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Diamond. pation of diamonds, or occasioned any degree of fulion. which this subftance defends metals from destruction by Diamoni.

By this heat rubies were softened, and loft fome of fire. He was confirmed in his opinion, by observing
their colour, but preserved their form and weight. By that diamonds were not preserved from the action of
addition of a third lens, a further degree of fusion was fire by surrounding them with powder of chalk and
given to rubies. Even then rubies could not be made of calcined hartshorn, and including them in close vel-
to unite with glass. By having been exposed to this fels, so well as when the charcoal had been employed.
heat, the surface of the rubies which had suffered fu- Some chemists even thought that the perfect exclusion
fion, loft much of their original hardness, and were of air alone was sufficient to preserve diamonds, and
Dearly as soft as crystal. But their internal parts, doubted whether the balls and crucibles of porcelain
which had not been fused, retained their hardness. E- employed by M. D’Arcet had excluded the air with
meralds by this heat were rendered white, or of various sufficient accuracy. Indeed, in one of M. D'Arcet's
colours, and soon afterwards were fused. They were own experiments, a diamond included in a ball of por-
found to have lost part of their weight, and to be ren- celain had refitted the action of fire. In order to al.
dered less hard and brittle.

certain this question, M. Cadet exposed diamonds in
Experiments were also made by order of the empe. covered and luted crucibles to the violent heat of a forge
ror Francis I. on precious stones; from which we find, during two hours ; by which operation the diamonds
that diamonds were entirely diffipated by having been loft only rath part of their weight. He infers, that
exposed in crucibles to a violent fire of a furnace due the destruction of diamonds by fire in open vessels is
ring 24 hours ; while rubies by the same heat were not not a true volatilization ; but merely an exfoliation,
altered in weight, colour, or polith. By exposing dia. caurfed by the fire expanding the air contained between
monds during two hours only at a time, the following the thin plates of which these stones confift, and that
alterations produced on them by fire were observed. by this exfoliation or decrepitation these plates are re-
First, they loit their polith ; then they were split into duced to fo fine a powder as to escape observation.
thin plates; and, laflly, totally diffipated. By the M. D'Arcet objected against the experiments of his
fame fire, emeralds were fused. See Alagafin de Ham- adversaries, that they were not of fufficient duration to
Bourg, lom. xviii.

decide against his, which had lafted several days. He
The action of fire on diamonds has, notwithstanding renewed and multiplied his experiments, which con-
the above mentioned experiments, been lately doubted firmed him in his opinion of the volatilization of dia-
in France ; and the queition has been agitated by feve. monds in vessels perfectly closed; and that this effect
ral eminent chemists with much intereft, and numerous of fire on diamonds is not a mere exfoliation or mecha-
experiments have been made which throw some lightnical feparation of the plates of which these stones
on the subject. M. D'Arcet found, not only that dia. confift, he infers from the parts of the diamonds per-
monds included in porcelain crucibles close, or covered vading the most folid porcelain crucibles without being
with perforated lids, and exposed to the long and in- perceptible, and from the luminous appearance first
tenfe heat of a porcelain furnace, were perfectly diffi- noticed by M. Macquer, and which was afterwards ob-
pated ; but also, that these stones could in a few hours served by M. Roux to be an actual flame.
be totally volatilised with a much inferior degree of Diamonds are found only in the East Indies, and in
heat, by exposing them in a coppel, under the muffte Brasil in South America. The diamond mines are
of an eslay-furnace. In this latter experiment, he ob- found only in the kingdoms of Golconda, Visapour,
ferved that the diffipation was gradual, and that it was Bengal, and the island of Borneo. There are four
effected by a kind of exfoliation. The dissipation of mines, or rather two mines and two rivers, whence
•diamonds exposed in coppels was confirmed by M. Mac- diamonds are drawn. The mines are, 1. That of Raol-
quer ; who further obferved, that the diamonds were, conda, in the province of Carnatica, five days journey
before the dissipation began, reodered, by the fire, from Golconda, and eight from Vilapour. It has been
brilliant and shining, as it were, with a phosphoric discovered about 200 years. 2. That of Gani, or Cou-
light. In order to determine whether the dissipation lour, seven days journey from Golconda eastwardly.
of diamonds was actually effected by their reduction It was discovered 140 years ago by a peasant, who dige
into vapour, or by a combustion or other effect of air ging in the ground found a natural fragınent of 25 ca-
upon them, Meffrs Lavoitier, Macquer, and Cadet, ex- 3. That of Soumelpour, a large town in the
posed diamonds to intense heat in an earthen retort, kingdom of Bengal, near the Diamond-mine. This
during several hours, but without any other effect than is the most ancient of them all : it should rather be
that their polith was destroyed, and about 4th of their called that of Goual, which is the name of the river, in
weight diminished. M. Mitouard put diamonds in a the sand whereof these stones are found. Lastly, the
tobacco-pipe filled with pounded charcoal and accu- fourth mine, or rather the second river, is that of Suc-
rately closed with lute. He further secured the dia- cudan, in the island of Borneo.
monds from accefs of air or flame, by placing the to- Diamond-Mine of Raolconda.- In the neighbour-
bacco-pipe in a crucible, to which another crucible was hood of this mine the earth is fandy, and full of rocks.
inverted and carefully luted. The diamonds, thus fe- and copse. In these rocks are found several little
cluded from external air, having been exposed to the veins of half and sometimes a whole inch broad, out
molt intense heat which could be excited in a well con- of which the miners, with a kind of hooked irons,
fructed furnace, were not thereby altered or diminish- draw the sand or earth wherein the diamonds are ;
ed. M. Mitouard was induced to believe, that the breaking the rocks when the vein terminates, that the
charcoal conduced to the prefervation of diamords not track may be found again, and continued. When a
merely by excluding the air, but by some peculiar pro- {ufficient quantity of earth or fand is drawn forth, they
perty, which he supposes may be the same as that by wash it two or three times, to separate the itunes there.







Diamond. from. The miners work quite naked, except for a round with flones, earth, and fascines, and lading out Diata md.

thin linen cloth before them; and belides this pre- the water, dig about two feet deep: the land thus gut
caution, have likewise inspectors, to prevent their con- is carried into a place walled round on the bank of the
cealing of stones : which, however, maugre all this river. The rest is performed after the same manner
care, they frequently find means to do, by watching op. as at Coulour, and the workmeu are watched with equal
portunities when they are not observed, and swallow. ftriétness.
ing them down.

Diamond-Mine in the island of Borneo, or river of
DIAMOND-Mine of Gani or Coulour. In this mine Succudan.- We are but little acquainted with this
are found a great number of stones from 10 to 40 ca- mine ; the queen who reigns in that part of the isaed
rats, and even more; and it was here that famous dia- not allowing itrangers to have diy conimerce in these
mond of Aureng-Zeb the Great Mogul, which before itunes : though there are very fine ones to be bought
it was cut weighed 793 carats, was found. The at Batavia, brought thither by stealth. They were
ftones of this mine are not very clear ; their water is anciently imagined to be softer than those of the other
usually tinged with the quality of the foil; being black mines; but experience (hows they are in no respect ia.
where that is marihy, red where it partakes of red, ferior to them.
sometimes green and yellow, if the ground happen to Beside these four diamond-mines, there have been
be of those colours. Another defect of some conse- two others discovered ; one of them between Coulour
quence is a kind of greafiress appearing on the dia. and Raolconda, and the other in the province of Car-
mond, when cut, which takes off part of its lustre. natica ; but they were both closed up almost as suon as
-There are usually no less than 60,000 persons; meng discovered : that of Carnatica, because the water of
women, and children, at work in this mine.

the diamonds was always either black or yellow; and
When the miners leave found a place where they in the other, on account of tireir cracking, and flying in
tend to dig, they level another somewhat bigger in the pieces when cut and ground.
neighbourhood ihereof, and inclose it with walls about The diamond, we have already observed, is the
two feet high, only leaving apertures from space to hardest of all precious stones. It can only be cut and
space, to give pallage to the water. After a few fu- ground by itself and its own subitance. To bring it
pertitious ceremonies, and a kind of feast which the to that perfection which zugments its price fo confia
master of the mine makes for the workmen, to encou- derably, they begin by rubbing several againt cach
rage them, every one goes to his business, the men other, while rough ; after having firlt glued them to
digging the earth in the place first discovered, and the the ends of two wooden blocks, thick enough to be
wounen and children carrying it off into the other held in the hand. It is this powder thus rubbed off
walk'd round. They dig 12 or 14 feet deep, and till the stones, and received in a litile box for the purpose,
such time as they find water. Then they cease dig. that ferves to grind and polish the stones

ging; and the water thus found ferves to wash the Diamonds are cut and polished by ineans of a niill,
earth two or three times, after which it is let out at which turns a wheel of foft iron sprinkled over with
an aperture reserved for that end. This earth being diamond-duft mixed with oil of olives. The fame
well washed, and well dried, they fift it in a kind of duit, well ground, and diluted with water and vine-
open fieve, or riddle, much as we do corn in Europe ; gar, is ufesi in the fawing of diamonds; which is
then thrash it, and tift it afresh ; and lastly, search it performed with an irun or brass wire, as fine as a hair.
well with the hands to find the diamonds. "They work Sometimes, in lieu of lawing the diamonds, they cleave
naked as in the mine of Raviconda, and are watched thein, especially if there be any large frivers thereina
after the like manner by inspectors.

But the Europeans are not usually daring or expert en
Diamond-Mine of Soumelpour, or river Goual. - nough to run the risk of cleaving, for fear of breaking.

Souincipour is a large town built all of earth, and co- The fickt water in diamonds ineans the greatest pu-
vered with branches of cacao-trees : the river Goual rity and perfection of their complexion, which ought
runs by the foot the reof, in its passing from the high to be that of the purest water. When diamonds fall
mountains towards the fouth to the Ganges, where it short of this perfection, they are said to be of the few
lofes its name. It is from this river that all our fine cond or thwd water, &c. till the stone



propera diamond points, or sparks, called natural sparks, are ly called a coloured one: for it would be an impropriety brought. They never begin to feek for diamonds in to speak of an imperfectly coloured diamond, or one this river till after the great rains are over, that is, af- that has other defects, 26 a itone of a bad water only. ter the month of December ; and they usually even Mr Boyle has observed, from a person much conwait till the water is grown clear, which is not before versant in diamonds, that some of these gems, in their January. The stafon at hand, cight or ten thousand rough state, were much heavier than others of the same persons, of all ages and sexes, come out of Soumul- biguess, especially if they were cloudy or fvul; and pour and the neighbouring villages. The most expe. Mr. Boyle mentions one that weighed 8 grains, which rienced among them search and examine the fand of being carefully weighed in water, proved to an equal the river, going up it from Soumelpour to the very bulk of that liquor as 2 to 1.

So that, as far as mountain whence it fprings. A great fign that there could be judged by that experiment, a diamond weighs are diamonds in it, is the finding of those stones which not thrice as much as water: and yet, in his table of the Europeans call thunder.ftones. When all the sand specific gravities, that of a diamond is faid to be to of the river, which at that time is very low, has been water as 3400 to 1000; that is, as 3} to 1; and therewell examined, they proceed to take up that where. fore, according to these two accounts, there Mould be in they judge diamonds likely to be found ; which is some diamonds whose specific gravity differs nearly I done after the following manner : They dain the place from that of others. But this is a much greater difa

A 2


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2. Ditto, fine water, rough} 88,21 63,16|3521



Diamond. ference than can be expected in two bodies of the same value, we must multiply the square of double their Diamond.

species ; and indeed, on an accurate trial, does not weight by 2, which will give their true value in pounds.
prove to be the case with diamonds. The Brasil dia- Thus, to find the value of a wrought diamond weigh-
monds differ a little in weight one from another, and ing two carats ; we first find the square of double the
greatly vary from the standard set by Mr Boyle for the weight, viz 4X4=16; then 16X2=32. So that the
specific gravity of this gem in general; two large dia. true value of a wrought diamond of two carats is 321.
monds from that part of the world being carefully On these principles Mr Jefferies has constructed tables
weighed, one was found as 3518, the other as 3521, of the price of diamonds from "I to 100 carats.
the specific gravity of water being reckoned 1000. The greatest diamond ever known in the world is
After this, ten East India diamonds were chosen out one belonging to the king of Portugal, which was
of a large parcel, each as different from the other found in Bratil

. It is still uncut : and Mr Magel.
in shape, colour, &c. as could be found. These lan informs us, that it was of a larger fize; but
being weighed in the same scales and water with the a piece was cleaved or broken off by the ignorant
former, the lighteft proved as 3512, the heaviest as countryman, who chanced to find this great gem, and
3525, still suppofing the water to be 1000.- Mr Elli- tried its hardness by the stroke of a large hammer upon
eot, who made these experiments, has drawn out a table the anvil.
of their several differences, which is done with great This prodigious diamond weighs 1680 carats : and
care and accuracy; and, taking in all the common va- although it is uncut, Mr Romè de l'Ile says, that it is
rieties in diamonds, may serve as a general rule for valued at 224 millions sterling ; which gives the esti.
their mean gravity and differences.

mation of 79,36 or about 80 pounds sterling for each

Specific carat : viz. for the multiplicand of the square of its

In air. In water. gravity whole weight. But even in case of any error of the

press in this valuation, if we employ the general rule

above mentioned, this great gem must be worth at least NO 1. A Brasil diamond, fine?

5,644,800 pounds sterling, which are the product of
water and rough coat $ 92,425 66,16/3518

1680 by two pounds, viz. much above five millions
and a half sterling

The famous diamond which adorns the sceptre of
3. Ditto, fine bright coat 10,025 7,17013511

the Empress of Russia under the eagle at the top of it
4. Ditto, fine bright coat 9,560 6,83013501
5. An Eaft India diamond, }26,485|18,945|3512

weighs 779 carats, and is worth at least 4,854,728
pounds sterling, although it hardly coit 135,417 gui-

This diamond was one of the eyes of a Mala-
6. Ditto, bright yellow 23,33 16,710 3524

barian idol, named Scheringham. · A French grenadier, 7. Ditto, very fine water,

} 20,66|14,8003525 who had deserted from the Indian service, contrived
bright coat

so well as to become one of the priests of that idol,
8. Ditto, very bad water, } 20,38|14,5903519

from which he had the opportunity to steal its eye: he

run away to the English at Trichinapeuty, and thence
9. Ditto, very hard bluish cast


to Madras. A hip-captain bought it for twenty
10. Ditto, very foft

, good}22,615

16,2 3525

thousand rupees : afterwards a Jew gave seventeen or
11. Ditto, a very large red } 25,48018,2303514

eighteen thousand pounds sterling for it: at last a
Greek merchant, named Gregory Suffras, offered it to

sale at Amsterdam in the year 1766: and the late.
12. Ditto, soft, bad water

29,525 21,1403521
13. Ditto, soft, brown coat 26,53518,990 3516 prince Orloff made this acquifition, as he himself told

Mr Magellan in London, for his sovereign the empreis
14. Ditto, very deep green

en}2 25,250118,080352 I


of Russia. Dutens, page 19. and Bomare, page 389. of

his Mineralogy, relate the above anecdote. The figure The mean specific gravity of the Brafil dia

and size of this diamond may be seen in the Britith monds appears to be

3513 Museum in London: it is far from being of a regular. Of the Eaft India diamonds

.3519 form. The mean of both

3517 The diamond of the great Mogul is cut in Rose;
Therefore if any thing is to be concluded as to the weighs 279?carats, and it is worth 380,000 guineas.
specific gravity of the diamond, it is, that it is to wa- This diamond has a small fiaw underneath near the
ter as 3517 to 1000.

bottom: and Tavernier, page 389. who examined it,
For the valuation of diamonds of all weights, Mr valued the carat at 150 French livres. Before this
Jefferies lays down the following rule. He first sup- diamond was cut, it weighed 793 carats, according to
poses the value of a rough diamond to be settled at 21. Rome de l’Ise: but Tavernier, page 339. of his se-
per carat, at a medium; then to find the value of dia- cond volume, says, that it weighed 900 carats before
monds of greater weights, multiply the square of their it was cut. If this is the very same diamond, its loss
weight by 2, and the product is the value required. by being cut was very extraordinary.
E. G. to find the value of a rough diamond of two ca- Another diamond of the king of Portugal, which
rats; 2X2= 4, the square of the weight; which, multi- weighs 215 carats, is extreinely fine, and is worth at
plied by two, gives 81. the true value of a rough dia- least 369,800 guineas.
mond of two carats. For finding the value of manu- The diamond of the grand duke of Tuscany, now
tactured diamonds, he supposes half their weight to be of the emperor of Germany, weighs 139carats; and
lott in ranufacturing them; and therefore, to find their is worth at least 109,520 guineas. Tavernier says,




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Diamond. that this diamond has a little hue of a citron colour; wal. These crystals are of the nature of the Kerry. Diamond,

and he valued it at 135 livres tournoises the carat. ftone of Ireland, but somewhat inferior to it: they are
Robert de Berquen fays, that this diamond was cut usually bright and clear, except towards the root,
into two: that the grand Turk had another of the where they are coarse and foul, or whitith. They are
fame fize : and that there were at Bisnagar two large usually found in the common form of an hexangular
diamonds, one of 250 and another of 140 carats.

column terminated at each end by an hexangular pyra-
This Robert de Berquen was the grandson of Louis mid.
de Berquen, who invented the art of cutting dia- Role-Diamond is one that is quite Aat underneath,

with its upper part cut in divers little faces, usually tri-
The diamond of the king of France, called the angles, the uppermott of which terminate in a point.--
Pitt or Regent, weighs 136} carats : this gem is worth In rose diamonds, the depth of the stone from the base,
at least 208,333 guineas, although it did not cost above to the point must be half the breadth of the diameter
the half of this value.

of the base of the stone. The diameter of the crown
The other diamond of the same monarch, call- must be of the diameter of the base. The perpen-
ed the Sancy, weighs 55 carats : it cost 25,000 gui- dicular, from the base to the crown, must be of the

neas : and Mr Dutens says, that it is worth much above diameter of the stone. The lozenges which appear in
that price.

all circular rose-diamonds, will be equally divided by
Brilliant DIAMOND, is that cut in faces both at top the ribs that form the crown; and the upper angles or
and bottom; and whose table, or principal face at top, facets will terminate in the extreme point of the stone,
is flat. To make a complete square brilliant, if the and the lower in the base or girdle.
rough diamond be not found of a square figure, it must Rough DIAMOND, is the stone as nature produces it
be made fo; and if the work is perfectly executed, the in the mines.
length of the axis will be equal to the side of the square A rough diamond must be chosen uniform, of a good
base of the pyramid.-- Jewellers then form the table shape, transparent, not quite white, and free of Haws
and collet by dividing the block, or length of the axis, and shivers. Black, rugged, dirty, flawey, veiny stones,
into 18 parts. They take fs from the upper part, and and all such as are not fit for cutting, they use to pound
* from the lower. This gives a plane at is distance in a steel mortar made for that purpose; and when pul-
from the girdle for the table ; and a smaller plane at verized, they serve to faw, cut, and polish the rett.
is distance for the collet; the breadth of which will Shivers are occasioned in diamonds by this, That the
be of the breadth of the table. In this itate the stone miners, to get them more easily out of the vein, which
is said to be a complete square table diamond.-The bril- winds between two rocks, break the rocks with huge
liant is an improvement on the table-diamond, and iron levers, which makes, and fills the stone with
was introduced within the last century, according to cracks and shiiers. The ancients had two mistaken:
Mr Jefferies.- To render a brilliant perfect, each cor- notions with regard to the diamond : the first, that it
ner of the above described table-diamond, must be became soft, by steeping it in hot goat's blood; and
Thortened by it's of its original. The corner ribs of the second, that it is malleable, and bears the hammer.
the upper fides must be flattened, or run towards the Experience shows us the contrary; there being nothing,
centre of the table Š less than the sides; the lower part, capable of mollifying the hardness of this stone ; tho”
which terminates in the girdle, must be $ of one side its hardness be not fuch, that it will endure being

of the girdle ; and each corner rib of the under fides struck at pleasure with the hammer.
must be flattened at the top, to answer the above flat- Faditious DIAMONDS. Attempts have been made to
tening at the girdle, and at bottom must be f of each produce artificial diamonds, but with no great fuc-
fide of the collet.

cess. These made in France, called temple diamonds,
The parts of the small work which completes the on account of the temple at Paris, where the best of
brilliant, or the star and skill facets, are of a triangular them are made, fall vaitly Thort of the genuine ones;
figure. Both of these partake equally of the depth of accordingly they are but little valued, though the con.
the upper

fides from the table to the girdle ; and meet sumption thereof is pretty confiderable for the habits
in the middle of each side of the table and girdle, as of the actors on the stage, &c. See Pastes.
. also at the corners. Thus they produce regular lozen- DIAMOND, in the glass-trade, an instrument used for
ges on the four upper sides and corners of the store. fquaring the large plates or pieces; and, among gla-
The triangular facets, on the under fides, joining to ziers, for cutting their glass.
the girdle, must be half as deep again as the above fa- These forts of diamonds are differently fitted up.
cets, to answer to the collet part.—The stone here de- That used for larger pieces, as looking-glasses, &c. is
fcribed is said to be a full-falfianced brilliant.--If the fet in an iron ferril, about two inches long, and a quar. '
tione is thicker than in the proportion here mentioned, ter of an inch in diameter; the cavity of the ferril be-
it is said to be an over-weighted brilliant. If the thick ing filled up with lead, to keep the diamond firm: there
nefs is less than in this proportion, it is called a ,pread. is also a handle of box or ebony fitted to the ferril,
brilliant.— The beauty of brilliant's is diminished from for holding it by.
their being either over-weighted or spread. The true DIAMOND), in heraldry, a term used for expressing
proportion of the axis, or depth of the stone to its fide, the black colonr in the atchievements of peerage.
is as 2 .to 3.- Brilliants are distinguished into square, Guillim does not approve of blazoning the coats of
round, oval

, and drops, from the figure of their respec. peers by precious stones instead of metals and colours ;
tive girdles.

but the English practice allows it. Morgan fays the
Cornish Diamond, a name given by many people to diamond is an emblem of fortitude.
the cryitals found in digging the mines of tin in Corn- DIANA, the goddef of lunting. According to




Cicero, there were three of this name: a daughter of brother Apollo, had some oracles; among which those Diar a Jupiter and Proserpine, who became inotlier of Cupid; of Egypt, Cilicia, and Ephesus, are the most known. a daughter of Jupiter and Litona; and a daughter of


DIANÆ ARBOR, or Arvor LUNÆ, in chemistry, Upis and Glauce. The second is the most celebrated, the beautiful crystallizations of silver, diffolved in aquaand to her all the ancients allude. She was born at fortis, to which some quicksilver is added : and so call. the same birth as Apollo; and the pains which ihe saw ed from their resembling the trunk, branches, leaves, her mother suffer during her labour gave her such an

&c. of a tree. See CHEMISTRY, n° 754. aversion to marriage, that the obtained of her father Diane Fanum, (anc. geag.), a promontory of Bi. to live in perpetual celibacy, and to prelide over the thynia : Now Scutari, a citadel opposite to Conflantitravails of women. To thun the society of men, the nople, on the eart side of the Bosporus Thracius. devoted herself to hunting ; and was always accoinpa- Diane Portus, a port of Corsica, situated between uicd by a number of chofen virgins, who like herself Aluria and Mariana, on the eait fide. abjured the use of marriage. She is represented with DIANDRIA (from dus twice, and are a man), the ? quiver and attended with dogs, and sometimes drawn name of the second class in Lim zus's sexual system, in a chariot by two white ftags. Sometimes the ap- confitting of hermaphrodite plants; which, as the pears with wings, holding a lion in one hand and a name import3, have flowers with two stamina or male panther in the other, with a chariot drawn by two organs. heifers, or two horses of different colours.

She is re- The orders in this class are three, derived from the presented as tall; her face has something manly; her number of it yles or female parts. Molt plants with

Muit legs are bare, well shaped, and Itrong: and her feet are tiro ftainina have one ftyle ; as jelsamine, lilac, privet, covered with a bukin worn by huntresses among the veronica, and bastard alaternus: vernal grass has two ancients. She received many furnames, particularly Ityles ; pepper, three. from the places where her worship was established, and DIANJUM (anc. geog.), a town of the Contestafrom the functions over which the pretided. She was ni, in the Hither Spain; famous for a temple of Diana, called Lucina, Ilythia, or Juro Pronuba, when invoked whence the name : Now Denia, a small town of Valen. by women in childbed ; and Trivia when worshipped cia, on the Mediterranean. Alio a promontory near in the cross-ways, where her statues were generally Dianium: Now El Cabo Martin, four leagues from De. erected. She was supposed to be the same as the moon nia, running out into the Mediterranean. and Proserpine or Hecate, and from that circumstance DIANTHERA, in botany: A genus of the monoshe was called Trijurmis; and some of her ftatues repre. gynia order, belonging to the diandria class of plants ; sented her with three heads, that of a horse, a dog, and in the natural method ranking under the 40th orand a boar. Her power and functions under these three der, Personala. The corolla is ringent; the capsule characters have been beautifully exprefied in these two bilocular, parting with a spring at the heel; the itaveries :

mina each furniihed with two antheræ placed alterTerret, luftrat, agit, Proferpina, Luna, Dizna,

nately.-- There is only one species, à native of Vire Ima, supremu, ferus, fceptro, fulgore, fagitta.

ginia and other parts of North America. It is a She was also called Agrotera, Orithia, Taurica, Delia, low herbaceous plant, with a perennial root, sending Cynthia, Aricia, &c. She was supposed to be the same out upriglt ítalks a foot high, garnished with long as the lfis of the Egyptians, whose worship was intro. narrow leaves of an aromatic odour, ftanding close to duced into Greece with that of Osiris under the name the Italks. From the side of the Italks the footitalks of Apdo. When Typhon waged war against the of the flowers are produced, suitaining small spikes of gods, Diana metamorphosed herself into a cat to avoid Aowers. - This plant is very difficult to be preserved in his fury. She is generally known, in the figures that Britain ; for though it is hardy enough to live in the represent her, by the crescent on her head, by the dogs open air, it is very subject to ro: in winter. It may which attend her, and by her hunting habit. The be propagated by feeds lown on a gentle hot-bed; and most famous of her temples was that of Ephesus, which in the winter the plants must be kept in a dry Itove. was one of the seven wonders of the world: (See EPHE- DIANTHUS, CLOVE-GILLIFLOWER, CARNATION, SUS). She was there represented with a great number PINK, SWEET. William, &c.: A genus of the digynia of breasts, and other symbols which fignified the earth order, belonging to the decandria class of plants; and or Cybele. Though the was the patronefs of chastity, in the natural method ranking under the 22d order, yet she forgot her dignity to enjoy the company of Caryophyllei. The calyx is cylindrical and monophylEndymion, and the very familiar favours which she lous, with four scales at the bale. There are five pe. granied to Pan and Orion are well known : (See En- tals, with narrow heels ; the capsule is cylindrical and DYMION, PAN, ORION). The inhabitants of Taurica unilucular. There are a great number of species; but were particularly attached to the worship of this god. not more than four that have any confiderable beauty dess, and they cruelly offered on her altar all the as garden-foters, each of which furnithes some beau. strangers that were lipwrecked on their coalts. Her tiful varieties. 1. The caryophyllus, or clove.gilliflower, temple in Aricia was ferved by a priest who had always including all the varieties of carnation. It rises with murdered his predecessor ; and the Lacedemonians many fhort trailing theots from the root, garnished yearly offered her human victims till the age of Lycur. with long, very narrow, evergreen leaves; and amidit gus, who changed this barbarous custom for the sacri- them upright llender flower-Italks, from one to three fice of flagellation. The Athenians generally offered feet high, emitting many tide-shoots; all of which, as her goats; and others a white kid, and sometimes a well as the main stalk, are terminated by large foliboar pig or an ox. Among plants, the poppy and tary flowers, having short oval scales to the calyx, and the ditany were facred to her. She, as well as hier crenated petals. The varicuies of this are very nume.



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