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Gygis (1 sp.), Indian Ocean and Tropical Pacific Islands; Anous (6 sp.), Tropical and Temperate zones ; Nonia. (1 sp.), South Temperate America; Rhynchops (3 sp.), Tropical America, Africa, and India.

FAMILY 120.—PROCELLARIIDÆ. (6 Genera, 96 Species.)



The Procellariidæ, comprising the Shearwaters, Petrels, and Albatrosses, are universally distributed, but some of the genera are local.

Puffinus (20 sp.), Procellaria (18 sp.), and Fulmarus (40 sp.), are cosmopolitan; Prion (5 sp.) and Pelecanoides (3 sp.), belong to the South Temperate and Antarctic regions; Diomedia (10 sp.), comprises the Albatrosses, which are tropical, occasionally wandering into temperate seas.

FAMILY 121.—PELECANIDÆ. (6 Genera, 61 Species.)

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The Pelecanidæ, comprising the Gannets, Pelicans, Darters, and Frigate-Birds, although universally distributed, are more abundant in tropical and temperate regions.

Sula (8 sp.) and Phalacrocorax (35 sp.), are cosmopolitan ; Pelecanus (9 sp.), is tropical and temperate; Fregetta (2 sp.) and Phaeton (3 sp.), are confined to Tropical seas; Ptotus (4 sp.), to Tropical and warm Temperate zones.

Family 122.–SPHENISCIDÆ. (3 Genera, 18 Species.)

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The Penguins are entirely confined to the Antarctic and South Temperate regions, except two species which are found on the coast of Peru and the Galapagos. They are most plentiful in the southern parts of South America, Australia, New Zealand, and most of the Antarctic islands, and one or two species are found at the Cape of Good Hope. The genera as given in the Hand List are:

Spkeniscus (1 sp.), South Africa and Cape Horn; Eudyptes (15 sp.), with the range of the family; Aptenodytes (2 sp.), Antarctic Islands.

Family 123.--COLYMBIDÆ. (1 Genus, 4 Species.)

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The Northern Divers are confined to the Arctic and North Temperate Seas. The only genus, Colymbus, has one species confined to the West Coast of North America, the others being common to the two northern continents.

FAMILY 124.—PODICIPIDÆ. (2 Genera, 33 Species.)




The Grebes are universally distributed. The genera are Podiceps (26 sp.), cosmopolitan; and Podilymbus (2 sp.), confined to North and South America. Some ornithologists group these birds with the Colymbidæ.

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The Alcidæ, comprising the Auks, Guillemots, and Puffins, are confined to the North Temperate and Arctic regions, where they represent the Penguins of the Antarctic lands. One of the most remarkable of these birds, the Great Auk, formerly abundant in the North Atlantic, is now extinct. The genera are as follows :

Alca (2 sp.), North Atlantic and Arctic seas; Fratercula (4 sp.), Arctic and North Temperate zones; Ceratorhina (2 sp.), North Pacific; Simorhynchus (8 sp.), North Pacific ; Brachyrhamphus (3 sp.), North Pacific to Japan and Lower California; Uria (8 sp.), Arctic and North Temperate zones; Mergulus (1 sp.), North Atlantic and Arctic Seas. The last three genera constitute the family Uriidæ, of some ornithologists.

General Remarks on the Distribution of the Anseres. The Anseres, or Swimmers, being truly aquatic birds, possess, as might be expected, a large number of cosmopolitan families and genera. No less than 5 out of the 8 families have a worldwide distribution, and the others are characteristic either of the North or the South Temperate zones. Hence arises a peculiarity of distribution to be found in no other order of birds ; the Temperate being richer than the Tropical regions. The New arctic and Palæarctic regions each have seven families of Anseres, two of which, the Colymbida and Alcidæ, are peculiar to them. The Ethiopian, Australian, and Neotropical regions, which all

extend into the South Temperate zone, have six families, with one peculiar to them; while the Oriental region, which is wholly tropical, possesses the five cosmopolitan families only.

There are about 78 genera and 552 species of Anseres, giving 69 species to a family, a high number compared with the Waders, and due to there being only one very small family, the Colymbidæ. The distribution of the Anseres, being more determined by temperature than by barriers, the great regions which · are so well indicated by the genera and families of most other orders of birds, hardly limit these, except in the case of the genera of Anatidæ.


FAMILY 126.-STRUTHIONIDÆ. (2 Genera, 4 Species.)



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The Ostriches consist of two genera, sometimes formed into distinct families. Struthio (2 sp.) inhabits the desert regions of North, East, and South Africa, as well as Arabia and Syria. It therefore just enters the Palæarctic region. Rhea (3 sp.) inhabits Temperate South America, from Patagonia to the confines of Brazil.

Family 127.—CASUARIIDÆ. (2 Genera, 11 Species.)

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The Cassowaries and Emeus are confined to the Australian region. The Emeus, Dromæus (2 sp.), are found only on the

main-land of Australia (Plate XII. Vol. I. p. 441). Casuarius (9 sp.) inhabits the islands from Ceram to New Britain, with one species in North Australia; it is most abundant in the Papuan Islands.

FAMILY 128.—APTERYGIDÆ. (1 Genus, 4 Species.)

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The species of Apteryx are entirely confined to the two larger islands of New Zealand. They are supposed to have some remote affinity with Ocydromus, a genus of Rails peculiar to Australia and New Zealand; but they undoubtedly form one of the most remarkable groups of living birds (Plate XIII. Vol. I. p. 445).

Struthious Birds recently extinct.. A number of sub-fossil remains of birds, mostly large and some of gigantic size, having affinities to the Apteryx and, less closely, to the Cassowaries, have been discovered in New Zealand. These are all classed by Professor Owen in the genus Dinornis and family Dinornithidæ; but Dr. Haast, from the study of the rich collections in the Canterbury (New Zealand) Museum, is convinced that they belong to two distinct families and several genera. His arrangement is as follows. (See Ibis, 1874, p. 209).

FAMILY 129.—DINORNITHIDÆ. (2 Genera, 7 Species.)

Dinornis (5 sp.); Meionornis (2 sp.).

These had no hind toe, and include the largest species. Professor Newton thinks that they were absolutely wingless, being the only birds in which the fore limbs are entirely wanting.

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