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forms, while many of those peculiar to the south are absent; so that it is a very convenient, if it should not be considered an altogether natural, sub-region.
We will now give an outline of the most important zoological features of each of these divisions, taking them in the order in which they are arranged in the Fourth Part of this work. California comes first, as it has some tropical forms not found elsewhere, and thus forms a transition from the Neotropical region.
1. T'he Western or Californian Sub-region. This small district possesses a fruitful soil and a highly favourable climate, and is, in proportion to its extent, perhaps the richest portion of the continent, both zoologically and botanically. Its winters are far milder than those of the Eastern States in corresponding latitudes ; and this, perhaps, has enabled it to support several tropical forms which give a special character to its fauna. It is here only, in the whole region, that bats of the families Phyllostomidæ and Noctilionidæ, and a serpent of the tropical family, Pythonidæ, are found, as well as several Neotropical forms of birds and reptiles.
Mammalia.—The following genera are not found in any other part.of the Nearctic region. Macrotus (Phyllostomidæ), one species in California ; Antrozous (Vespertilionidae), one species on the West Coast; Urotrichus (Talpidae), one species in British Columbia ; sub-genus Nésorex (Soricidæ), one species in Oregon ; Bassaris (Procyonidæ), California; Enhydrá (Mustelidæ), Pacific Coast; Morunga (Phocidæ), California ; Haploodon (Haploodontidæ), a rat-like animal, allied to the beavers and marmots, and constituting a peculiar family found only in California and British Columbia. The following characteristic Nearctic forms also extend into this sub-region :- Taridea, Procyon, Didelphys, Sciuropterus, Tamias, Spermiophilus, Dipodomys, Perognathus, Jaculus.
Birds.-Few genera of birds are quite peculiar to this subregion, since most of the Western forms extend into the central district, yet it has a few. Glaucidium a genus of Owls, is confined (in the Nearctic region) to California ; Chamæa, a singular form allied to the wrens, and forming a distinct family, is quite peculiar; Geococcyx, a Neotropical form of cuckoo, extends to California and Southern Texas. The following genera are very characteristic of the sub-region, and some of them almost confined to it: Myiadestes (Sylviida); Psaltriparus (Paridæ); Cyanocitta, Picicorvus (Corvidæ); Hesperiphona, Peucæa, Chondestes (Fringillidæ); Selasphorus, Atthis (Trochilidæ); Columba, Melopelia (Columbidæ); Oreortyx (Tetraonidæ).
Reptiles. The following genera are not found in any other part of the Nearctic region: Charina (Tortricidæ); Lichanotus (Pythonidæ); Gerrhonotus (Zonuridæ); Phyllodactylus (Geckotida); Anolius and Tropidolepis (Iguanidae). Sceloporus (Iguanidæ) is only found elsewhere in Florida. All the larger North American groups of lizards and snakes are also represented here; but in tortoises it is deficient, owing to the absence of lakes and large rivers.
Amphibia.—California possesses two genera of Salamandridæ, Anéides and Heredia, which do not extend to the other subregions.
Fresh-water Fish.—There are two or three peculiar genera of Cyprinidæ, but the sub-region is comparatively poor in this group..
Plate XVIII. Ilustrative of the Zoology of California and the Rocky Mountains. We have chosen for the subject of this illustration, the peculiar Birds of the Western mountains. The two birds in the foreground are a species of grouse (Pedioc&etes Columbianus), entirely confined to this sub-region; while the only other species of the genus is found in the prairies north and west of Wisconsin, so that the group is peculiar to northern and western America. The crested birds in the middle of the picture (Oreortyx picta), are partridges, belonging to the American subfamily Odontophorinæ. This is the only species of the genus, which is confined to California and Oregon. The bird at the top is the blue crow (Gymnokitta cyanocephala), confined to the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada from New Mexico and Arizona northwards, and more properly belonging to the Central