« EelmineJätka »
most varied kind,—that wide and accurate physiological knowledge,—that acuteness in devising and skill in carrying out experiments, -and that admirable style of composition, at once clear, persuasive and judicial,-qualities, which in their harmonious combination mark out Mr. Darwin as the man, perhaps of all men now living, best fitted for the great work he has undertaken and accomplished.
My own more limited powers have, it is true, enabled me now and then to seize on some conspicuous group of unappropriated facts, and to search out some generalization which might bring them under the reign of known law; but they are not suited to that more scientific and more laborious process of elaborate induction, which in Mr. Darwin's hands has led to such brilliant results.
Another reason which has led me to publish this volume at the present time is, that there are some important points on which I differ from Mr. Darwin, and I wish to put my opinions on record in an easily accessible form, before the publication of his new work, (already announced,) in which I believe most of these disputed questions will be fully discussed.
I will now give the date and mode of publication of each of the essays in this volume, as well as the amount of alteration they have undergone.
1.-ON THE LAW WHICH HAS REGULATED THE INTRO
DUCTION OF NEW SPECIES.
Natural History,” September, 1855. Reprinted without alteration of the text.
II.— ON THE TENDENCY OF VARIETIES TO DEPART
INDEFINITELY FROM THE ORIGINAL TYPE. First published in the - Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnæan Society,” August, 1858. Reprinted without alteration of the text, except one or two grammatical emendations.
III.-MIMICRY AND OTHER PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCES
AMONG ANIMALS. First published in the “ Westminster Review," July, 1867. Reprinted with a few corrections and some important additions, among which I may especially mention Mr. Jenner Weir's observations and experiments on the colours of the caterpillars eaten or rejected by birds.
IV.-THE MALAYAN PAPILIONIDÆ, OR SWALLOW
TAILED BUTTERFLIES, AS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE
THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION. First published in the “ Transactions of the Linnæan Society,” Vol. XXy. (read March, 1864), under the title, “ On the Phenomena of Variation and Geographical Distribution, as illustrated by the Papilionidæ of the Malayan Region.”
The introductory part of this essay is now reprinted, omitting tables, references to plates, &c., with some additions, and several corrections. Owing to the publication of Dr. Felder's “ Voyage of the Novara” (Lepidoptera) in the interval between the reading of my paper and its publication, several of my new species must have their names changed for those given to them by Dr. Felder, and this will explain the want of agreement in some cases between the names used in this volume and those of the original paper.
V.-ON INSTINCT IN MAN AND ANIMALS. Not previously published.
VI.-THE PHILOSOPHY OF BIRDS' NESTS. First published in the “ Intellectual Observer,” July, 1867. Reprinted with considerable emendations and additions.
VII.-A THEORY OF BIRDS' NESTS ; SHOWING THE RELATION OF CERTAIN DIFFERENCES OF COLOUR IN BIRDS TO THEIR MODE OF NIDIFICATION.
First published in the “ Journal of Travel and Natural History” (No. 2), 1868. Now reprinted with considerable emendations and additions, by which I have endeavoured more clearly to express, and more fully to illustrate, my meaning in those parts which have been misunderstood by my critics.
VIII.—CREATION BY LAW. First published in the “ Quarterly Journal of Science,” October, 1867. Now reprinted with a few alterations and additions.
IX.—THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RACES UNDER
THE LAW OF NATURAL SELECTION.
First published in the “ Anthropological Review," May, 1864. Now reprinted with a few important alterations and additions. I had intended to have considerably extended this essay, but on attempting it I found that I should probably weaken the effect without adding much to the argument. I have therefore preferred to leave it as it was first written, with the exception of a few ill-considered passages which never fully expressed my meaning. As it now stands, I believe it contains the enunciation of an important truth.
X.—THE LIMITS OF NATURAL SELECTION AS APPLIED
This is the further development of a few sentences at the end of an article on “ Geological Time and the Origin of Species,” which appeared in the “Quarterly Review," for April, 1869. I have here ventured to touch on a class of problems which are usually considered to be beyond the boundaries of science, but which, I believe, will one day be brought within her domain.
For the convenience of those who are acquainted with any of my essays in their original form, I subjoin references to the more important additions and alterations now made to them.
ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO THE ESSAYS AS
ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED. Essays I. and II. are unaltered, but short notes are added at pp. 19, 24, 29, and 40.
III.-Mimicry, and other Protective Resemblances
53 Additional illustration of protective colouring in
the case of the wood-dove and the robin. 63 On moths resembling bird's dung and mortar. 86 Correction of some names of African Papilios and
a reference to Mr. Trimen's observations. 89 Mr. Jenner Weir's observation on birds which
refused to eat Spilosoma menthrasti. 102 An additional case of snake mimicry in Oxyrhopus
trigeminus. 107 Mr. Salvin's case of mimicry among hawks. 113 Name, Diadema anomala, added. 117 to 122. Use of gay colours in caterpillars, with an
account of Mr. Jenner Weir's and Mr. Butler's observations.
IV.—The Malayan Papilionidæ or Swallow-tailed
Butterflies, as illustrative of the Theory of Natural
Selection. 135 to 140. Additions to the discussion on the rank of
the Papilionidæ, and on the principles which determine the comparative rank of groups in the animal kingdom.