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Order, Family, and Genus.

57. Xanthocephalus

58. Sturnella

59. Scolecophagua

60. Quiscalus

TANAOBIDJt

61. Pyranga

FRINQILLIDiE.

62. Chrysomitris...

63. Coccothraustes 61. Einbemagra ...

65. Pipilo

66. Junco

67. Zonotrichia ...

68. Mclospiza

69. Spizclla

70. Pcisscrtlla

71. PasaerciUus ...

72. Pooecetes

73. Ammodromus

74. Coturniculus...

75. Peucsea

76. Cyanospiza ...

77. Poospiza

78. Carpodacus ...

79. Carainalis ...

80. Pyrrhuloxia..

81. Guiraca ...

82. Hedymeles ... (Spermophila

83. Loxia

84. Pinicola

85. Linota

86. Leucosticte ...

87. Calamospiza ...

88. C/iondcstes

89. Euspiza

90. Plectrophanes

91. Centronyx

Alaudida

92. Otocorys

MOTACILLID.S.

93. Anthus

94. Ncocorys

TYRANNID.ffl.

95. Sayornis (Pyrocephalus

96. Empidonax ...

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The whole region

W. and N. W. America

Kocky Mountain district

All N. America

All United States

The whole region

All United States to Sitka

N. America

The whole region

The wholo region

All United States

All United States

E. and N. of N. America

S. Atlantic States and California

All United States to Canada

California and S. Central States

The whole region

S. and S. Central States

Texas and Rio Grande

Southern States

All United States

Texas)

N. of Pennsylvania

Boreal America

E and N. of N. America

Alaska to Utah

Arizona and Texas to Mexico

Western, Cen., & Southern States'

S. Eastern States

Boreal America and E. side of

Rocky Mountains
Mouth of Yellowstone River

High central plains to E States and Canada

The whole region Nebraska

E. States to Canada, California
Gila and Kio Grande)
The whole region

Mexico

Neotropical

Mexico

Mexico to Venezuela

Neotropical

Neotropical, Paltearctic

Pahearctic, Guatemala

Neotropical

Mexico and Guatemala

Mexico and Guatemala

Neotropical

Mexico and Guatemala

Mexico and Guatemala

Northern Asia

Mexico and Guatemala

Mexico

Mexico and Guatemala

Neotropical
Mexico

Central American
Neotropical
Mexico, Palsearctic
Mexico to Venezuela

Neotropical

Mexico to Colombia

Neotropical genus

Palamrctic

Palaearctic,

Palaiarctic

Palsarctic

Mexico

Mexico

Pala?arc., Columb. (mig.). t, Pahearctic

Palsearc., Mexico, Andes of Columbia

Cosmopolite ic

Mexico to Ecuador
Neotropical
Mexico to Ecuador

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Order, Family, and Genus.

Range within the Region.

Range beyond the Region.

GALLING.

TETRAONID.fi.

126. Gyrotonyx

127. Ortyx ...

128. Callipepla

129. Lophortyx

130. Oreortyx

131. Tetrao ...

132. Cenlrocercus

133. Pcdifctites

134. Uupidonia

135. Bonasa...

136. Lagopus...

Phabianidjb.

137. MeUagrU

CRACID.fi.

(Ortalida ACCIPITRES.

VuLTURID.fi.

Sub-Family

(CATHARTIN.fi.)

138. Catharista ...

139. Psiiedogryphis

FALCONIDfi.

140. Polyborus

141. Circus ...

142. Anterior...

143. Astur ...

144. Accipiter

145. Tachytriorchis

146. Buteo ...

147. Archibuteo

148. Asturina

149. Aquila...

150. Halueetus

151. Nauclerus

(Rostrhamus

152. Elanus ...

153. Ictinia ...

154. Falco ...

155. Hierofalco

156. Cerchneis

Pandionid-b.

157. Pandion...

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Peculiar or very Characteristic Genera of Wading and Swimming Birds.

Grallje.

Scolopacids.

Mieropelma ...
Philoltela

Chakadriid*.
Aphriza

ANSERES.

ANATID.B.

Aix

Bucephala

Qidemia

Harelda

Somateria
Camptolwmus

Labidjs.

Creagrus

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CHAPTER XVI.

SUMMABY OF THE PAST CHANGES AND GENERAL RELATIONS OV THE SEVERAL REGIONS.

Having now closed our survey of the animal life of the whole earth—a survey which has necessarily been encumbered with a multiplicity of detail—we proceed to summarize the general conclusions at which we have arrived, with regard to the past history and mutual relations of the great regions into which we have divided the land surface of the globe.

All the palaeontological, no less than the geological and physical evidence, at present available, points to the great land masses of the Northern Hemisphere as being of immense antiquity, and as the area in which the higher forms of life were developed. In going back through the long series of the Tertiary formations, in Europe, Asia, and North America, we find a continuous succession of vertebrate forms, including all the highest types now existing or that have existed on the earth. These extinct animals comprise ancestors or forerunners of all the chief forms now living in the Northern Hemisphere; and as we go back farther and farther into the past, we meet with ancestral forms of those types also, which are now either confined to, or specially characteristic of, the land masses of the Southern Hemisphere. Not only do we find that elephants, and rhinoceroses, and hippopotami, were once far more abundant in Europe than they are now in the tropics, but we also find that the apes of West Africa and Malaya, the lemurs of Madagascar, the Edentata of Africa and South America, and the

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