta, as well as the greatest part of reasons for
empire, 16 cubits performed the fame effect. When the Lower Egypt, have been produced by the Nile, the con-

the Arabs came to have the dominion, 17 cubits were but this opinion is violently contested by other late 'rary opie
requisite ; and at this day 18 are necessary to pro- travellers, particularly Mr Bruce, who has given a
duce a plentiful crop; but the inundation stops at Cai. pretty long dissertation upon it, as well as many occa-
ro and the neighbouring country, without being ex- fional remarks through the course of his work. He
tended over the Lower Egypt. Sometimes, however, begins with observing, 1. That the country of Egypt
the Nile rises to 22 cubits; and the cause of this phe: is entirely a valley bounded by, rugged mountains;
nomenon is the mud for so many years accumulated whence it might seem natural to imagine that the Nile,
no the island. Here, in the space of 3284 years, we overflowing a country of this kind, would be more
see the Delta elevated 14 cubits. Our author wrote in ready to wash away the soil than to add to it. 2. It is
1777, and informs us that he twice made the tour of observed by Dr Shaw, and the same is confirmed by
the island during the time of the inundation.“ The river our author, that there is a gentle Nope from the middle
(says he) fowed in full streams in the great branches of the valley to the foot of the mountains on each side;
of Rosetta and Damietta, as well as in those which so that the middle, in which is the channel of the Nile,
pass through the interior part of the country; but it is really higher than any other part of the valley.
did not overflow the lands, except in the lo ver parts, Large trenches are cut across the country from the
where the dykes were pierced for the purpose of wa- channel of the river, and at right angles with it, to the
tering the plantations of rice. We must not, how- foot of the mountains. 3. As the river (wells, the ca.
-ever, imagine, as several travellers pretend, that this nals become filled with water, which naturally descerid-
island will continue to rise, and that it will become ing to the foot of the mountains, runs out at the far-
unfruitful. As it owes its increase to the annual ther end, and overflows the adjacent level country.
settling of the mud conveyed thither by the Nile, 4. When the water, having attained the lowest ground,
when it ceases to be overflowed it will no longer in- begins to ftagnate, it does not acquire any motion by
crease in height, for it is demonstrated that culture is reason of the canal's being at right angles with the
pot sufficient to raise land.

channel of the Nile, unless in the case of excellive rains “ It is natural to imagine that the Delta has in- in Ethiopia, when the water by its regurgitation agaiq creased in length as well as in height; and of this we joins the streain. In this case, the motion of the curmay look upon the following fact to be a remarkable rent is communicated to the whole mass of waters, and proof. Under the reign of Plainmiticus, the Mile every thing is fwept away by them into the sea. 5. It

fca11 fians, with 30 vessels, landed at the mouth of the Bulu has been the opinion of several authors, that there was bitine branch of the Nile, now called that of Rosetta, a necessity for measuring the height of the inundation on where they fortified themselves. There they built a account of the quantity of mud brought down annually town calied Metelis, the same as Faoüe, which, in the by the waters, by which the land-marks were so covered, Coptic vocabularies, has preserved the name of Mefil. that the proprietors could not know their own grounds This town, formerly a sea-port, is now nine leagues after the river subsided. But whatever might be the readistant from the fea; all which space the Delta has in- son of this covering of the land-marks in ancient times, it creased in length from the time of Psammiticus to the is certain that the mud left by the Nile could noç be so present. Homer, in his Odyssey, puts the following in the time of Herodotus, or during any period of words in the mouth of Menelaus. • In the stormy sea time assigned by that historian; for he assigns only which washes Egypt, there is an island called Pharos. one foot of increase of soil throughout Egypt in an Its distance from the shore is such, that a veffel with a hundred

years from the mud left by the river : the infair wind may make the passage in a day.' From the crease during one year, therefore, being only the hunway in which he speaks of this island in other places, dredth part of a foot, could not cover any land-mark also, we may suppose that the island of Pharos, in his whatever. Besides, the Egyptian lands are at this day time, was not less than 20 leagues distant from the E. parted by huge blocks of granite, which frequently gyptian coast, though now it forms the port of Alex. have gigantic heads at the ends of them; and these andria ; and this sentiment is confirmed by the most could not, at the rate mentioned by Herodotus, be ancient writers.

covered in feveral thousand years. 6. The Nile does not “ What prodigious changes great rivers occasion on now bring down any great quantity of mud ; and it is the surface of the globe! How they elevate, at their absurd to suppose that it can at present bring down as mouths, ilands which become at length large portions much as it did foon after the creation, or the ages imme. of the continent! It is thus that the Nile has formed diately succeeding the deluge. Throughout Abyffinia, almost all the Lower Egypt, and created out of the according to the testimony of our author, the channel waters the Deita, which is go leagues in circumfe- of every torrent is now worn to the bare rock, and al. rence. It is thus that the Meander, contantly repel. most every rivulet runs in a hard stony bed, all the loose ling the waves of the Mediterrancan, and gradually fill. earth being long ago wa hed away; so that an annual



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