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lents in his life, and then amusing himself with Lucian, whist, and Charon, at his death, may smile over Babylon in ruins; esteem the earthquake, which destroyed Lisbon, an agreeable occurrence; and congratulate the hardened Pharaoh, on his overthrow in the Red sea. Drollery, in such circumstances, is neither more nor less than

Moody madness, laughing wild,
Amid severest woe.

Would we know the baneful and pestilential influences of false philosophy on the human heart? We need only contemplate them in this most deplorable instance of Mr. Hume.

These sayings, sir, may appear harsh; but they are salutary. And if departed spirits have any knowledge of what is passing upon earth, that person will be regarded by your friend as rendering him the truest services, who, by energy of expression, and warmth of exhortation, shall most contribute to prevent his writings from producing those effects upon mankind, which he no longer wishes they should produce. Let no man deceive himself, or be deceived by others. It is the voice of eternal truth, which crieth aloud, and saith to you, sir, and to me, and to all the world—" He "that believeth on the Son, hath everlasting life: and he "that believeth not the Son, shall not see life; but the "wrath of God abideth on him"."

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By way of contrast to the behaviour of Mr. Hume, at the close of a life, passed "without God in the world," permit me, sir, to lay before yourself, and the public, the last sentiments of the truly learned, judicious, and admirable Hooker, who had spent his days in the service of his Maker and Redeemer.

After this manner, therefore, spake the author of the Ecclesiastical Polity, immediately before he expired:

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"I have lived to see, that this world is made up of per"turbations; and I have been long preparing to leave it, "and gathering comfort for the dreadful hour of making "my account with God, which I now apprehend to be near. And though I have, by his grace, loved him in my youth, and feared him in my age, and laboured to "have a conscience void of offence, towards him, and to"wards all men; yet, if thou, Lord, shouldst be extreme "to mark what I have done amiss, who can abide it? And "therefore, where I have failed, Lord, show mercy to me; "for I plead not my righteousness, but the forgiveness of my unrighteousness, through His merits, who died to purchase pardon for penitent sinners. And since I owe "thee a death, Lord, let it not be terrible, and then take "thine own time; I submit to it. Let not mine, O Lord, "but thy will be done!--God hath heard my daily peti❝tions; for I am at peace with all men, and he is at peace with me. From such blessed assurance I feel that in"ward joy, which this world can neither give, nor take "from me. My conscience beareth me this witness; and "this witness makes the thoughts of death joyful. I could "wish to live, to do the Church more service; but cannot hope it for my days are past, as a shadow that re


"turns not."


His worthy biographer adds: "More he would have

spoken, but his spirits failed him; and, after a short con"flict between nature and death, a quiet sigh put a period "to his last breath, and so, he fell asleep-And now he 66 seems to rest like Lazarus in Abraham's bosom. Let me "here draw his curtain, till, with the most glorious com

pany of the Patriarchs and Apostles, and the most noble "army of Martyrs and Confessors, this most learned, most “humble, most holy man, shall also awake to receive an "eternal tranquillity, and with it a greater degree of glory, ❝than common Christians shall be made partakers of.”

Doctor Smith, when the hour of his departure hence shall arrive, will copy the example of the believer, or the


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infidel, as it liketh him best. I must freely own, I have no opinion of that reader's head or heart, who will not exclaim, as I find myself obliged to do

"Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last "end be like his !"

I am, Sir,

Your very sincere well-wisher, and humble servant,
One of the People called CHRISTIANS.


As it is possible, sir, nay, probable, that this little tract, because it is a little one, may be perused by many who have not leisure or inclination to go through large volumes, and yet wish to know what Mr. Hume's philosophical system is; I shall here subjoin a short but comprehensive summary of the doctrines which compose it, drawn up some few years ago, by a learned gentleman, for his amusement, with proper references to those parts of our philosopher's works, where such doctrines were to be found. And though I never heard the compiler had the thanks of Mr. Hume for so doing, yet neither could I ever find, that he or his friends disputed the fidelity and accuracy with which it was done".

" See Dr. Beattie's Essay on Truth, Part II. chap.i. sect. 1. and Part III. chap. ii.

A Summary of Mr. Hume's Doctrines, Metaphysical and Moral.


That the soul of man is not the same this moment, that it was the last; that we know not what it is; that it is not one, but many things, and that it is nothing at all.

That in this soul is the agency of all the causes that operate throughout the sensible creation; and yet that in this soul there is neither power nor agency, nor any idea of either.

That matter and motion may often be regarded as the cause of thought.


That the external world does not exist, or at least, that its existence may reasonably be doubted.

That the universe exists in the mind, and that the mind does not exist.

That the universe is nothing but a heap of perceptions, without a substance.

That though a man could bring himself to believe, yea, and have reason to believe, that every thing in the universe proceeds from some cause; yet it would be unreasonable for him to believe, that the universe itself proceeds from

a cause.


That the perfection of human knowledge is to doubt.

That we ought to doubt of every thing, yea, of our doubts themselves, and therefore, the utmost that philosophy can do, is to give us a doubtful solution of doubtful doubts".

That the human understanding, acting alone, does entirely subvert itself, and prove by argument, that by argument nothing can be proved.

That man, in all his perceptions, actions, and volitions, is a mere passive machine, and has no separate existence of his own, being entirely made up of other things, of the existence of which he is by no means certain: and yet, that the nature of all things depend so much upon man, that two and two could not be equal to four, nor fire produce heat, nor the sun light, without an act of the human understanding.


That it is unreasonable to believe God to be infinitely wise and good, while there is any evil or disorder in the universe.

That we have no good reason to think the universe proceeds from a cause.

That as the existence of the external world is questionable, we are at a loss to find arguments by which we may prove the existence of the Supreme Being, or any of his


That when we speak of power, as an attribute of any being, God himself not excepted, we use words without meaning.

That we can form no idea of power, nor of

any being

• The fourth section of Mr. Hume's Essays on the Human Understanding, is called Sceptical doubts concerning the operations of the human understanding; and the fifth section bears this title, Sceptical solution of those doubts.

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