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THE LAW OF NATURAL SELECTION. First published in the “ Anthropological Review,” May, 1864. Now reprinted with a few important alterations and additions. I had intended to have considerably extended this essay, but on attempting it I found that I should probably weaken the effect without adding much to the argument. I have therefore preferred to leave it as it was first written, with the exception of a few ill-considered passages which never fully expressed my meaning. As it now stands, I believe it contains the enunciation of an important truth.



This is the further development of a few sentences at the end of an article on “ Geological Time and the Origin of Species," which appeared in the “ Quarterly. Review," for April, 1869. I have here ventured to touch on a class of problems which are usually considered to be beyond the boundaries of science, but which, I believe, will one day be brought within her domain.

For the convenience of those who are acquainted with any of my essays in their original form, I subjoin references to the more important additions and alterations now made to them.


ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED. Essays I. and II. are unaltered, but short notes are added at pp. 19, 24, 29, and 40.

III.-Mimicry, and other Protective Resemblances

among Animals.


53 Additional illustration of protective colouring in

the case of the wood-dove and the robin. 63 On moths resembling bird's dung and mortar. 86 Correction of some names of African Papilios and

a reference to Mr. Trimen's observations. 89 Mr. Jenner Weir's observation on birds which

refused to eat Spilosoma menthrasti. 102 An additional case of snake mimicry in Oxyrhopus

trigeminus. 107 Mr. Salvin's case of mimicry among hawks. 113 Name, Diadema anomala, added. 117 to 122. Use of gay colours in caterpillars, with an

account of Mr. Jenner Weir's and Mr. Butler's observations.

IV.The Malayan Papilionidæ or Swallow-tailed

Butterflies, as illustrative of the Theory of Natural

Selection. 135 to 140. Additions to the discussion on the rank of

the Papilionidæ, and on the principles which determine the comparative rank of groups in the animal kingdom.


164 Illustration of variability from Mr. Baker's re

vision of the British Roses. 173 Additional facts, on local variations of colour. 196 Additional genus of birds (Ceycopsis) peculiar

to Celebes. 199, 200. Concluding remarks.

VI.-The Philosophy of Birds' Nests. 218 On nesting of Terns and Gulls, rewritten. 220 to 222. Daines Barrington, and others, on the song

of birds. 223 On young birds learning to build, by memory and

imitation. 224 Levaillant, on mode of nest-building. 229 On imperfect adaptation in birds' nests.

VII.-A Theory of Birds' Nests. 231, 232. Introductory passages modified, with some

omissions. 233 How modifications of organization would affect the

form of the nest. 235 Illustration from the habits of children and savages. 235, 236. Objection to term “ hereditary habit”

answered. 237 Passage rewritten, on more or less variable char

acters in relation to nidification. 248 On males choosing or rejecting females, and on

the various modes in which colour may be acquired by female birds.


249 On probable ancestral colours of female birds. 255 Protective colouring of the Waxwing.

VIII.— Creation by Law. 293 Amount of variation in dogs. 296, 297. The “ Times” on Natural Selection. 298 to 300. On intermediate or generalized forms of

extinct animals as an indication of transmuta

tion or development. 302 Tabular demonstration of the Origin of Species by

Natural Selection.

IX.—The development of Human Races, under

the law of Natural Selection. 316 On colour as perhaps correlated with immunity

from disease in man. 326, 327. On the probable future development of man. 330 Concluding paragraph rewritten.

London, March, 1870.

The flattering reception of my Essays by the public and the press having led to a second edition being called for within a year of its first publication, I have taken the opportunity to make a few necessary corrections. I have also added a few passages to the 6th and 7th Essays, and have given two notes, explanatory of some portions of the last chapter which appear to have been not always understood. These additions are as follows:

To avoid altering the paging the additional pages now given have

been lettered.

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221 | Additional facts as to birds acquir

ing the song of other species. 223A / Mr. Spruce's remarks on young birds 223B S pairing with old. 228A Pouchet's observations on a change 228BI

in the nests of swallows. Passage omitted about nest of Golden

Orested Warbler, which had been inserted on Rennie's authority, but has not been confirmed by any later

observers. Daines Barrington, on importance of

protection to the female bird. 372

Note A. 372B Note B.

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