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considered to show most resemblance, though still a very distant one to the kingfishers. They are abundant in the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, and extend eastward to the Solomon Islands. Their classification is very unsettled, for though they have been divided into more than twenty genera they have not yet been carefully studied. The following grouping of the genera-referring to the numbers in the Hand List must therefore be considered as only provisional:—

(* * *) Buceros (6 sp.), all Indo-Malaya, Arakan, Nepal and the Neilgherries (Plate IX. Vol. I. p. 339); Go- o Hydrocossa (7 sp.), India and Ceylon to Malaya and Celebes. (*) Berenicorns (2 sp.), Sumatra and West Africa; (to Calao (3 sp.), Tennaserim, Malaya, Moluccas to the Solomon Islands: (*) Aceros (1 sp.), South-east Himalayas; Go to Cramorrhinus (3 sp.), Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Celebes: (*) Penelopides (1 sp.), Celebes; Go-on) Tockus (15 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; (*) Rhinoplaw (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo; (*-*) Bycanistes (6 sp.), West Africa with East and South Africa; (" ") Meniceros (3 sp.), India and Ceylon to Tenasserim; (*) Bucorpus (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa.

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The Podargidae, or Frog-mouths, are a family of rather largesized nocturnal insectivorous birds, closely allied to the Goatsuckers, but distinguished by their generally thicker bills, and especially by hunting for their food on trees or on the ground, instead of seizing it on the wing. They abound most in the Australian region, but one genus extends over a large part of the Oriental region. The following are the genera with their distribution –

Podargus (10 sp.), Australia, Tasmania, and the Papuan Islands (Plate XII. Vol. I. p. 441); Batrachostomus (6 sp.), the Oriental region (excluding Philippine Islands and China) and the northern Moluccas; Ægotheles (4 sp.), Australia, Tasmania, and Papuan Islands.

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The Goat-suckers, or Night-jars, are crepuscularinsectivorous birds, which take their prey on the wing, and are remarkable for their soft and beautifully mottled plumage, swift and silent flight, and strange cries often imitating the human voice They are universally distributed, except that they do not reach New Zealand or the remoter Pacific Islands. The South American genus, Wyctibius, differs in structure and habits from the other goat-suckers and should perhaps form a distinct family. More than half the generainhabit the Neotropical region. The genera are as follows:– -

Wycolous (6 sp.), Brazil to Guatemala, Jamaica; Caprimulgus (35 sp.), Palaearctic, Oriental, and Ethiopian regions, with the Austro-Malay Islands and North Australia; Hydropsalis (8 sp.), Tropical South America to La Plata; Antrostoms (10

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sp.), La Plata and Bolivia to Canada, Cuba; Stenopsis (4 sp.), Martinique to Columbia, West Peru and Chili; Siphonorhis (1 sp.), Jamaica; Heleoth reptus (1 sp.), Demerara: Nyctodromus (2 sp.), South Brazil to Central America; Scorformis (3 sp.), West and East Africa; Macrodipteryo (2 sp.), West and Central Africa; Cosmetornis (1 sp.), all Tropical Africa; Podager (1 sp.), Tropical South America to La Plata; Lurocalis (2 sp.), Brazil and Guiana; Chordeiles (8 sp.), Brazil and West Peru to Canada, Porto Rico, Jamaica; Nyctiprogne (1 sp.), Brazil and Amazonia; Eurostopodus (2 sp.), Australia and Papuan Islands; Lyncornis (4 sp.), Burmah, Philippines, Borneo, Celebes.

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The Swifts can almost claim to be a cosmopolitan group, but for their absence from New Zealand. They are most abundant both in genera and species in the Neotropical and Oriental regions. The following is the distribution of the genera :

Cypselus (1 sp.), absent only from the whole of North America and the Pacific; Panyptila (3 sp.), Guatemala and Guiana, and extending into North-west America; Collocalia (10 sp.), Madagascar, the whole Oriental region and eastward through New Guinea to the Marquesas Islands; Dendrochelidon (5 sp.), Oriental region and eastward to New Guinea; Chatura (15 sp.), Continental America (excluding South Temperate), West Africa and Madagascar, the Oriental region, North China and the Amoor, Celebes, Australia; Hemiprocne (3 sp.), Mexico to La Plata, Jamaica and Hayti; Cypseloides (2 sp.), Brazil and Peru; Nephaecetes (2 sp.), Cuba, Jamaica, North-west America.

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FAMILY 75–TROCHILIDAE (118 Genera, 390 Species)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.

NEoroopical. Nearctic Palaearctic Ethiopian ORIENTAL Australian sub-Regions. Sub-Regions. Sub-Regions. Sub-Regions. SUB-REgions. Sub-REGIONs. 1 - 2 - 3 - 4. * * * * - - - - - - - - ---

The wonderfully varied and beautiful Humming-Birds are confined to the American continent, where they range from Sitka to Cape Horn, while the island of Juan Fernandez has two peculiar species. Only 6 species, belonging to 3 genera, are found in the Nearctic region, and most of these have extended their range from the south. They are excessively abundant in the forest-clad Andes from Mexico to Chili, some species extending up to the limits of perpetual snow; but they diminish in number and variety in the plains, however luxuriant the vegetation. In place of giving here the names and distribution of the numerous genera into which they are now divided (which will be found in the tables of the genera of the Neotropical region), it may be more useful to present a summary of their distribution in the sub-divisions of the American continent,

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