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In air. In water.


2. Ditto, fine water, rough } 88,21 63,163521


Diamond. ference than can be expected in two bodies of the same value, we must multiply the square of double their Diamond.

fpecies ; and indeed, on an'accurate trial, does not weight by 2, which will give their true value in pounds.
prove to be the case with diamonds. The Brasil dia- Thus, to find the value of a wrought diamond weigh-
monds differ a little in weight one from another, and ing two carats ; we first find the square of double the
greatly vary from the standard set by Mr Boyle for the weight, viz 4X4=16; then 16x2= 32. So that the
specific gravity of this gem in general; two large dia. true value of a wrought diamond of two carats is 32 1.
monds from that part of the world being carefully On these principles Mr Jefferies has constructed tables
weighed, one was found as 3518, the other as 3521, of the price of diamonds from 1 to 100 carats.
the specific gravity of water being reckoned 1000. The greatest diamond ever known in the world is
After this, ten East India diamonds were chosen out one belonging to the king of Portugal, which was
of a large parcel, each as different from the other found in Brasil. It is still uncut : and Mr Magel.
in fhape, colour, &c. as could be found. These lan informs us, that it was of a larger size; but
being weighed in the same scales and water with the a piece was cleaved or broken off by the ignorant
former, the lightest proved as 3512, the heaviest as countryman, who chanced to find this great gem, and
3525, still suppofing the water to be 1000.- Mr Elli- tried its hardness by the Iroke of a large hammer upon
eot, who

made these experiments, has drawn out a table the anvil.
of their several differences, which is done with great This prodigious diamond weighs 1680 carats : and
care and accuracy; and, taking in all the common va- although it is uncut, Mr Romè de l'Ille fays, that it is
rieties in diamonds, may ferve as a general rule for valued at 224 millions sterling ; which gives the esti.
their mean gravity and differences.

mation of 79,36 or about 80 pounds sterling for each Specific carat : viz. for the multiplicand of the square of its

gravity whole weight. But even in case of any error of the Water

press in this valuation, if we employ the general rule

Greins. Grains. NO 1. A Brasil diamond, fine?

above mentioned, this great gem must be worth at least
water and rough coat $ 92,425 66,163518 5,644,800 pounds sterling, which are the product of

1680 by two pounds, viz. much above five millions
and a half iterling

The famous diamond which adorns the sceptre of
3. Ditto, fine bright coat 10,025 7,17013511

the Emprefs of Ruflia under the eagle at the top of it
4. Ditto, fine bright coat 9,560 6,83013501
5. An Eaft India diamond, } 26,485|18,945|35 12

weighs 779 carats, and is worth at least 4,854,728

pounds sterling, although it hardly coft 135,417 gui6. Ditto, bright yellow

This diamond was one of the eyes of a Mala23,33 16,710 3524

barian idol, named Scheringham. A French grenadier, 7. Ditto, very fine water,} 20,66|14,800|3525

who had deserted from the Indian service, contrived

so well as to become one of the priests of that idol,
8. Ditto, very bad water,
honeycomb coat -

} 20,38 14,590 3519 from which he had the opportunity to lteal its eye: he
9. Ditto, very hard bluish cast 22,5

16,1 3515

run away to the English at Trichinapeuty, and thence

to Madras. A hip-captain bought it for twenty
10. Ditto, very foft
, good } 22,615 16,2 3525

thousand rupees : afterwards a Jew gave seventeen or

eighteen thousand pounds sterling for it: at lait a 11. Ditto, a very large red}25,480 18,2303514

Greek merchant, named Gregory Suffras, offertd it to

fale at Amsterdam in the year 1766: and the late
12. Ditto, soft, bad water 29,525 21,14013521
13. Ditto, soft, brown coat 26,53518,990 3516 prince Orloff made this acquifition, as he himself told

Mr Magellan in London, for his sovereign the empreis
14. Ditto, very deep green
} 25,250 18,080 3521 of Russia. Dutens, page 19. and Bomare, page 389. of

his Mineralogy, relate the above anecdote. The figure The mean specific gravity of the Brasil dia

and size of this diamond may be seen in the Britith monds appears to be

3513 Museum in London : it is far from being of a regular. Of the East India diamonds

.3519 form. Tlie mean of both


The diamond of the great Mogul is cut in Rose; Therefore if any thing is to be concluded as to the weighs 279 1. carats, and it is worth 380,000 guineas. Specitic gravity of the diamond, it is, that it is to wa- This diamond has a small fiaw underneath near the ter as 3517 to 1000.

bottom: and Tavernier, page 389. who examined it, For the valuation of diamonds of all weights, Mr valued the carat at 150 French livres. Before this Jefferies lays down the following rule. He first sup- diamond was cut, it weighed 793} carats, according to poles the value of a rough diamond to be settled at 21. Romé de l'Ile : but Tavernier, page 339. of his seper carat, at a medium; then to find the value of dia- cond volume, says, that it weighed 900 carats before monds of greater weights, multiply the square of their it was cut. If this is the very same diamond, its loss weight by 2, and the product is the value required. by being cut was very extraordinary, E. G. to find the value of a rough diamond of two ca- Another diamond of the king of Portugal, which rats; 2X2 = 4, the square of the weight; which, multi- weighs 215 carats, is extremely fine, and is worth at plied by two, gives 81. the true value of a rough dia- least 369,800 guineas. mond of two carats. For finding the value of manu- The diamond of the grand duke of Tuscany, now factured diamonds, he supposes half their weight to be of the emperor of Germany, weighs 139 carats; and lott in nuanufacturing them; and therefore, to tind their is worth at least 109,520 guineas. Tavernier says,


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Diamond. that this diamond has a little hue of a citron colour ; wal. Thefe crystals are of the nature of the Kerry- Diamond,

and he valued it at 135 livres tournoises the carat. ftone of Ireland, but fomewhat inferior to it: they are
Robert de Berquen says, that this diamond was cut usually bright and clear, except towards the root,
into two: that the grand Turk had another of the where they are coarse and foul, or whitish. They are
same fize: and that there were at Bisnagar two large usually found in the common form of an hexangular
diamonds, one of 250 and another of 140 carats.

column terminated at each end by an hexangular pyra-
This Robert de Berquen was the grandson of Louis mid.
de Berquen, who invented the art of cutting dia- Rose-DIAMOND is one that is quite Aat underneath,

with its upper part cut in divers little faces, usually tri-
The diamond of the king of France, called the angles, the uppermost of which terminate in a point.--
Pitt or Regent, weighs 1361 carats : this gem is worth In rose diamonds, the depth of the stone from the base,
at lealt 208,333 guineas, although it did not cost above to the point must be half the breadth of the diameter
the half of this value.

of the base of the stone. The diameter of the crown
The other diamond of the same monarch, call- must be of the diameter of the base. The perpen-
ed the Sancy, weighs 55 carats : it cost 25,000 gui- dicular, from the base to the crown, must be of the
neas : and Mr Dutens says, that it is worth much above diameter of the stone. The lozenges which appear in
that price.

all circular rose-diamonds, will be equally divided by
Brilliant Diamond, is that cut in faces both at top the ribs that form the crown; and the upper angles or
and bottom; and whose table, or principal face at top, facets will terminate in the extreme point of the stone,
is flat. To make a coniplete square brilliant, if the and the lower in the base or girdle.
rough diamond be not found of a square figure, it must Rough DIAMOND, is the stone as nature produces it
be made so; and if the work is perfectly executed, the in the mines.
length of the axis will be equal to the fide of the square A rough diamond must be chofen uniform, of a good
base of the pyramid. --- Jewellers then form the table shape, transparent, not quite white, and free of Haws
and collet by dividing the block, or length of the axis, and shivers. Black, rugged, dirty, flawey, veiny itones,
into 18 parts. They take vs from the upper part, and and all such as are not fit for cutting, they use to pound
is from the lower. This gives a plane at i distance in a steel mortar made for that purpose; and when pul-
from the girdle for the table ; and a smaller plane at verized, they serve to saw, cut, and polish the reit.
if distance for the collat; the breadth of which will Shivers are occasioned in diamonds by this, That the
be of the breadth of the table. In this itate the stone miners, to get them more easily out of the vein, which
is said to be a complete Square table diamond.---The bril- winds between two rocks, break the rocks with huge
liant is an improvement on the table-diamond, and iron levers, which shakes, and fills the stone with
was introduced within the last century, according to cracks and shiiers. The ancients had two mistaken
Mr Jefferies.-To render a brilliant perfect, cach cor- notions with regard to the diamond : the first, that it
ner of the above described table-diamond, must be became soft, by steeping it in hot goat's blood ; and
Hortened by it's of its original. The corner ribs of the second, that it is malleable, and bears the hammer,
the upper fides must be flattened, or run towards the Experience hows us the contrary; there being nothing,
centre of the table ; less than the fides; the lower part, capable of mollifying the hardness of this stone ; tho"
which terminates in the girdle, must be of one side its hardness be not such, that it will endure being.
of the girdle ; and each corner rib of the under fides struck at pleasure with the hammer.
must be flattened at the top, to answer the above flat- Factitious DIAMONDS. Attempts have been made to
tening at the girdle, and at bottom must be of each produce artificial diamonds, but with no great fuc-
fide of the collet.

cefs.-Thefe made in France, called temple diamonds,
The parts of the small work which completes the on account of the temple at Paris, where the best of
brilliant, or the star and skill facets, are of a triangular them are made, fall vartly short of the genuine ones;
figure. Both of these partake equally of the depth of accordingly they are but little valued, though the con-
the upper fides from the table to the girdle ; and meet fumption thereof is pretty confiderable for the habits
in the middle of each side of the table and girdle, as of the actors on the stage, &c. See PASTES,
also at the corners. Thus they produce regular lozen- DIAMOND, in the glass-trade, an instrument used for :
ges on the four upper sides and corners of the store. fquaring the large plates or pieces; and, among gla-
The triangular facets, on the under sides, joining to ziers, for cutting their glass.
the girdle, must be half as deep again as the above fa-

These forts of diamonds are differently fitted up.
cets, to answer to the collet part.—The stone here de- That used for lar ve pieces, as looking-glases, &c. is
scribed is said to be a full-substanced brilliant. If the set in an iron ferril

, about two inches long, and a quar-
itone is thicker than in the proportion here mentioned, ter of an inch in diameter; the cavity of the ferril be-
it is said to be an over-weighted brilliant. - If the thick ing filled up with lead, to keep the diamond firm: there
ness is less than in this proportion, it is called a spread. is also a handle of box or Ebony fitted to the ferril,
brilliant.—The beauty of brillianes is diminished from for holding it by.
their being either over-weighted or spread. The true

DIAMOND, in heraldry, a term ufed for expreffing
proportion of the axis, or depth of the stone to its fide, the black colour in the atchievements of peerage.
is as 2 to 3.- Prilliants are diftinguithed into square, Guillim does not approve of blazoning the coats of
round, oval, and drups, from the figure of their respec. peers by precious stones initead of metals and colours ;
tive girdles.

but the English practice allows it. Morgan fays the
Cornis Diamond, a name given by many people to diamond is an emblern of fortitude.
the cryitais found in digging the mines of tin in Corn- DIANA, the goddess of hunting. According to


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Diana. Cicero, there were three of this name: a daughter of brother Apollo, had some oracles; among which those Diar a

Jupiter and Proferpine, who becanie inother of Cupid; of Egypt, Cilicia, and Ephesus, are the most known.
a daughter of Jupiter and Litona; and a daughter of DIANÆ ARBOR, or ARBOR LUNE, in chemiídıy,

Upis and Glauce. The second is the most celebrated, the beautilul cryftallizations of silver, diffolved in aqua-
and to her all the ancients allude. She was born at fortis, to wbich some quicksilver is added : and so call.
the same birth as Apollo; and the pains which ihe saw ed from their resembling the trunk, branches, leaves,
her mother suffer during her labour gave her such an &c. of a tree. See CHEMISTRY, n° 754.
averfion to inarriage, that the obtained of her father Dianz Fanum, (anc. geog.), a promontory of Bi-
to live in perpetual celibacy, and to pretide over the thynia: Now Scutari, a citadel opposite to Conflantia
travails of women. To thun the society of men, the nople, on the eart lide of the Bosporus Thracius.
devoted herfelf to hunting ; and was always accoinpa- DiANE Portus, a port of Cortica, situated between
uicd by a number of chofen virgins, who like herself Aleria and Mariana, on the east fide.
abjured the use of marriage. She is reprefented with DIANDRIA (from dis twice, and arop a mand, the
? quiver and attended with dogs, and sometimes drawn name of the second class in Limzus's fexual system,
in a chariot by two white ftags. Sometimes the ap- consisting of hermaphrodite plants; which, as the
pears with sings, holding a lion in one hand and a name imports, have flowers with two ftamina or malc
panther in the other, with a chariot drawn by two organs.
heifers, or two horses of different colours. She is re- The orders in this class are three, derived from the
presented as tall; her face has something manly; her number of Ityles or female parts. Molt plants with
legs are bare, well shaped, and strong: and her feet are tiro ftainina have one tyle; as jelsamine, lilac, privet,
covered with a bukin worn by huntresses among the veronica, and bastard alaternus : vernal grass has two
ancients. She received many surnames, particularly tyles ; pepper, three.
from the places where her worship was establithed, and DIANJUM (anc. geog.), a town of the Contesta-
from the functions over which the pretided. She was ni, in the Hither Spain; famous for a temple of Diana,
called Lucina, Ilythia, or Juro Pronuba, when invoked whence the name : Now Denia, a small town of Valen:
by women in childbed; and Triria when worshipped cia, on the Mediterranean. Also a promontory near
in the cross-ways, where her itatues were generally Dianian: Now El Cabo Marlin, four leagues from De.
crected. She was supposed to be the same as the moon nia, running out into the Mediterranean.
and Proferpine or Hecate, and from that circumstance DIANTHERA, in botany. A genus of the mono-
the was called Trijurmis; and some of her ftatues repre- gynia order, belonging to the diandria class of plants ;
sented her with three heads, that of a horse, a dog, and in the natural method ranking under the 40th or-
and a boar. Her power and functions under these three der, Personala. The corolla is ringent; the capsule
characters have been beautifully exprefied in these two bilocular, parting with a spring at the heel; the ita-
verses :

mina cach furnished with two antheræ placed alterTerret, luftrat, agit, Proferpina, Luna, Diana,

nately:-- There is only one species, à native of VirIma,fuprema, ferv. foeftro, fulgore, fagitti.

ginia and other parts of North America.

It is a She was also called Agrotera, Orilhia, Taurica, Delia, low herbaceous plant, with a perennial root, sending Cynthia, Aricia, &c. She was supposed to be the same out uprighit ilaiks a foot high, garnithed with long as the lfis of the Egyptians, whose worhip was intro. narrow leaves of an aromatic odour, ftanding close to duced into Greece with that of Ofris under the name the ftaiky. From the tide of the Italks the footitalks of Apdo. When Typhon waged war against the of the flowers are produced, suitaining small spikes of gods, Diana metamorphosed herself into a cat to avoid fowers. - This plant is very difficult to be preserved in his fury. She is generally known, in the figures that Britain ; for though it is hardy enough to live in the represent her, by the crescent on her head, by the dogs open air, it is very subject to ro: in winter. It may which attend her, and by her hunting habit. The be propagated by feeds fown on a gentle hot-bed; and most famous of her temples was that of Ephesus, which in the winter the plants must be kept in a dry Itove. was one of the seven wonders of the world: (See Ephe- DIANTHUS, CLOVE-GILLIFLOWER, CARNATION, sus). She was there represented with a great number PINK, SWEETWILLIAM, &c.; A genus of the digynia of breasts, and other fymbols which fignified the earth order, belonging to the decandria class of plants; and or Cybele. Though she was the patronefs of chastity, in the natural method ranking under the 22d order, yet the forgot her dignity to enjoy the conpany of Caryophyllei. The calyx is cylindrical and monophylEndymion, and the very familiar favours which she lous, with four scales at the bale. There are five pe. granted to Pan and Orion are well known : (See En- tals, with narrow heels ; the capsule is cylindrical and DYMION,

Pan, Orion). The inhabitants of Taurica unilocular.— There are a great number of species; but were particularly attached to the worship of this god. not more than four that have any confiderable beauty dess, and they cruelly offered on her altar all the as garden-Nowers, each of which furnithes some beau. strangers that were Mipwrecked on their coatts. Her tiful varieties. 1. The caryophyllus, or clove.gilliflower, temple in Aricia was served by a priest who had always including all the varieties of carnation. It rifes with murdered his predecessor ; and the Lacedemonians many fort trailing fheots from the root, garnithad yearly offered her human vićtiins till the age of Lycure with long, very narrow, evergreen leaves ; and amidit gus, who changed this barbarous cultom for the sacri- them upright slender flower-italks, from one to three fice of flagellation. The Athenians generally offered feet high, emitting many fide-shoots; all of which, as her goats; and others a white kid, and sometimes a well as the main talk, are terminated by large foliboar pig or an ox. Among plants, the poppy and tary Bowers, having short oval scales to the calyx, and the ditany were sacred to her. She, as well as her crenated petals. The varicues of this are very nume.



Dianthus. rous, and unlimited in the diversity of flowers. 2. The be so well advanced in growth as to require more room; Dianthus,

deltoides, or common pink, rises with numerous short and should then have their final transplantation into
leafy shoots crowning the root, in a tufted head close to other three feet wide beds of good earth, in rowsginches
the ground, clofely garnished with imall narrow leaves; asunder, where they are to be placed in the order of
and from the ends of the shoots many erect flower. quincunx. Here they are to remain all winter, until
ftalks, from about fix to 15 inches high, terminated they flower, and have obtained an increase of the ap-
by folitary flowers of different colours, fingle and proved varieties of doubles by layers; and until this
double, and sometimes finely variegated. This species period, all the culture they require is, that if the win-
is perennial, as all the varieties of it commonly culti- ter thould prove very severe, an occasional shelter of
vated also are. 3. The Chinenfis, Chinese, or Indian mats will be of advantage. In fpring, the ground must
pink, is an annual plant with upright firm flower-stalks, be loosened with a hoe; they must be kept clear from
branching erect on every side, a fout or 15 inches high, weeds; and when the flower-stalks advance, they are to
having all the branches terminated by folitary flowers be tied up to sticks, especially all those that promise by
of different colours and variegations, appearing from their large flower-pods to be doubles.
July to November. 4. The barbatus, or bearded dian- The only certain method of propagating the double
thus, commonly called. Sweet-willen. This rises with varieties is by layers. The proper parts for layers are
many thick leafy shoots, crowning the root in a cluster those leafy thoots arising near the crown of the root,
close to the ground; garnished with spear-shaped ever- which, when about five, fix, or eight inches long, are
green leaves, from half an inch to two inches broad. of a proper degree of growth for layers. The general
The items are upright and firm, branching erect two sealon for this work is June, July, and the beginning
or three feet high, having all the branches and maia of August, as then the shoots will be arrived at a pro-
ftem crowned by numerous flowers in aggregate clusters per growth for that operation; and the fooner it is
of different colours and variegations.

done after the shoots are ready the better, that they
Culture. Though the carnations grow freely in al. may have sufficient time to acquire strength before win-
most any garden tarth, and in it produce beautiful ter: these laid in June and July will be fit to take off
flowers, yet they are generally fuperior in that of a in August and September, so will form fine plants in
light loamy nature: and of this kind of soil the floriits the month of O&tober. The method of performing
generally prepare a kind of compott in the following the work is as follows. First provide a quantity of
manner, especially for those fine varieties which they small hooked sticks for pegs. They must be three or
keep in pots. A quantity of loamy earth must be four inches long, and their use is to peg the layers
provided, of a light' fandy temperature, from an up. down to the ground. Get ready also in a barrow a
land or, dry pafture-field or common, taking the top quantity of light rich mould, to raise the earth, if ne-
spit turf and ail, which must be laid in a heap for a ceffary, round each plant, and provide also a sharp pen-
year, and turned over frequently. It muft then be knife. The work is begun by stripping off all the
mixed with about one-third of rotten dung of old hot. teaves from the body of the shoots, and shortening
beds, or rotten neats dung, and a little fea-fand, form- those at top an inch or two evenly. Then choosing a
ing the whole into a heap again, to lie three, four, or strong joint on the middle of the shoot or thereabouts,
fix months, at which time it will be excellent for use; and on the back or under side thereof, cut with the
and if one parcel or heap was mixed with one of these penknife the joint half-way through, directing your
kinds of dungs, and another parcel with the other, it knife upward so as to lit the joint up the middle, ale
will make a change, and may be found very beneficial most to the next joint above, by which you form a
in promoting the size of the Aowers. This compost, kind of tongue on the back of the shoot; observing
or any other made use of for the purpose, thould not that the swelling skinny part of the joint remaining at
be lifted, but only well broken with the spade and the bottom of the tongue must be trimmed off, that
bands. When great quantities of carnations are re- nothing may obstruct the issuing of the fibres ; for the
quired, either to furnish large grounds, or for market, layers always form their roots at that part. This done,
or when it is intended to raise new varieties, it is easily loofen the earth about the plant; and, if necessary, add
effected by fowing fome feed annually in spring, in some fresh mould, to raise it for the more ready recep-
common earth, from which the plants will rise abun- tion of the layers; then with your finger make a hol.
dantly. Several good varieties may also be expected low or drill in the earth to receive the layer; which
from the plants of each fowing; and possibly not one bend horizontally into the opening, raising the top up-
exactly like those from which the seed was saved. The right, so as to keep the gath or slit part of the layer
Aingle flowers are always more numerous than the double open ; and, with one of the hooked sticks, peg down
ones; but it is from the latter only that we are to se- the body of the layer, to fecure it in its proper place
lect our varieties. The season for lowing the feed is and position, ftill preserving the top erect and the lit
any time from the 201h of March to the 15th of April. open, and draw the earth over it an inch or two,
- The plants generally come up in a month after fowe bringing it close about the erect part of the shoot; and
ing: they must be occasionally weeded and watered till when all the fhoots of each plant are thus laid, give
July, when they will be fit for transplanting into the directly fome water to settle the earth close, and the
nursery beds. These beds must be made about three work is finished. In dry weather the waterings mult
feet wide, in an open situation; and taking advantage be often repeated, and in five or fix weeks the layers
of moist weather, prick the plants therein four inches will have formed good roots. They must then be se-
asunder, and finish with a gentle watering, which re. parated with a knife from the old plant, gently raised
peat occasionally till the plants have taken good root. out of the earth with the point of a knife or trowel, in
Here they must remain till September, when they will order to preserve the fibrous roots of the layers as en-


Dianthus, tire as possible ; and when thus taken up, cut off the when the voice proceeds from the first to the twelfth Diapason Diapason. naked ticky part at bottom close to the root, and trim sound.


the tops of the leaves a little. They are then ready Diapason Diatessaron, in music, a compound con-
for planting either into beds or pots. In November cord founded on the proportion of 8 to 3. "To this in.
the fine varieties in pots should be moved to a sunny terval Martianus Capella allows 8 tones and a semitone;
Theltered situation for the winter ; and if placed in a 17 semitones, and 34 dieses. This is when the voice
frame, to have occasional protection from hard frost, it proceeds from its first to its eleventh sound. The mo-
will be of much advantage. In the latter end of Fe- derns would rather call it the eleventh.
bruary, or some time in March, the layers in the small Diapason Ditone, in music, a, compound concord,
pots, or such as are in beds, should be transplanted whose terms are as 10-4, or as 5-2.
with balls into the large pots, where they are to re.

DIAPASON Semiditone, in mufic, a compound concord,
main for flower. To have as large flowers as possible, whose terms are in the proportion of 12-5.
curious florists clear off all side-shoots from the flower. DIAPEDESIS, in medicine, a transudation of the
ftem, suffering only the main or top buds to remain fluids through the sides of the vessels that contain them,
for flowering. When the flowers begin to open, at- occasioned by the blood’s becoming too much attenua-
tendance should be given to assist the fine varieties, to ted, or the pores becoming too patent.
promote their regular expanfion, particularly the largest DIAPENTE, in the ancient music, an interval
kinds called bursters, whose flowers are sometimes three marking the second of the concords, and with the dia.
or four inches diameter. Unless these are aslifted by tessaron an octave. This is what in the modern music
art, they are apt to burst open on one side, in which is called a fifth.
case the flower will become very irregular: therefore,

DIAPHANOUS, an appellation given to all trans-
attending every day at that period, obferve, as soon as parent bodies, or such as transmit the rays of light.
the calyx begins to break, to cut it a little open at two DIAPHORESIS, in medicine, an elimination of
other places in the indenting at top with narrow-point. the humours in any part of the body through the pores
ed scislars, and hereby the more regular expansion of of the skin. See PERSPIRATION.
the petals will be promoted: observing, if one side of DIAPHORETICS, among phyficians, all medi-
any flower comes out fafter than another, to turn the cines which promote perspiration.
pot about, that the other side of the flower may be

next the fun, which will also greatly promote its re- part popularly called the midriff, and by anatomists fep-
gular expansion. When any fine flower is to be blown tum transversum. It is a nervous muscle, separating the
as large and spreading as possible, florists place spread. breast or thorax from the abdomen or lower venter,
ing paper collars round the bottom of the flowers, on and serving as a partition between the natural and the
which they may spread their petals to the utmost ex- vital parts, as they are called.

pansion. These collars are made of stiff white paper, n° 115.
cut circular about three or four inches over, having a It was Plato, as Galen informs us, that first called
hole in the middle to receive the bottom of the flower, it diaphragm, from the verb siwzpatlııv

, to separate or be
and one side cut open to admit it. This is to be pla- between two.

Till his time it had been called #fives,
ced round the bottom of the petals in the inside of the from a notion that an inflammation of this part produ-
calyxøthe leaves of which are made to spread flat forced phrensy; which is not at all warranted by experi-
its support. The petals must then be drawn out and ence, any more than that other tradition, that a tranf-
spread upon the collar to their full width and extent ; verfe section of the diaphragm with a sword causes the
the longest ones undermoft, and the next longest upon patient to die laughing.
these; and so on ; observing that the collar must no DIAPORESIS, Siarepnous, in rhetoric, is used to

wider than the flower; and thus a carna- express the hesitation or uncertainty of the speaker.
tion may be rendered very large and handsome.

We have an example in Homer, where Ulyffes, go-
These directions will answer equally well for the ing to relate his sufferings to Alcinous, begins thus:
propagation of the pinks and sweet-williams, though Τι πρωτον, τι δ' επειτα, τι δ' εςατιον καταλεξ. ?
neither of these require such nicety in their culture as Quid primum, quid dein'e, quid poftremo alloquar?
the carnations.

This figure is most naturally placed in the exordium
DIAPASON, in music, a mufical interval, by which or introduction to a discourse. See Doubting.
most authors who have wrote on the theory of music DIARBECK, or DIARBEKR, an extensive pro-
use to express the octave of the Greeks.

vince of Eastern Afiatic Turky; comprehending, in its
DIAPASON, among the musical intrument-makers, a latest extent, Diarbekr, properly so called, Yerack or
kind of rule or scale whereby they adjust the pipes of Chaldea, and Curdistan, which were the ancient coun-
their organs, and cut the holes of their hautboys, Autes, tries of Mefopotamia, Chaldea, and Assyria, with By-
&c. in due proportion for performing the tones, femi- bylon. It is called Diarbeck, Diarbeker, or Diarbekr, as
tones, and concords, juft.

fignifying the “ duke's country,” from the word dhyar Diapason-Diaex, in music, a kind of compound con- “ a duke, and bekr country.” It extends along the cord, whereof there are two sorts; the greater, which banks of the Tigris and Euphrates from north-northis in the proportion of 10-3; and the lefler, in that of west to fouth-ealt, that is, from Mount Taurus, which 16-5.

divides it from Turcomania on the north, to the inmost
Durasov Diapente, in music, a compound confo- recess of the Persian gulph on the south, about 600
nance in a triple ratio, as 3-9. This interval, says miles ; and from east to welt, that is, from Persia on
Martianus Capella, consists of ý tones and a femitone; the east 10 Syria and Arabia Deserta on the west, in

femitones, and 38 dieses. It is a symphony made some places 200, and in others about 300, miles,
N° 101.


where appear

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