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Scincus (2 sp.), North Africa and Arabia; Himulia (20 sp.), most of the Australian and Oriental regions; Cyclodina (1 sp.), Hombronia (1 sp.), and Lygosomella (1 sp.), all from New Zealand; Keneuria (1 sp.), Philippines, Moluccas, and Papuan Islands; Elania (1 sp.) New Guinea; Carlia (2 sp.), North Australia and New Guinea; Mocoa (16 sp.), Australia and New Zealand, with species in Borneo, West Africa, and Central America; Lipinia (3 sp.), Philippine Islands and New Guinea; Lygosoma (12 sp.), Australia, New Caledonia, Pelew and Philippine Islands; Tetradactylus (1 sp.), Hemierges (2 sp.), Chelomeles (2 sp.), Omolepido (1 sp.), Lissolepis (1 sp.), Siaphos (1 sp.), Rhodona (3 sp.) Anomalpus (1 sp.), Soridia (2 sp.), and Ophiosconcus (1 sp.) all confined to Australia; Cophosconcus (3 sp.), Philippine Islands, Celebes, and Queensland; Plestiodon (18 sp.), China and Japan, Africa, and America as far north as Pennsylvania and Nebraska; Eumeces (30 sp.), South Palaearctic, Oriental and Australian regions, to New Ireland and North Australia; Mabouya (20 sp.), Oriental region, AustroMalaya, North Australia, the Neotropical region, and to Lat. 42° 30' in North America; Amphioestus (1 sp.), Borneo; Hagria 1 sp.), and Chiamela (1 sp.), India; Senira (1 sp.), Philippine Islands; Brachymeles (2 sp.), Philippine Islands and Australia; Ophiodes (1 sp.), Brazil; Anguis (3 sp.), West Palaearctic region and South Africa; Tribolonotus (1 sp.), New Guinea; Tropidophorus (2 sp.), Cochin-China and Philippine Islands; Norbed (2 sp.), Borneo and Australia; Trachydosaurus (1 sp.), Australia; Cyclodus (8 sp.), Australia, Aru Islands, and Ceram; Silubosaurus (2 sp.), Egerina (2 sp.), and Tropidolepisma (6 sp.), all peculiar to Australia; Heteropus (7 sp.), Australia, Austro-Malaya, and Bourbon; P/gomeles (1 sp.), Madagascar; Dasia (1 sp.), Malaya; Euprepes (70 sp.), Ethiopian and Oriental regions, AustroMalaya, South America (); Celestus (9 sp.), peculiar to the Antilles, except a species in Costa Rica; Diploglossus (7 sp.), the Neotropical region —with a number of other genera founded on single species from various parts of the world.
The Sepidae, or Sand-Lizards, are a very natural group, almost confined to the Ethiopian region, but extending into the desert country on the borders of the Oriental region, and into the south of the Palaearctic region as far as Palestine, Madeira, Spain, Italy, and even the South of France. The genera are:–
Sops (10 sp.), South Europe, Madeira, Teneriffe, Palestine, North Africa, South Africa and Madagascar ; Sphenops (2 sp.), North Africa, Syria, West Africa; Scelotes (3 sp.), Angola to South Africa, Madagascar ; Thyrus (1 sp.), Bourbon and Mauritius; Amphiglossus (1 sp.), Madagascar; Sphenocephalus (1 sp.), Afghanistan; and Sepsina (4 sp.), South-west Africa.
The Geckoes, or Wall-Lizards, form an extensive family, of almost universal distribution in the warmer parts of the globe; and they must have some exceptional means of dispersal, since they are found in many of the most remote islands of the great oceans, as the Galapagos, the Sandwich Islands, Tahiti, New Zealand, the Loo-Choo and the Seychelle Islands, the Nicobar Islands, Mauritius, Ascension, Madeira, and many others. The following are the larger and more important genera:
0&dura (3 sp.), Australia; Diplodactylus (8 sp), Australia, South Africa, and California; Phyllodactylus (8 sp.), widely scattered in Tropical America, California, Madagascar, and Queensland; Hemidactylus (40 sp.), all tropical and warm countries; Peropus (12 sp.), the Oriental region, Papuan Islands, Mauritius, and Brazil; Pentadactylus (7 sp.), Oriental region and Australia; Gecko (12 sp.), Oriental region to New Guinea and North Australia; Gehyra (5 sp.), Australia, New Guinea and Fiji Islands; Tarentola (7 sp.), North Africa, North America, Madeira, Borneo, South Africa, Phelsuma (6 sp.), Madagascar, Bourbon, and Andaman Islands; Pachydactylus (5 sp.), South and West Africa, and Ascension Island; Sphaerodactylus (5 sp.), the Neotropical region; Naultinus, (6 sp.), New Zealand; Goniodactylus (5 sp.), Australia, Timor, South America and Algiers; Heteronola (4 sp.), Australia, Fiji Islands, New Guinea and Borneo; Cubina (4 sp.), the Neotropical region; Gymnodactylus (16 sp.), all warm countries except Australia; Phyllurus (3 sp.), Australia; Stenodactylus (4 sp.), North and West Africa, and Rio Grande in North America. The remaining genera mostly consist of single species, and are pretty equally distributed over the various parts of the world indicated in the preceding list. Madagascar, the Seychelle Islands, Chili, the Sandwich Islands, South Africa, Tahiti, the Philippine Islands, New Caledonia, and Australia—all have peculiar genera, while two new ones have recently been described from Persia.
The extensive family of the Iguanas is highly characteristic of the Neotropical region, in every part of which the species abound, even as far as nearly 50° South Latitude in Patagonia. They also extend northwards into the warmer parts of the Nearctic region, as far as California, British Columbia, and Kansas on the west, and to 43° North Latitude in the Eastern States. A distinct genus occurs in the Fiji Islands, and one has been described as from Australia, and another from Madagascar, but there is some doubt about these. The most extensive genera are:–
Anolius (84 sp.), found in most parts of Tropical America and north to California; Tropidolepis (15 sp.), which has nearly the same range; Leiocephalus (14 sp.), Antilles, Guayaquil, and Galapagos Islands; Leiolomus (14 sp.), Peru to Patagonia: Seeloporus (9 sp.), from Brazil to California and British Columbia, and on the east to Florida; Proctotrotus (6 sp.), Chili and Patagonia; Phrynosoma (8 sp.), New Mexico, California, Oregon and British Columbia, Arkansas and Florida; Iguana (5 sp.), Antilles and South America; Cyclusa (4 sp.), Antilles, Honduras, and Mexico. Among the host of smaller genera may be noted:– Brachylophus, found in the Fiji Islands; Trachycephalus and Oreocephalus, peculiar to the Galapagos; Oreodeira, said to be from Australia; Diplolaemus and Phymaturus, found only in Chili and Patagonia; and Callisaurus, Uta, Euphryne, Uma, and Holbrookia, from New Mexico and California. All the other genera are from various parts of Tropical America.
The extensive family Agamidae—the Eastern representative of the Iguanas—is highly characteristic of the Oriental region, which possesses about half the known genera and species. Of the remainder, the greater part inhabit the Australian region; others range over the deserts of Central and Western Asia and Northern Africa, as far as Greece and South Russia. One genus extends through Africa to the Cape of Good Hope, and there are three peculiar genera in Madagascar, but the family is very poorly represented in the Ethiopian region. Many of these creatures are adorned with beautifully varied and vivid colours, and the little “dragons” or flying-lizards are among the most interesting forms in the entire order. The larger genera are distributed as foslows:–