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GENERAL INDEX.

ALL names in Italics refer, either to the genera and other groups of Extinct
Animals in Part II. of the First Volume ;-or to the genera whose distribution
is given under Geographical Zoology (Part IV.) in the Second Volume; the
Families and higher groups being in small capitals. All other references are in
ordinary type.

The various matters discussed under Zoological Geography (Part III.), are
indexed as much as possible by subjects and localities. None of the genera
mentioned in this Part are indexed, as this would have more than doubled the
extent of the Index, and would have served no useful purpose, because the
general distribution of each genus is given in Part IV., and the separate details
can always be found by referring to the region, sub-region, and class.

Aard-vark of East Africa, figure of, i. 261
Aard-vark. ii. 246
Aard-wolf, ii. 196
Abacetus, ii. 491
Abas, ii. 489
Abisara, ii. 475
Ablabes, ii. 375
Ablepharus, ii. 395
Abramis, ii. 453
Abronia, ii. 392
Abrornis, ii. 258
Abrostomus, ii. 451
Aburria, ii. 343
Acalyptus, ii 384
Acanthias, ii. 461
Acanthicus, ii. 444
Acanthion, ii. 240
Acanthis, ii. 283
Acanthisitta, ii. 265
Acanthiza, ii, 258
Acanthobrama, ii. 453
ACANTHOCLINIDÆ. ii. 432
Acanthodactylus, ii. 391
Acanthodelphis, ii. 209
Acantholabrus, ii. 437
Acanthomys, ii. 229
Acanthoph is, ii. 383
Acanthopsis, ii. 453
ACANTHOPTERYGII, ii 424
ACANTHOPTERYGII PHARYXCO-

GNATHI, ii. 437
Acanthopthalmus, ii. 453
Acanthoptila, ii. 201
Acanthopyga, ii. 390
Acanthorhynchus, ii, 275
Acanthosaura, ii. 402

Acara, ii. 438
Accentor, ii, 260
Accentorinæ, ii. 257
Accipenser, ii, 459
ACCIPENSERIDÆ, ii. 459
Accipiter, ii. 348
Accipitres, European Eocene, i. 163
dccipitres, classification of, i. 97

range of Palaarctic genera of, i. 248
range of Ethiopian genera of, i. 312
range of Oriental genera of, i. 385

range of Australian genera of, i. 486
ACCIPITRES, ii. 345

general remarks on the distribution of, ii.

351
ACCIPITRINÆ, Ü. 347
Acerina, ii. 425
Aceros, ii. 317
Acerotherium, ii. 214
Acerotherium, European Miocene, i. 119

N. American Tertiary, i. 136
Acestra, ii. 444
Acestura, ii. 108
Achalinus, ii. 375
Acharnes, ii. 434
Achatina, ii. 515
Achatinella, ii, 514
Acherontia, ii. 483
Achilognathus, ii. 452
Achornodon, N. American Tertiary, i. 138
Acicula, ii. 519
ACICULIDÆ, ii. 519
Acmorodera, ii. 497
Acodon, ii. 230
ACONTIADE, ii. 399
Acontias, ii. 399
Acotherium, European Eocene, i. 126
Acotherium, ii. 215

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Aix, ii. 363
akysis, ii. 442
Alckmon, ii. 289
Alaska, birds of, ii. 136
Alauda, ii 289
ALAUDIDÆ. ii. 289
Albatrosses, ii. 365
Alhulichthys, ii. 452
Alburnus, ii. 453
Alca, ii. 367
Alcadia, ii, 522
ALCEDINIDÆ, ii. 315
Alcedo, ii. 316
ALCEPHALINE. ii. 224
Alcephalus, Indian Miocene, i. 122
Alcephalus, ii. 224
Alces, ii, 219
ALCÍDÆ, ii. 367
Alcippe, ii. 261
Alcurus, ii. 267
Alcyone, ii. 316
Aldabra Islands, land-tortoises of, i. 289
Alectarurus, ii. 100
Alectrrenas, ii. 332
ALEPOCEPHALIDÆ, ii. 454
Alesa, ii. 475
Alestes, ii. 445
Alethe, ii. 262
Aletornis, N. American Eocene, i. 163
Alentian Islands, birds of, ii. 137
Algeria, Post-Pliocene deposits and caves of,

i. 111
Algira, ii. 391
Alleghany sub-region, il. 130

mammalia of, ii, 132
birds of, ii. 132
reptiles of, ii. 133
amphibia of, ii. 134
fishes of, ii. 134

islands of, ii, 134
Allen, Mr. J. A., on Zoological regions, i. 61

objections to his system of circumpolar

zones, i. 67
objections to his zoo-geographical nomen-

clature, i. 68

on birds of N. America, ii. 133, 136
Alligator, ii. 406
ALLIGATORIDÆ, ii. 406
Alligators, ii. 406
Allotinus, ii. 477
Alopecias, ii. 460
Alscecomus, ii. 332
Alsecus, ii. 259
Alseonar, ii, 270
Alsodes, ii, 417
Altai mountains, fossils in caves, i. 111
Alytes, it. 417
ALYTIDÆ, ii. 417
Amalina, ii. 287
Amora, ii. 489
Amarynthis, ii. 476
Amathusia, ii. 472
Amauresthes, ii. 287
Amuurospiza, ii. 285
Amazilia, ii. 109
Amblyrhiza, Pliocene of Antilles, i. 148
AMBLYCEPHALIDÆ, ü 380
Amhlycephalus, ii. 380
Amblyceps, ii. 443
Amblychila, ii. 487
Amblymora, ii. 501
Amblyopsis, ii, 450
Amblyornis, ii. 275
Amblypharyngodon, ii. 452
Amblypodia, ii. 477
Amblyrhamphus, ii. 282

Amblyrhiza, ii. 237

Amphisbrena, ii. 389
Amblyrhynchichthys, ii. 452

AMPHISBÆNIDÆ, ii. 388
Amblystoma, ii. 413

Amphisorex, European Miocene, i. 118
Ameiva, ii. 390

ii. 191
America, recent separation of North and Amphitragulus, European Miocene, i. 120
South, i. 40

ii. 218
extinct mammalia of, i. 129

Amphiuma, ii. 412
N., Post-Pliocene fauna of, i. 129

AMPHIUMIDÆ, ii. 412
American Creepers, ii. 295

Amphirestus, ij. 397
AMIIDÆ, ii. 458

Ampullaria, ii. 510
Amiurus, ii. 442

Amydrus, ii. 288
Anmodromus, ii. 284

Amytis, ii. 258
Ammodytes, ii. 440

Anahatoides, ii. 103
Ammomanes, ii. 289

Anubazenops, ii. 103
AMMONITIDE, ii. 506

Anableps, ji 450
Amomys, N. American Tertiary, i. 134

ANACANTHINI, ii. 439
Ampeliceps, ii. 287

Anacyrtus, ii. 445
AMPELIDÆ, ii. 280

Anadenus, ii. 517
Ampelio, ii. 102

Anadia, ii. 393
Ampelis, ii. 280

ANADIADÆ, ii. 393
Amphechinus, European Miocene, i. 117

Anaeretes, ii. 101, 291
ii. 188

Anaides, ii. 413
Amphibia, means of dispersal of, i. 28

Analcimus, ii. 268
classification of, i. 100

Anarhynchus, ii. 356
peculiar to Palæarctic region, i. 186

Anarrhichas, ii. 431
of Central Europe, i. 196

Anas, ii. 363
of the Mediterranean sub-region. i 205 Anastoma, European Tertiary, i. 169
of the Siberian sub-region, i. 220

ii. 527
of the Manchurian sub-region, i. 226

Anastomus, ii. 361
table of Palæarctic families of, i. 237

ANATIDE, ii. 363
of the Ethiopian region, i. 255

ANATINIDÆ, ii. 536
of West Africa, i. 264

Anatinella, ii. 536
S. African, i. 268

A sorat, ü, 191
of Madagascar, i. 280

Anchilophus, European Eocene, i. 125
table of Ethiopian families of, i. 298

Anchippodus, N. American Eocene, i. 139
of the Oriental region, i. 317

Anchippus, N. American Tertiary, i. 135
of the Indian sub-region, i. 326

Anchitherida, N. American Tertiary, i. 135
of Ceylon, i. 327

ii. 212
of the Indo-Chinese sub-region, i. 331 Anchitherium, European Miocene, i. 119
of the Indo-Malay sub-region, i. 340

European Eocene, i. 125
table of Oriental families of, i. 369

N. American Tertiary, i. 135
of the Australian region, i. 397

Ancient fauna of New Zealand, i. 459
resemblances of Australian and South Ancistrops, ii. 103
American, i. 400

Ancylotherium, Miocene of Greece, i. 116
of 'New Guinea, i. 416

European Miocene, i. 121
of New Zealand, i. 457

Ancylotherium, ii. 246
Neotropical, ii. 11

Ancyluris, ii. 476
of South Temperate America, ii 41

Ancylus, ii. 518
of the Mexican sub-region, ii. 54

Andaman Islands, zoology of, i. 333
of the Antilles, ii. 72

probable past history of, i. 334
table of Neotropical families of, ii. 89 Andigena, ii. 307
of the Nearctic region, ii. 120

Andrias, European Miocene, i. 165
of California, ii. 128

Androdon, ii. 107
of Central North America, ii. 131

Andropadus, ii. 267
of Eastern United States, ii. 134

Aneitea, ii. 517
table of Nearctic families of, ii. 143

Anguilla, ii. 456
AMPHIBIA, ii. 411

Anguis, ii. 397
general remarks on the distribution of, ii. | Angwantibo, ii. 176
422

Animal kingdom, primary divisions of, i 85
fossil, ii. 423

Animals, development of, affecting distribu-
summary and conclusion, ii. 548

tion, i. 7
lines of migration of, ii. 548

dispersal and migration of, i. 10
Amphibola, ii. 510

rapid multiplication of, i. 10
Amphibos, Indian Miocene, i. 122

Anisacodon, N. American Tertiary, i. 137
ii. 225

Anoa of Celebes, peculiarities of, 1. 428
Amphicyon, European Miocene, i. 118

Anoa, ii. 222
Indian Miocene, i. 121

Anodon, ii. 534
N, American Tertiary, i. 134

Anolius, ii. 400
ii. 198

Anomalurus, ii 235
ii. 202

Anomalmis, ii. 397
Amphiglossus, ii 398

Anoplon ipsas, ii. 381
Amphimericidæ, European Miocene, i. 119

Anoplotheriidæ, European Miocene, i. 119
Amphimoschus, European Miocene, i. 120

Anoplotherium, European Miocene, i 119
ii. 220

European Eocene, i. 126
Amphiorus, ii. 464

S. American Eocene, i. 1
Amphipnous, ii. 455

Anopthalmus, ii. 489

Anostomus, ii. 445
Anous, ii. 365
Anser, ii. 363
Anseranas, ii. 363
Anseres, arrangement of, i. 98

peculiar Palæarctic genera of, i. 250
peculiar Ethiopian genera of, i. 313

peculiar Australian genera of, i. 487
ANSERES, general remarks on the distribu-

tion of, ii. 367
Antarctia, ii, 490

ii. 492
Ant-eaters, ii. 247
Antechinomus, ii. 249
Antechinus, ii. 249
Antelopes in the Indian Miocene deposits, i.

122
birthplace and migrations of, i. 155
Palæarctic, i. 182

ii. 221
Antelotherium, Indian Miocene, i. 122
Antennarius, ii. 431
Anteros, ii. 476
Anthia, ii. 491
Anthi pes, ii, 270
Anthocharis, ii. 478
Anthochoera, ii. 275
Anthornis, ii. 275
Anthracotheridæ, N. American Tertiary, i. 137
Anthracotherium, European Miocene, i. 119

ii. 215
Anth reptes, ii. 276
Anthropoid apes, ii. 170
Anthropoides, ii. 357
Anthus, ii. 290
Antiacodon, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Antillean sub-region, ii, 61

mammalia of, ii. 62
birds of, ii. 64
illustration of zoology of, 1i. 67
table of distribution of resident land.

birds of, ii. 68
reptiles and amphibia of, ii. 72
fresh-water fish of, ií. 73
insects of, ii. 73
land-shells of, iì. 75

past history of, ii. 78
Antilles, Pliocene Mammalia of, i. 148

land-shells of, ii. 526
Antiloca pra, ii 223
ANTILOCAPRINÆ, ii. 223
Antilope, Post-Pliocene, i. 112

in Brazilian caves, i. 144
ii. 223

ii. 226
Antiquity of the genera of insects, i. 166

of the genera of land and fresh-water

shells, i. 168
Antrostomus, ii. 319
Ant-thrushes, ii. 297
Anumbius, ii. 103
ANURA, ii. 414
Anurosorer, ii. 190.191
Aonyr, ii. 199
Apalis, ii. 258
Apaloderma, ii. 314
Apatura, ii, 474
Aphanapteryx of Mauritius, I. 164

ii. 352
Aphantocera, ii. 107
Aphelotherium, European Eocene, i 125
Aphneus, ii. 477
Aphobus, ii. 283
APHREDODERIDÆ, ii. 425
Aphritis, ii. 428

ii. 549

Aphriza, ii. 356
Aphysiadæ, ii. 530
Aphyocypris, ii. 452
Aplocerus, ii. 224
Aplodontia, ii, 236
A plonis, ii. 288
Aplopelia, ii. 333
Apodiemia, ii. 476
Apogon, ii. 425
Aprasia, ii. 396
APRASIADÆ, ii. 398
A prosm ictus, ii. 325
Aptenodytes, ii. 366
APTERYGIDÆ, ii. 369
Apteryx, ii. 369
Apua, ii. 453
Aquila, European Miocene, i 161

ii. 348
AQUILINÆ, ii. 348
Ara, ii. 328
Arachnechthra, ii. 276
Arachnothera, ii, 277
ARAMIDÆ, ii. 357
Aramides, ii. 352
Aramus, ii. 357
Arapaima, ii. 454
Arborophila, ii. 338
ARCADÆ, ii, 534
Archæomys, ii. 238
Archæmpleryx, Bavarian Oolite, i. 163
Archibuteo, ii. 348
Arctic shells, ii. 518

zone not a separate region, i. 68
Arctitis, ii. 195
Åretocebus, ii. 176
Arctocephalus, ii. 202
Arctocyon, European Eocene, i. 125

ii. 206
Arctodus, N. American Post-Pliocene, 1 130

ii. 202
Arctogale, ii. 195
Arctomys, European Pliocene, i. 113

ii. 235, 236
Arctonyx, ii. 199
Arctopithecus, ii. 244
Arctotherium in Brazilian caves, i. 144

S. American Pliocene, i. 146
Ardea, ii. 359
ARDEIDÆ, ii. 359
Ardistomus, ii. 490
Argentina, ìi. 488
Arges, ii. 444
ARGONAUTIDÆ ii. 5050
Argus pheasant, figure of, i. 839

peculiarity in display of plumage, ardenne

firmation of Mr. Darwin's views, i. 340
Argusianus, ii. 340
Arqutor, ii. 489 i
Argynnis, ii. 474
Aricoris, ii. 476
Ariella, ii. 195
Arinia, ii. 520
Arion, ii. 517
Aristobia, ii. 501
Arius, ii. 443
Armadillos, ii. 245
Arnoglossus, ii. 441
Aromochelys, ü. 408
Arremon, ii. 99
Arrhenotus, ii. 501
Artamia, ii. 268

ii. 271

ii. 288
ARTAMIDÆ, ii. 288
Artamides, ii. 269
Artamus, ii. 288

Australian region, mammalia of, i 390

birds of, i. 391
reptiles of, i. 396
amphibia of, i. 397
fresh-water fish of, i. 397
summary of vertebrata of, i. 397
supposed land-connection of with S. Am.

rica, i, 398
insects of, i. 403
lepidoptera of, i. 404
coleoptera of, i. 405
land-shells of, i. 407
sub-regions of, i. 408

early history of, i. 465
Australian sub-region, mammalia of, i. 438

illustration of mammalia of, i. 439
birds of, i. 440

illustration of fauna of, i. 441
Australian hedgehog, ii. 254
Austro-Malayan sub-region, physical features

of, i 388

zoology of, i. 409
Automolus, ii, 103
AVICULIDÆ, ii. 533
Avocettula, ii. 107
Avocettinus, ii. 108
Aye-aye, figure of, i. 278

ii. 177
Ariocerces, ii. 477
Azores, visited by European birds, i. 17

birds of, i. 207
butterflies of, i. 207
beetles of, i. 207, 209
peculiarly modified birds of, i. 207
stragglers to, i. 208
how stocked with animal life, I. 208

Arthroleptis, ii. 421
Artiodactyla, European Eocene, i. 126

N. American Tertiary, i. 137

S. American Pliocene, i. 146
Artomyias, ii. 270
Arundinicola, ii. 100
Arvicola, European Pliocene, i. 113

in Brazilian caves, i. 145
S. American Pliocene, i. 147

S. American Eocene, i. 148
Arvicola, ii. 230, 231
Asio, ii, 350
Aspergillum, ii. 537
Aspidoparia, ii. 452
Aspidorhinus, ii. 391
Aspidura, il 374
Aspius, ii. 453
Aspredo, ii. 444
Aspro, ii. 425
Astarte, ii. 535
Astathes, ii. 501
Asterophys, ii. 421
Asterophysus, ii. 443
Asthenodipsas, ii. 381
Astrapii, ii. 274
Astroblepus, ii. 444
Astur, ií. 348
Asturina, ii. 348
Asturinula, ii. 348
ATELEOPODIDÆ, ii. 440
Ateles, ii, 174
Atelopus, ii. 416
Atelornis, ii, 312
Aterica, ii. 474
Athene, ii. 350
Atherina, ii, 434
Atherinichthys, ii. 434
ATHERINIDÆ, ii. 434
Atheris, ii. 386
Atherura, ii. 240
Athylaz, ii. 195
Athyma, ii. 474
ATLANTIDÆ, ii. 531
Atlipetes, ii. 284
ATRACTASPIDIDÆ, ii, 383
Atractaspis, ii, 383
Atretium, ii. 375
Atrichia, 299
ATRICHIIDÆ, ii. 299
Atropos, ii. 385
Atlagis, ii. 354
ATTALINÆ, ii. 293
Atthis, ii. 108
Atticora, ii. 281
Attila, ií. 102
Auchenaspis, ii. 443
Auchenia, N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 130

ii. 217
Auchenipterus, ii. 443
Auckland Islands, birds of, i. 455
Augastes, ii. 108
Auks, ii. 367
Aulia, ii. 102
Aulacodes, ii. 239
Aulacodon, ii. 239
Aulacorhamphus, ii. 307
Aulopoma, ii. 520
Aulopyge, ii. 452
Auricula, ii. 519, 527
AURICULIDÆ, ii. 518
Auriparus, ii. 266
Australia, physical features of. i. 387
Australia and S. America, supposed land con-

nection between, i. 399
Australian region, description of, i. 387

zoological characteristics of, i. 390

B
Babirusa of Celebes, peculiarities of, i. 428
Babirus, ii, 215
Badger, figure of, i. 195
Badis, ii. 433
Bæotis, ii. 475
Bagarins, ii. 443
Bagrichthys, ii. 442
Bagroides, ii. 442
Bagrus, ii. 442
Baird, Professor, an fauna of Cape St. Lucas

ii. 130
on representative birds of United States,

ii. 180
Balæna, European Pliocene, i. 112

ii. 207
Balæniceps, ii. 360
BALÆNIDÆ, ii. 207
Balunodon, European Pliocene, i. 112
Balanoptera, 207
Balænopteridæ, ii. 207
Balea, ii. 516
Balearica, ii. 357
Baly, Mr., on Phytophaga of Japan, i. 230
Banca, its peculiar species and solution of a

problem in distribution, i. 356
Band-fish, ii. 435
Bandicoots, ii. 250
Barangia, ii. 199
Barbatula, ii. 306
Barbets, ii. 305
Barbichthys, ii. 452
Barbris, ii. 451
Barilius, ii. 452
Barissia, ii. 392
Barriers, as affecting distribution, i. 6

permanence of, as affecting distribution
to the dispersal of birds, i. 17

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