« EelmineJätka »
fuly s. Earl of Shelburne appointed first Lord of the Treasury, p. 395.
s. Savaona in Georgia evacuated by the British, p. 541. 24. Nine thousand houses destroyed by fire at Constantinople, p. 488.Aug. 28. A Second fire, much more dreadful than the first, p. 489.
The combined fleets of France and Spain appear in the English Channel, p. 385. Aug 23. Cape-River Fort on the coast of Honduras taken by storm, p. 660. 24: David Tyric executed at Portsmouth for conveying intelligence to the French, p. 396;
29. The Royal George, of 100 guns, overset at Portmouth, when Adm. Kempenfele, with 400 seamen and officers, and 200 women, were drowned, p. 496.
30. Spanish fort on Black River in Honduras Bay taken by ihe British, p. 660. During this month the British settlemeats in Hudson's Bay were destroyed by the French,
Sept. 6. Sir James Lowther offers his Majesty a ship of 74 guas, to be built and completely equipped at his own expence, which is accepted of, p. 497.
8. Several Spanish batteries before Gibraltar destroyed by the fire from the garrison, p. 545.
13. The Spaniards and French defeated in their grand attack upon Gibraltar, with the loss of a great ammber of men, and ten battering thips, destroyed by red-hot balls fired from the garrison, p. 601.
During this month a Jamaica homeward bound fleet was dispersed by a hurricane off the Banks of Newfoundland, when the Ramillies of 74 guns, and several merchantmen, foun, dered, p.547.703.
The Centaur of 74 guos, one of Adm. Rodney's prizes, foundered on her passage from Jamaica to Britain, p. 709.
08. 6. The Hector of 74 guns, one of Adm. Rodney's prizes, fouadered acar Halifax, P: 707
io. The combined fleet damaged by a storm in Algefiras bay, and the St Miguel, a Spanish 74 gun ship drove on shore vader the guns of Gibraltar, and taken poffeffion of by the garrison, p. 604.
1i. Lord Howe arrived off Gibraltar, with a reinforcement of troops, and a great quantity of ammunition, provisions, &c. between this and the 19th, and on the 20th had a par. tial adion off Cape Sparrell with the combined feet, p. 604, s.
Nov. 9. Capt. Afgill set at liberty by order of Congress, p. 697.
23. Mr Secretary Townshend's letter on the approach of a peace, to prevent gambling in the funds, p. 611.
30. Provifional articles of peace between Great Britain and the United States of Amcrica ligoed, p. 612.
Dec. 3. Mr Secretary Townshend's letter to the Lord Justice-Clerk, with the account of the proviGonal articles with America being ligned, p. 612.
E RR A T A.
col. lin. 447. I. 50.
for 25. read August 30. that being she day on which Lord Av.
chinleck died. 503. 20. for John Earl of Clanricarde, read Henry Earl of Clanricarde, 504. 2. 23. for Edinburgh, Sept. 6. read, Edinburgh, 08. 6. 615. 2. 5.& 6. from the bottom, for Hell-house, read Alhby-Hall, 684. 3. 23. for [ ] read [p. 607.] referring to the oote of the proprio
etors which refcinds the resolution of the directors for recalling Gov. Hastings.
To the BIND E R.
NUT off the blue Covers; and place this quarter of a Thect, containing the
General Title-page, and Chronological Series of Events, before the Maga. zillc for January.
M A G A ZI N E.
J A NU A RY,
1 7 8 2.
CON TE NT S. ANNUAL REGISTER 1780. Retrospective||Memoirs of the late Lord HAWKE 7. view of affairs in 1999. State of the bel- AMERICA. Letter to Lord Stirling, giving ligerent powers in Germany 1. Pacific an account of an expedition in Canada 27. views of the Empiels Queen, seconded by Troops fent to the southern colonies 28. Ruffia and France 3. Treaty of peace Maj. Craig leaves Wilmington ib. Proconcluded 4. Differences between Russia clamation by Gen. Leslie ib. Counter and the Postc ib. New convention con proclamations are ilued by the American cluded.
generals ib. 'Accounts of the taking of Sc PARLIAMENT. Mr Fox's motion for an Eustatius 29. Couvoy arrives at Barbadoes inquiry into the conduct of the First Lord 34. State of Freach feet at Martinico 32. of the Admiralty 9. Specches of Capt. J. Adm. Hood arrives in the West Indies Lettrell and Lord Mulgrave si. Papers from America ib moved for 12. Jaquiry postponed ib. en-l|Fabricius on the AMERICAN WAR. Let's tered upon ib. Speeches, of Mr Fox 2. ter V. 32. Lord Mulgrave 16. Lord Howe 19. MrFictitious penitential LETTER to M. Ar. Webb 20. Divifion ib.
naud 34. Answer 35. Subftance of ADMIRALTY-PAPERS laid || POETRY. Prologue and Epilogue to the before the House of Commons 20.
Miniature Picture 44. Ode to the Sun ANECDOTE, from a Philadelphia newspaper
HISTORICAL ArFairs. Forcign 46.-50. NEW BOOKS. Falconer on the influence
Domestic so.-54: of climate 36. Religion 40. Hisory, | Lists. Marriages, Births, &c. 54. 56. Law, Politics ib. "Medicine 42. Miscel. | Tables. Linca, Aberdeea lofirmary, &c. lacous 44. Plays and Poctiy ib.
ANNUAL REGISTER for 1780.
ambition, are fo eminently calculated to
excite. [Published in the end of January 1782 ]
We have heretofore Mewn, that this HISTORY.
was not so much a war of choice, as of
prudence, forefight, and political necefRetrospettive view of affairs in 1779. sity, on the side of the King of Pruffia.
HE little effect produced by He made no claims; he had no imme. the contention of the greatest diate object of enlarging his dominions in leaders, and of the greatest view; nor if he had, was the present state
armies in the world, during of public affairs in any degree favourable the campaign of 1978, in Bobenia, if to such a design. Neither his time of Lot entirely fufficient to produce an actual life, his great experience in war, nor the edire of peace on both sides, could not, full knowledge he had of the power and however, fail to induce a kind of languor ability of his
adversary, were at all caland wearifomeness, and in some confie culated to excite a spirit of enterprise. On derable degree to wear away that quick the contrary, the defire of fettling, imTelish, and keen appetite for war, which proving, and consolidating with his angreat and untried force and talents, acting cient people and dominions, the new under the fanguine hopes of yet unfoiled fubjects and acquisitions he had gained Vol. XLIV.
on the side of Poland, together with that ly baffled all the efforts made by the King ftill stronger wish, of transmitting a peace of Prussia for gaining his favourite point able poffeffion, and undiminished force; of a general action, and defcated his to his successor, were objects which 'views of obtaining any sure hold in the tended powerfully to dispose him to the country, tended more remotely to that preservation, so far as it could be pro effect. Such a view of the circumstances perly and wisely done, of the public of the campaign, could afford no great tranquillity.
encouragement to an obstinate perseveBut no motives, however cogent, rance in the conteft. A defensive war, could justify to him, in a political view, however ably conducted, or however the admitting of any considerable addition abounding with negative success, could of strength and dominion to the power by no means, whether in point of honour of the houfe of Auftria ; more efpecially, or effect, answer the purposes for which when this addition was to establith a pre. it was undertaken ; and the prospects of cedent of innovation and dismemberment, changing its vature were confined indeed. which might in tine be equally extended However numerous' or cogent the to all the other states that compofe the causes and motives we have afligned, or Germanic body. Upon the whole, it others of a similar nature, might have would almoft seem, as if fortune, who been on either fide, for the discontinuance had fo often wonderfully befriended that of an unprofitable war, they would have hero, and whose apparent defertions of been found unable to fubdue the trong him in cases of great danger, (which were passions by which they were opposed, if 'ny less conspicuous than her favours), al- another, of greater power than the whole ways tended ultimately to the increase taken together, had not, happily for of his fame, was now anxious to affix a Germany, and perhaps for no small part new stamp to the renown of her old fa- of the rest of Europe, supervened in revourite; and of closing his great military storing the public tranquillity. The late actigns by a war, in which he was to ap: illuftrious Maria Theresa, along with her pear, rather as the generous protector of other eminent virtues and great qualities, the rights and liberties of the Germanic pofseffed at all times, however counterbody at large, than as acting at all under acted by the operation of a high and the influence of any partial policy. powerful ambition, a mind strongly im
On the other side, the past compaign pressed with an awful sense of religion. had afforded a full conviction to the Em. This disposition, which naturally increaperor (a prince prepared for war beyond sed with years, was farther strengthened almost any other, by the fine state of his by the melancholy arising from the early armies, and the resources of his own in- loss of a husband whom the tenderly defatigable and resolute fpirit) of the im. loved ; and was latterly finally confirme mense difficulty of making any success- ed, by the happy settlement of her nu. ful impresion upon such an adversary as merous offspring, which freeing the mind the King of Pruffia. With fo valt a force, from care and folicitude, tended equally and alisted by such confummate com to wean it from the affairs of the world. manders, he could only act upon the de The event of the late struggle with the fensive ; and could not prevent his own King of Prussia, notwithstanding the im. dominions from being rendered the thea- mense affistance the then received, and tre, and being consequently subjected to which she could not hope now to receive, all the calamities of war. It was true muß have added great force to these mo. indeed, and no small matter of boast in tives. She could not with to end her life such a contest, that he had suffered nei. in the midst of such a war. It was acther defeat nor disgrace; that the enemy cordingly much against the inclination had been obliged to abandon Bohemia, of that great Princess, that the present notwithstanding their utmost endeavours war was undertaken ; and she is said to to establish a secure footing there during have submitted with the greatest relucthe winter; and likewise, that the losses tance, to the opițion of her council, and on both sides were pretty equally balan- the desire of the Emperor, on that point. ced. But then it was obvious, that the Foralthough that Prince could only derive season was the immediate cause which his means of action through the power of compelled the enemy to retreat from his mother; yet it would have been a Buhemia; however, the good dispofi- matter of exceeding difficulty to her, ditions made by the Emperor, which equal, rectly to thwart the opinion and inclina
tions of a fon, who was in the highest 'grand and capital objects, the necessity degree deservedly dear to her, who was of keeping her force whole, her attention to be her fole and immediate successor, undivided, and of restoring peace upon and who scarcely stood higher in her af. the continent, were all equally obvious, fection than in her efteem. It was pro. and were all mutually dependent. No bably this reluctance to the war, on the wisdom could forelee, or venture to preside of the Empress-Queen, which pro. fcribe, what unexpected connections and duced those various appearances of Auc. i alliances might spring up, and what new tuation in the councils, or of irresolution collifions of interests might take place, and indecifion in the conduct, of the court ' under a further progress of the war. of Vienna, of which we bave formerly ta- France could not recollect the ruin ken notice. (vol. 42.]
brought upon her in the late war, withThe ineffectiveness of the campaign, out thuddering at the thoughts of Gerthe equal fortune of the war, and the i'many. It is not then to be wondered, ceffation of action occasioned by the wine that she was equally fincere and zealous ter, ferved, all together, to produce a in her endeavours to restore tranquillity fate of temper and difpofition, which on the continent. was far more favourable to the pacific The court of Petersburg had from the views and wishes of the Empress, than beginning Mewn and expressed the strong, that which had bitherto prevailed. She eft disapprobation of the conduct, and perceived, and seized the opportunity; paid no favourable attention to the ' and immediately applying her powerful claims, of that of Vienna ; and had earinfluence to remove the obstacles which ly avowed a full intention of effcctually stood in the way of an accommodation on supporting the rights of the Germanic the one fide, had foon the satisfaction of body; at the same time that preparations discovering that her views were well se. were actually made for the march of a conded, by the temperate dispolition large body of Rusian troops. Her which prevailed on the other.
powerful interposition, through the meIt is, however, to be observed, that the dium of her minifter Prince Repnin, had mediation of the court of Versailles, and no small effect in facilitating the negotiathe powerful interposition of the court of tions for peace. Petersburg, contributed essentially to fur. Under such circumstances, and the of-, ther the work of peace. France was fices of such mediators, little doubt was bound, by the treaty of 1756, to affift to be entertained of the event. Whethe court of Vienna with a considerable ther it proceeded from a view of giving body of forces, in case of a war in Ger- weight to their claims in the expected many; and she had been called upon treaty, or from any jealousy in point of early in the present contest to fulfil that arms or honour, which might have lain engagement. The court of Versailles behind from the preceding compaign, was likewise disposed to with well to the however it was, the Austrians attacked house of Austria from private motives; with extraordinary vigour, and with no as well as to cultivate and cement the small degree of success, several of the new friendship and alliance from public. Pruffian posts on the lide of Silesia and But France being likewise a guarantee of the county of Glatz, soon after the comthe treaty of Westphalia, her old engage. mencement of the year. The liveliness rents militated totally with her new in of these insults did not induce the King the present instance; ine being thereby to any eagerness of retaliation. Points bound to refift all such infractions and of honour of that nature weighed but invasions of the rights of the Germanic little with him. He foresaw that an acbaly, as those which the was now called commodation would take place; and be upon by the court of Vienna to support. knew that no advantages which could She must therefore, in any situation in now be gained would tell in the account which she was not disposed to become an upon that fettleinent; whilst a number absolute party in the contest, wiili to be of brave men would be i ly lost without relieved from this dilemma. But her object or equivalent. An armistice on war with England, and her views with all sides was, however, publilhed on the respect to America, operated more forcie roth of March 1779, before the season bly upon her conduct on this occasion could have admitted the doing of any than any German treaties or connections. thing eflential, if fich had even been the to the contemplation and pursuit of these intention.
The congress which was to preserve ther advantage in lieu of its claims, tba Germany from the most alarming and the promise of some new privilege with re dangerous war to which it could have spect to appeals. been exposed, was held at Teschen in Upon the whole, few treaties of peace Austrian Silesia, a town and district have been conducted upon more equi which the Emperor had generously con- table principles than those which seem to sented to constitute into a duchy, under : have prevailed in the present. The terthe title of Saxe-l'eschen, in favour of ritory acquired by the houfe of Austria Prince Albert of Saxony, upon his mar- is not inconsiderable, being about fevenriage with an Arch-duchess in 1965. ty English miles in length, and something At that place, the garrison being pre- from about half. to a third of that extent viously withdrawn, the Imperial and in breadth. This acquifition lies bePrussian ministers, with those of all the tween the Danube, the river Inu; the princes engaged or interested in the pre- Saltza, and the borders of Austria, infent content, as well as of the two, me- cluding the towns of Scharding, Ried, diating powers, were assembled imme, Altheim, Braunau, Burghausen, Frye diately after the publication of the armi- burg, and some others; forming, all to ftice. And so happy were the dispofi. gether, a strong barrier, and a fixed unrions which now prevailed among the equivocal boundary, the limits of which contending parties, and lo efficacious the are decifively marked out by those great endeavours of the mediators, that the rivers, .between that arch-duchy and the peace was finally concluded on the 13th present dominions of Bavaria. This ac. of May.
ceflion of territory the court of Vienna By this treaty, the late convention be- feems, however, to have purchased at tween the court of Vienna and the E. something about a fair price, partly to be lector Palatine was totally annulled, and paid in money, and partly by a renunthe former restored all the places and ciation of old, vexacious, and otherwise districts which had been seized in Bava- inextinguishable claims, which, however, ria, excepting only the territory appere in general, unproductive, wonld for ever taining to the regency of Burghausen, have kept open a fource of litigation, which was ceded to the House of Austria, trouble, mischief, and war. To which as an equivalent or indemnification for may be added, that the establishment of her clains and pretenfions. That court a fixed and permanent barrier and bounlikewise gave up to the Elector Palatine dary between tbe two states, seems to be all the fiefs which had been possetled by a measure franght with greater advantage the late Elector of Bavaria ; and agreed to the Elector of Bavaria, .as the weaker also to pay to the court of Saxony, as an prince, than to the Arch-duke of Aue indemnification for the allodial estates, Atria, who is fo abundantly his fuperior and other claims on that fide, the fum in strength. It may likewise be farthier: of fix millions of forins, (amounting to observed, that several parts of the coded something near 600,000 l. Sterling), to be territory were what may be called de. paid in the course of twelve years, with- batcable land; the titles being disputed, out interest, by ftipulated half-yearly pay- opposite claims laid, and they having been ments. Some ceffions were likewise made: heretofore, at different times, objects of by the Elector, in favour of the house of great conteft. Saxony, and some equivalent satisfaction Such was the early and happy termi. promised by the Emperor to the Duke nation of the German war; a war of the of Deux Ponts, on bis fucceffion to the greatett expectation, not more from the double clectorate. All former treaties great power than from the great abilities between the court of Vienna and the King of the principal parties. of Pruslia were renewed and confirmed; Many circumstances attending the late and the right of the King to succeed 10 war and peace between Ruffia and the the margraviates in the remote younger Porte, could not fail to fow the feeds of branches of his own family, upon the future discontent, jealousy, ill-will, and failure of issue in the immediate poffeffors, litigation, between the parties. Extra(a right which had been only called in ordinary success and triumph on the one question through the vexation of the late fide, with an equal degree of loss and conteft), was now fully acknowledged disgrace on the other, are little calcula. and eltablished. The 'ducal house of ted to promote any intercourse of friendMecklenburg was put off without any o-. fhip, or cordiality of sentiment, among