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164 Illustration of variability from Mr. Baker's re

vision of the British Roses. 173 Additional facts, on local variations of colour. 196 Additional genus of birds (Ceycopsis) peculiar

to Celebes. 199, 200. Concluding remarks.

VI.The Philosophy of Birds' Nests. 218 On nesting of Terns and Gulls, rewritten. 220 to 222. Daines Barrington, and others, on the song

of birds. 223 On young birds learning to build, by memory and

imitation. 224 Levaillant, on mode of nest-building. 229 On imperfect adaptation in birds' nests.

VII.-A Theory of Birds' Nests. 231, 232. Introductory passages modified, with some

omissions. 233 How modifications of organization would affect the

form of the nest. 235 Illustration from the habits of children and savages. 235, 236. Objection to term “ hereditary habit”

answered. 237 Passage rewritten, on more or less variable char

acters in relation to nidification. 248 On males choosing or rejecting females, and on

the various modes in which colour may be acquired by female birds.


249 On probable ancestral colours of female birds. 255 Protective colouring of the Waxwing.

VIII.— Creation by Law. 293 Amount of variation in dogs. 296, 297. The “ Times” on Natural Selection. 298 to 300. On intermediate or generalized forms of

extinct animals as an indication of transmuta

tion or development. 302 Tabular demonstration of the Origin of Species by

Natural Selection.

IX.—The development of Human Races, under

the law of Natural Selection. 316 On colour as perhaps correlated with immunity

from disease in man. 326, 327. On the probable future development of man. 330 Concluding paragraph rewritten.

London, March, 1870.

The flattering reception of my Essays by the public and the press having led to a second edition being called for within a year of its first publication, I have taken the opportunity to make a few necessary corrections. I have also added a few passages to the 6th and 7th Essays, and have given two notes, explanatory of some portions of the last chapter which appear to have been not always understood. These additions are as follows:

To avoid altering the paging the additional pages now given have

been lettered.

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2nd Ed.
221 Additional facts as to birds acquir-

ing the song of other species.
223A // Mr. Spruce's remarks on young birds
223B S pairing with old.
228A // Pouchet's observations on a change
228B % in the nests of swallows.

Passage omitted about nest of Golden

Crested Warbler, which had been inserted on Rennie's authority, but has not been confirmed by any later

observers. 261 Daines Barrington, on importance of

protection to the female bird.

Note A. 372B Note B.


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1.-On the Law which has regulated the introduction of New


Geographical distribution dependent on Geologic Changes — A Law

deduced from well-known Geographical and Geological facts—The

form of a true system of Classification determined by this Law-Geo-

graphical Distribution of Organisms-Geological Distribution of the
forms of Life-High Organization of very ancient Animals consistent
with this Law-Objections to Forbes' Theory of Polarity – Rudi-
mentary Organs—Conclusion . . . . . . Pp. 1 – 25

III.-Mimicry, and other Protective Resemblances among


Test of true and false Theories—Importance of the Principle of Utility

-Popular Theories of Colour in Animals-Importance of Conceal-
ment as influencing Colour-Special modifications of Colour-Theory
of Protective Colouring-Objection that Colour as being dangerous
should not exist in Nature—Mimicry-Mimicry among Lepidoptera
- Lepidoptera mimicking other Insects—Mimicry among Beetles-
Beetles mimicking other Insects—Insects mimicking Species of other
Orders—Cases of Mimicry among the Vertebrata--Mimicry among
Snakes—Mimicry among Birds—Mimicry among Mammals—Objec-
tions to Mr. Bates' Theory of Mimicry-Mimicry by Female Insects
only-Cause of the dull Colours of Female Birds-Use of the gaudy
Colours of many Caterpillars-Summary-General deductions as to
Colour in Nature Conclusion . . . . . Pp. 45–129

IV.—The Malayan Papilionido, or Swallow-tailed Butterflies,

as illustrative of the Theory of Natural Selection.

Special value of the Diurnal Lepidoptera for inquiries of this Nature-

Question of the rank of the Papilionidæ—Distribution of the Papi-
lionidæ-Definition of the word Species—Laws and Modes of Varia-
tion - Simple Variability- Polymorphism or Dimorphism – Local
form or variety-Co-existing Variety-Race or Subspecies-Species
-Variation as specially influenced by LocalityLocal Variation of
Size— Local Variation of Form-Local Variations of Colour-Re-

marks on the facts of Local Variation - Mimicry - Concluding

Remarks on Variation in Lepidoptera-Arrangement-Geographical

Distribution - Remarkable peculiarities of the island of Celebes-

Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . Pp. 130—200

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