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recebecarene Sands of,

i

i

. 183

Baryphthengus, ii. 313
Barymis, ii, 492
Basileuterus, ii 279
Basilornis, ii. 287
Bassaris, ii. 200
Batara, ii. 104
Bates, Mr., on Carabidæ of Japan, i. 228

on Longicorns of Japan, i. 230
Bath modon, N. American Tertiary, i. 136
Bathrodon, N. American Tertiary, i. 133
Bathyerges, ii. 231
BATOIDEI, ii. 462
BATRACHIDÆ, ii. 431
Batrachocephalus, ii. 443
Batrachose ps, ii. 413
Batrachostomus, ii. 318
Bats, powers of flight of, i. 15

classification of, i. 87

of New Zealand, i. 450
Baucis, ii. 108
Baza, ii. 349
Bileogale, ii. 195
Bearded Reedling, ii. 262
Bears, probable cause of absence of, from

tropical Africa, i. 291

ii. 201
Beaver, N. American Tertiary, i. 140
Beavers, ii. 234
Bee-eaters, ii. 312
Beetles, families selected for study, i. 103

from the Lias, i. 167
of Azores, i. 207
of Japan, i, 228

of S. Temperate America. ii. 44
BELEMNITIDÆ, ii. 506
Belem noziphius, European Pliocene, i. 112
Belideus, ii, 252
Belionota, ii. 497
Belodontichthys, ii. 441
Belone, ii, 150
Belonesox, ii. 450
Belt, Mr., his theory of a great Siberian lake

during the glacial epoch, i. 218; ii. 206
on change of climate caused by diminu-

tion of obliquity of ecliptic, i. 466
Beluga, ii. 209
Bembecidium, ii. 489
Berardius, ii. 208
Berenicornis, ii. 317
Bermudas, zoology of, ii. 134
Bernicla,, ii. 363
Bernieria, ii, 258
BERYCIDA, ii. 424
Bessonornis, ii. 256
Bettongia, ii. 251
Bhringa, ii. 269
Bhutanitis, ii. 479
Bias, ii, 270
Biatas, ii. 104
Bibos, ii. 222
Bison, ii. 222, 225
Binney, Mr., on Air-breathing Molluscs of

N. America, ii 528
Birds, means of dispersal of, i. 15

dispersal of by winds, i. 16
American, found in Europe, i. 16
reaching the Azores, i. 17
barriers to dispersal of, i. 17
limited by forests, i. 17
classification of, i. 93
Miocene of Greece, i. 116
extinet, i. 160
fossil of Palearctic region, i. 161
European of Miocene period, i. 161
Eocene of Europe, i. 162
relations of, i. 162

Birds, extinct of North America, i. 163

recently extinct in New Zealand, i. 164
Cretaceous.of N. America, i. 164
remains of in Brazilian caves, i. 164
recently extinct in Madagascar and the

Mascarene Islands, i. 164
cosmopolitan groups of, i. 176
numerous Palæarctic genera, i. 183
of the European sub-region, i. 193
northern range of in Europe, i. 193
of the zone of pine forests, i. 194
of Iceland, i. 198
of the Mediterranean sub-region, L 203
of Malta, i. 206 (note)
of the Azores, i. 207
of the Cape Verd Islands, i. 215
of the Siberian sub-region, i, 219
Oriental found in Siberia, i. 219
extreme northern Asiatic, i. 219
of northern Asiatic forests, i. 220
of the Manchurian sub-region, i. 223
Palæarctic genera of, in the Manchurian

sub-region, i. 224
Oriental genera of, in the Manchurian

sub-region, i. 224
characteristic of N.W. China and Mon-

golia, i. 226
table of Palæarctic families af, i 235
of West Africa, i. 243
list of Palæarctic genera of, i. 243
of the Ethiopian region, i. 253
of the East African sub-region, i. 260
S. African, i. 267
genera of, peculiar to Madagascar, i. 275
common to Madagascar and Oriental or

Ethiopian regions, i. 276
species common to Madagascar and Africa

or Asia, i. 277
table of Ethiopian families of, i. 295
table of Ethiopian genera of, i. 306
of the Oriental region, i. 316
of the Indian sub-region, i. 323
Oriental genera of in Central India, i. 324
Palæarctic and Ethiopian genera in

Central India, i. 325
of Ceylon, i. 327
of the Indo-Chinese sub region, i 330
of the Indo-Malayan sub-region, i. 337
illustration of peculiar Malayan, i 839
of the Philippine Islands, i. 346
table of Oriental families of, i. S06
table of Oriental genera of, i. 375
of Australian region, i. 391
specially organized Australian families of.

i. 399
of the Papuan Islands, i. 410
peculiarities of, i. 413
brilliant colours of, i. 413
remarkable forins of, i. 414
of the Moluccas, i. 418
peculiarities of, i. 421
of the Timor group, i. 423
of Celebes, i. 428
of Australia, i. 440
of New Zealand, i. 451
peculiar to New Zealand, i. 452
of Norfolk Island, i. 453
of Lord Howe's Island, i. 453
of the Chatham Islands, i. 454
of the Auckland Islands, i. 455
table of families of Australian, i. 471
table of genera of Australian, i. 478
of the Neotropical region, ii. 6
distinctive characters of Neotropical, 11. 7
of the Mexican sub-region, ii. 52
of the Antilles, ii. 64

Birds, table of distribution of, ii. 68

table of families of Neotropical, ii. 86
table of genera of Neotropical, ii. 86
of the Nearctic region, ii. 116
list of typical genera of, ii. 118
of California, ii. 127
of Central N, America, ii. 130
of Eastern United States, ii. 132
of Canada, ii, 136
table of Nearctic families of, ii. 141
table of Nearctic genera of, ii. 148
and Mammals, parallelism of distribution

of, ii. 545
lines of migration of, ii. 545
peculiar development of, in islands, ii.

546
contrast of distribution in tropical and

temperate oceanic islands, ii. 546
Biziura, ii. 364
Blacicus, ii. 102
Black ape of Celebes, i. 427
Bland, Mr. Thomas, on Antillean land-shells,

ii. 19

ii. 526
Blanford, Mr. W. T., on the “Indian"

region, i. 60
on relations of Indian sub-region with

Africa, i, 321
Blapsidium, Oolitic insect, i. 167
Blarina, ii. 191
Blauneria, ii. 519
BLENNIDÆ, ii. 431
Blenniops, ii. 431
Blennius, ii, 431
Blethisa, ii. 489
Blind burrowing snakes, ii. 372
Blunt-heads, ii. 380
Blyth, Mr., on zoological regions, i. 60

on the relations of Indian sub-region with

Africa, i. 321
Boa, ii. 381
Boesdon, ii. 380
Boas, ii. 381
Bola, ii. 452
Bolborhynchus, ii. 328
Boleosoma, ii. 425
BOMBINATORIDÆ, ii. 416
Bombinator, ii. 417
Bonasa, ii. 339
Bonnet-limpets, ii. 511
Bony Pikes, ii. 459
Bootherium, ii. 225
Borneo, probable recent changes in, i. 857
Bos, Post-Pliocene, i. 112

Indian Miocene, i. 122

ii. 222, 225
Botaurus, ii. 359
Bothriodon, ii. 215
Botia, ii. 453
Bourbon, zoology of, i. 280

reptiles of, i. 281
Bonurcieria, ii. 108

ii. 521
Bovidæ, European Miocene, i. 120
BOVIDÆ, ii. 221
BOVINÆ, ii. 222
Brachinus, ii, 489
BRACHIOPODA, ii. 532
Brachiurophis, ii. 383
Brachiurus, ii. 175
Brachyalestes, ii. 445
Brachycephalus, ii. 414
Brachygalba, ii. 311
Brachylophus, ii. 401
Brachymeles, ii. 397
Brachymerus, ii. 416

Brachymys, European Miocene, i. 120

ii. 232

ii. 236
Brachymystax, ii. 447
Brachypteryx, ii, 256
Brachypternus, ii, 303
Brachytarsomys, ii, 230
Brachypteracias, ii. 312
Brachyrhamphus, ii. 367
Bradybates, ii. 413
Bradycellus, ii. 489
Bradyornis, ii. 271
BRADYPODIDÆ, ii. 244
Bradyptetus, ii. 258
Bradypus, ii. 244
Bradytus, ii. 489
Brama, ii. 429
Brumatherium, Miocene of Perim Island, i. 122

ii. 226
Branchiosteus, ii. 442
Branta, ii. 364
BRASSOLIDÆ, ii. 472
Brassolis, ii. 472
Brazilian cave-fauna, i. 143

remarks on, i. 145
Brazilian sub-region, description of, ii. 21

mammalia of, ii. 23
birds of, ii, 24
illustration of mammalia of, ii. 23
illustration of birds of, ii. 28

islands of, ii, 29
Breviceps, ii. 416
Breyeria borinensis, Carboniferous insect, i. 168
Britain, peculiar species in, i. 197
British Isles, zoology of, i. 197
Broad-bill, Malayan, figure of, i. 840
Broad-bills, ii, 294
Bronchocela, ii. 402
Brontes, ij. 444
Brontotherida, N. American Tertiary, i. 137
Brontotherium, N. American Tertiary, i. 137
Brotogerys, ii. 328
Brush-turkeys, ii. 341
Brycon, ii. 445
Bryconops, ii. 445
Bryttus, ii, 425
Buarremon, ii. 99
Bubalus, ii. 222
Bubo, European Miocene, i. 162

ii. 350
BUCCINIDÆ, ii. 507
Buccinum, ii. 507
Bucco, ii. 310
BUCCONIDÆ, ii. 310
Bucephala, ii. 364
Bucephalus, ij. 379
Buceros, ii. 317
BUCEROTIDÆ, ii. 316
Bucorvus, ii. 317
Budorcas, ii. 224
BUDORCINÆ, ii. 224
Budytes, ii. 290
Buffaloes, ii. 221
Bufo, ii. 415
BUFONIDÆ, ii. 415
Bulbuls, ii. 267
BULLIDÆ, ii, 530
Buliminus, ii. 514
Bulimulus, ii. 514
Bulimus, Eocene, i. 169

ii. 514, 523
Bunælurus, N. American Tertiary, 1. 134
Bungarus, ii. 383
Bungia, ii. 452

Bunocephalichthys, ii. 444
| Bunocephalus, ii. 444

Buphago, ii. 288
BUPRESTIDÆ, ii. 495
Buprestidium, Oolitic insect, i. 167
Busarellus, ii. 348
Bush-shrikes, ii, 297
Bustards, ii. 356
Butalis, ii. 270
Butastur, ii. 348
Buteo, ii. 348
Buteogallus, ii. 348
BUTEOXINÆ, ii. 348
Buteola, ij. 348
Buthraupis, ii. 98
Butterflies, arrangement of, i. 103

Palæarctic, i 187
of Central Europe, i. 196
of the Mediterranean sub-region, i. 205
of Azores, i. 207
peculiar to Siberian sub-region, i. 220
of Japan and North China, i. 227
of the Ethiopian region, i. 255
number of Ethiopian species, i. 256
of Indo-Malay sub-region, i. 342
of the Australian region, i. 404
of the Austro-Malay sub-region, i. 404
of the Moluccas, i. 419
of Celebes, peculiarities

34
of New Zealand, i. 457
ii. 470
general remarks on the distribution of, ii.

483
fossil, ii. 486

of S. Temperate America, ii. 43
Bycanistes, ii. 317

Cabalus, ii. 352
Cabrita, ii. 391
Cacatua, ii. 325
CACATUIDÆ, ii. 324
Caccabis, ii. 339
Cach 1s, ji. 453
Cacomantis, ii. 309
Cacophis, ii. 383
Cacopitta, ii. 261
Cacopis, ii. 416
Cacotus, ii. 417
Coctornis, ii. 284
Cadurcotherium, European Eocene, i. 125
Cæcilia, ii. 411
CÆCILIADÆ, ii. 411
Crecum, ii 509
Calodon, in Brazilian caves, i. 145
Ciélogenys, in Brazilian caves, i. 144

ii. 241
Cænopithecus, European Eocene, i. 124

ii. 178
Contropus, ii. 445
Cainotherium, European Miocene, i. 120

European Eocene, i. 126
Cairina, ii. 364
Caica, ii. 328
Calamanthus, ii. 258
Calamaria, ii. 374
CALAMARIIDÆ, ii. 374
Calamodon, N. American Eocene, i. 139
Calamodus, ii. 258
CALAMOHERPINÆ, ii. 287
Calamoichthys, ii. 458
Colamospiza, ii. 285
Calandrello, ii. 289
Calao, ii. 317
Calathus, ii. 489
Caledonica, ii. 487

Calendula, ii. 269
Calicalicus, ii. 271
Calictis, ii. 195
Calidris, ii, 353
Caliecthrus, ii 309
California, illustration of zoology of, ii. 128
Californian sub-region, ii. 127

mainmalia of, ii. 127
birds of, ii. 127
reptiles of, ii. 128.
amphibia of, ii, 128

fresh-water fishes of, ii. 128
Caligo, ii. 472
Calinauja, ii. 479
Calisto, ii. 471
Callæas, ii. 287
Callia, ii. 521
Callichroma, ii, 501
Callichrous, ii. 442
Callichthys, ii. 444
Callida, ii, 490
Callidryas, ii. 478
Callionymus, it. 430
Calliope, ii, 259
Callipepla, ii. 339
Calliperidia, ii. 108
Calliphlox, ii. 198
Callirhinus, ií. 375
Callisaurus, ii. 401
Calliste, ii. 98 .
Callisthenus, ii. 489
Callithea, ii. 474
Callithrix, in Brazilian caves, i 184

ii. 175

ii. 178
Callocephalus, ii. 204
Callochen, ii. 363
Callomystax, ii. 443
Callophis, ii. 383
Callophysus,.ii. 443
Callopistes, ii. 390
Callorhinus, ii. 202
Calloselasma, ii 385
Callosune, ii. 478
Callula, ii. 416
Calobates, ii. 290
Calocitta, ii. 273
Calodromas, ii. 344
Calænas, ii. 333
Caloperdix, ii. 339
Calophena, ii. 490
Calopsitta, ii. 325
Calorugia, ii. 375
Calorhamphus, ii. 303
Calornis, ii. 288
Calosoma, ii. 489
Calostethus, ii. 419
Calotes, ii. 402
Calothorax, ii. 108
Calydna, ii. 476
Calypte, ii. 108
Calyptocephalus, il. 421
Calyptomena, ii. 295
Calyptorhynchus, ii. 325
CALYPTRÆIDÆ, ii. 61!
Calyptura, ii. 102
Camarhynchus, ii. 284
Camaroptera, ii. 258
Camel, fossil in Indian Miocene, i. 123

birth-place and migrations of. i. 155

Palæarctic, i. 182
Camelida, essentially extra-tropical, i. 112

N. American Tertiary, i. 138
CAMELIDÆ, ji. 216
CAMELOPARDALIDÆ, ii, 221
Camelopardalis, Miocene of Greece, i. 116

Camelopardalis, Indian Miocene, i. 122

ii. 221
Camelotherium, 8. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 217
Camels, ii. 216
Camelus, ii. 216
Camena, ii. 477
Campephaga, ii, 269
CAMPEPHAGIDÆ, ii. 268
Campephilus, ii. 303
Campsiempis, ii. 101
Camptoluimus, ii. 364
Campylopterus, ii. 107
Campylorhynchus. ii. 264
Canadian sub-region, mammalia of, ii, 135

birds of, ii. 136
reptiles and fishes of, ii. 137

insects of, ii 137
Canaries, birds of, i. 208

beetles of, i. 209
Cancroma, ii. 359
Canido, European Miocene, i. 118

European Eocene, i. 125
N, American Tertiary, i. 134

remarkable S. African, i. 267
CANIDÆ, ii. 197
Canis, European Pliocene, i. 112

Post-Pliocene, i. 112
European Miocene, i. 118
Indian Miocene, i. 121
European Eocene, i. 125
N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 129
N. American Tertiary, i. 134, 135
in Brazilian caves, i. 144
S. American Pliocene, i. 146

ii. 197
Cantharus, ii. 427
Cantoria, ii. 376
Cape Ant-cater, ii. 246
Cape of Good Hope, peculiar flora and fauna

of, i. 266
Cape Verd Islands, zoology of, i. 214
Cape-hare, S. African, i. 267
Capito, ii. 306
CAPITONINÆ, ii. 306
Capoeta, ii. 451
Capra, ii. 224, 225
Capreolus, ii. 219
CAPRIMULGIDÆ, ii. 319
Caprimulgus, ii. 319
CAPRINE, ii. 224
Capromys, ii. 238
Canys, ii. 477
CARABIDÆ, ii. 488
Carabus, ii. 488

ii. 489
CARANGIDÆ, ii. 429
Carassius, ii. 451
CARCHARIIDÆ, ii. 460
Carcinentes, ii. 316
Cardellina, ii, 279
CARDIADæ, ii, 635
Cardinalis, ii. 285
Cardiodus, 8. American Pliocene, i. 147
Cardiopthalmus, ii. 492
Cardita, ii. 535
Carenum, ii. 490
Cariama, Brazilian caves, i. 164

ii. 357
CARIAMIDÆ, ii. 357
Caridonar, ii. 316
Carlia, ii. 397
Carnivora of European Pliocene, i. 112

Miocene of Greece, i. 115
European Miocene, i, 118
Indian Miocene, i. 121

Carnivora, European Eocene, i. 125

N. American Post-Pliocene, i. 129
X. American Tertiary, i. 134
of Brazilian caves, i. 144

S. American Pliocene, i. 146
Carnivora, classification of, l. 88

antiquity of, i. 153
of the Palæarctic region, i. 182
list of Palæarctic genera of, i. 240
list of Ethiopian genera of, i. 302
range of Oriental genera of, i. 873

list of Australian genera of, i. 476
CARNIVORA, ii. 192

general remarks on the distribution of,

204
range of, in time, ii. 206

summary and conclusion, ii. 541
Caroline Islands, birds of, i. 444
Carpenter, Dr. Philip, on Panama shells, ji.

20
Carpiodes, *. 451
Carpococcyr, ii, 309
Carpodacus, ii. 285
Carpodectes, ii. 102, 294
Carpophaga, ii. 332
Carterodon in Brazilian caves, i. 145

ii. 239
Carus. and Gerstaeker on classification of

animals, i. 85
Professor, on classification of the Cetacea,

i. 88
Carychium, ii. 519
Casarca, ii. 363
Cascelius, ii. 492
Casiornis, ii. 102, 293
Casoryx, N. American Tertiary, i. 138

ii. 225
Casnonia, ii. 489
Cassiculus, ii. 282
Cassicus, ii. 282
Cassidaria, ii. 507
Cassidix, ii. 283
Cassinia, ii. 270
Cassowaries, ii. 368
Castatia, ii. 534
Castnia, ii. 481
CASTNIIDÆ, ii. 481
Castor, European Pliocene, i. 113

European Miocene, i. 120

ii. 234
CASTORIDÆ, ii. 234
Castoroides, ii. 234
Casuarius, ii. 369
CASUARIIDÆ, ii. 368
Catadromus, ii, 490
Catagramma, ii. 474
Catamblyrhynchus, ii. 285
Catamenia, ii. 285
Catascopus, ii. 489

ii. 491
Cataulus, ii. 520
Catharistes, ii. 346
Cathartes, Brazilian caves, i. 124

ii. 346
Catharus, ii, 256
Catherpes, ii. 264
Catla, ii. 451
Catoblepas, ii. 224
Catodon, ii, 208
Catodontidce, ii. 207
Catopra, ii, 433
Catoprion, ii. 446
Catostomus, ii. 451
Catoxantha, ii. 496
Catriscus, ii. 258
Cats, ii. 192

Cave-fauna of Brazil, i. 143
Cavia, European Miocene, i. 121

in Brazilian caves, i. 144
8. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 241
Cavies, ii. 241
CAVIIDÆ, ii, 241
CEBIDÆ, ii, 174
Cebocharus, European Eocene, i. 120

ii. 215
Cebus in Brazilian caves, i. 144

ii. 174

ii. 178
Cecina, ii. 521
Celebes, physical features of, i. 389

mammalia of, i. 426
birds of, i. 428
insects of, i. 434

origin of fauna of, i. 436
Celestus, ii. 327
Celeus, ii. 303
Celia, ii. 489
Cenchris, ii. 385
Centetes, ii. 188
Centetida, European Miocene, i. 118
CENTETIDÆ, ii. 188
Centrarchus, ii. 425
CENTRISCIDÆ, ii. 436
Centriscus, ii. 436
Centrites, ii. 101, 291
Centrocercus, ii. 339
Centrolabrus, ii. 437
Centrolophus, ii. 429
Centromochlus, ii. 443
Centronotus, ü. 431
Centromis, ii. 309
Centronyx, ii. 286
Centroqyx, ii. 390
Centurus, ii. 303
Cephalepis, ii. 108
Cephalopeltis, ii. 389
CEPHALOPHINÆ, ii. 224
Cephalophus, ii. 224
CEPHALOPODA, ii, 505
Cephalopterus, ii. 103, 294
Cephalopyrus, ii. 266
Cepola, ii. 435
CEPOLIDÆ, ii. 435
CERAMBYCIDÆ, ii. 498
Ceratichthys, ii. 452
Ceratina, ii. 470
Ceratodus, remarkable Australian fish, i 397
Ceratodus, ii. 458
Ceratohyla, ii. 418
Ceratophora, ii. 402
Ceratophorus, ii. 501
Ceratophrys, ii. 420
Ceratoptera, ii. 463
Ceratorhina, ii. 367
Ceratorhinus, ii. 213
Ceratotherium, ii. 213
Cerberus, ii. 376
Cercaspis, ii. 380
Cerch neis, ii. 349
Cercocebus, ii, 173
Cercolabes in Brazilian caves, i. 145

ii. 240
CERCOLABIDÆ, ii, 239
Cercoleptes, ii. 200
Cercomacra, ii. 104
Cercomela, ii. 260
Cercomys, ii. 239
Cercopithecus in European Pliocene, i. 112

ii. 173
Cercosura, ii. 394
CERCOSAURIDÆ, ii. 394

Cereopsis, ii. 363
Ceriornis, ii, 340
CERITHIADÆ, ii. 509
Certhia, ii. 264
Certhidea, ii. 278
CERTHIIDÆ, ii. 264
Certhilauda, ii, 289
Certhiola, ii. 278
Certhiparus, ii. 266
Cervicapra, ii. 224
CERVICAPRINÆ, ii. 224
Cervidæ, European Miocene, i. 120

birth-place and migrations of, i. 155
CERVID , ii. 218
Cervulus, ii. 219
Cervus, European Pliocene, i. 113

Indian Pliocene and Miocene, i. 122
N. American Post-Pliocene i 130
N. American Tertiary, i. 138
in Brazilian caves, i. 144
8. American Pliocene, i. 147

ii. 219
Ceryle, ii 316
CEŠTRACIONTIDÆ, ii. 461
Cetacea, European Pliocene, i. 112

European Miocene, i. 119
N. American Post-Pliocene, i 180

N. American Tertiary, i. 140
Cetacea, classification of, i. 89

range of Oriental genus, i. 374
CETACEA, ii. 207
Cethosia, ii. 474
CETONIIDÆ, ii. 494
Cetopsis, ii. 443
Cettia, ii. 258
Ceuth mochares, ii. 309
Ceycopsis, ii. 316
Ceylon and Malaya, resemblance of insects of.

327

Ceylonese sub-rezion, i. 826

mammalia of, i. 327
birds of, i. 327
reptiles of, i. 327
amphibia of, i 327
insects of, i. 327
past history of, as indicated by its fauna,

i 328
Ceyx, ii. 316
Chaca, ii, 441
Chamarrhornis, ii. 259
Chamepelia, 333
Chorocampe, ii. 482
Chatobranchus, ii. 439
Chatocertus, ii. 108

ii. 249
Chætodon, ii. 427
Chatomys, ii. 240
Chatops, ii. 256
Chartoptila, ii. 276
Chætorhynchus, ii. 269
Chatostomus, ii. 444
Chatura, ii. 320
Chatusia, ii. 356
Chalceus, ii. 445
CHALCIDÆ, ii 393
Chalcinopsis, ii. 445
Chalcinus, ii. 445
Chalcis, ii. 393
Chalcochloris, ii. 189
Chalcopelia, ii. 333
Chalcophaps, ii. 333
Chalcostetha, ii. 276
Chalicomys, European Pliocene, i 119
Chalicotherium, European Miocene, i. 119

Indian Miocene, i. 122
fossil in N. China, i. 123

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