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THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS
Are digefted into the FORM of Distinct
The HISTORY, THE OR Y, and PRACTICE, of each,
according to the Latest Discoveries and. Improvements ;.
AND FULL EXPLANATIONS GIVEN OF THE
VARIOUS DETACHED PARTS OF KNOWLEDGE,
NATURAL and ARTIFICIAL Objects, or to Matters ECCLESIASTICAL,
Civil, MILITARY, COMMERCIAL, doc.
Including ELUCIDATIONS of the most important Topics relative to RELIGION, MORALS;.
MANNERS, and the OECONOMY of LIFE:
A DESCRIPTION of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains; Seas; Riversj bo.
throughout the WORLD;
A General HisTORY, Ancient and Modern, of the different. Empires, Kingdoms, and States;
An Account of the Lives of the most Eminent Persons in every Nation,
from the earlieft ages down to the present times.
Compiled from the writings of the best Ausbors, in several languages ; the most approved Dictionaries, as well of general science as of its partis
cular braxebes ; tbe Tranfictions, Journals, anal Memoirs, of Learned Societies, botb af bome and abroad; the MS. Lectures of
Eminent Profeffors on differens fciences ; and a variety of Original Materials, furnifoed by an Extenfiue Correspondences
THE THIRD EDITION, IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES, GREATLY IMPROVED.
ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.
INDOCTI DISCANT, ET AMENT MEMINISS & PERITI.
E DIN BURGH,
PRINTED FOR A. BELL AND C. MACFARQUHAR
Entered in Stationers Hall in Terms of the ad of Parliament.
L E S
L E T
. L Earl Scared term na town of Siuefolk-in come to be cafy and humorous, while
Mr Gordon says, Lefweithe)
England, seated on the sea-shore, 117 miles north- “ that his productions are not fit to be read by any Lethargy.
weft of London. It is concerned in the fisheries of the who have taste or good-breeding. They are full of
North-sea, cod, herrings, mackerels, and sprats ; has a' phrases picked up in the streets, and nothing can be
church, and a diffenting meeting-house; and for its more low or nauseous.”
security, fix eighteen-pounders, which they can move LESTWEITHEL, a town of Cornwal in Eng-
as occasion requires; but it has no battery. The town land, about 229 miles distant from London. It is a
consists of 500 houses; but the streets, though toler- well-built town, where are kept the common gaol, the
ably paved, are narrow. It has a market on Wednes- weights and measures for the whole stannary, and the
days, and two fairs in the year for petty chapmen. county courts. It stands on the river Foy, which
The coaft is there very dangerous for strangers. brought up vessels from Fowey, before it was choaked
L'ESTRANGE (Sir Roger), a noted writer in up with fand coming from the tin-mines, and therefore
the 17th century, was descended from an ancient fa- its once flourishing trade is decayed ; but it holds the
mily, seated at Hunstanton-hall in the county of Nor- bushelage of coals, falt, malt, and corn, in the town
folk, where he was born in 1616, being the youngest of Fowey, as it does the anchorage in its harbour. It
fon of Sir Hammond L’Efrange baronet, a zealous was made a corporation by Richard earl of Cornwal
royalist. Having in 1644 obtained a commision from when he was king of the Romans, and has had other
King Charles I. for reducing Lynn in Norfolk, then in charters since. It consists of seven capital burgesses
poffeffion of the parliament, his design was discovered, (whereof one is a mayor), and 17 assistants or common
and his perfon feized. He was tried by a court mar- council. It is part of the duchy of Cornwal, to which
tial at Guildhall in London, and condemned to die as it pays L. 11:19:10 a year for its liberties. Its chief
a spy; but was reprieved, and continued in Newgate trade is the woollen manufactory. Its church has a
for some time. He afterward went beyond sea; and spire, the only one except that of Helston in the coun-
in August 1653 returned to England, where he ap- ty. Its market is Friday, and its fairs are three. It
plied himself to the protector Oliver Cromwell
, and first returned members to parliament in the 33d of Ed-
having once played before him on the bass-viol, he was ward I. They are chosen by their burgeffes and af
by fome nicknamed Oliver's fiddler. Being a man of fiftants. It was anciently the shire-town, and the
parts, matter of an easy humorous style, but withal in knights of the fire are still chosen here.
narrow circumstances, he set up a newspaper, under LETCHLADE, a town of Gloucestershire, 90 miles
the title of The Public Intelligencer, in 1663 ; but from London, on the borders of Oxfordshire and Berks,
which he laid down, upon the publication of the first and the great road to Gloucester; had anciently a nun-
London gazette in 1665, having been allowed, how- nery, and a priory of black canons. In this parish is
ever, a confideration by government. Some time af- Clay-hill. The market is on Tuesday; and it has two
ter the Popish plot, when the Tories began to gain the fairs. It is supposed to have been a Roman town: for
ascendant over the Whigs, he, in a paper called the a plain Roman road runs from hence to Cirencester ;
Observator, became a zealous champion for the former. and by digging in a meadow near it some years ago, an
He was afterwards knighted, and served in the parlia- old building was discovered, supposed to be a Roman
ment called by King James II. in 1685. But things bath, which was 50 feet long, 40 broad, and 4 high,
taking a different turn in that prince's reign, in point fupported with 100 brick pillars, curiously inlaid with
of liberty of conscience, from what moft people expect- ftones of divers colours of tesseraic work. The Leech, ,
ed, our author's Observators were difused as not at all the Coln, the Churn, and Isis, which all rise in the
suiting the times. However, he continued licenser of Cotswould-hill, join here in one full stream, and be-
the press till King William's acceffion, in whose reign come one river, called the Thames, which begins here
he met with some trouble as a disaffected person. to be navigable, and barges take in butter, cheese, and
However, he went to his grave in peace, after he had other goods, at its quay for London.
in a manner survived his intellectuals. He published
LETHARGY, in medicine (from an oblivion, and
a great many political tracts, and translated several aplea numbness, laziness), a disease consisting of a pro-
works from the Greek, Latin, and Spanish ; viz. Jo- found drowsiness or sleepiness, from which the patient
fephus's works, Cicero's Offices, Seneca's Morals, E. can scarce be awaked, or, if awaked, he remains stu-
rasmus's Colloquies, Æsop's Fables, and Bonas's Guide pid, without sense or memory, and presently finks again
to Eternity. The character of his style has been va- into his former fleep. See Medicine-Index.
riously represented; his language being observed by LETHARGY, in farriery. See there, s g.
Vol. X. Part I.
LETHE, in the ancient mythology, one of the vented them, and among what people they were first Letter. rivers of hell
, signifying oblivion or forgetfulness; its in use, there is ftill room to doubt : Philo attributes
waters having, according to poetic fiction, the peculiar this great and noble invention to Abraham ; Jofephus,
quality of making those who drank them forget every St Irenæus, and others, to Enoch ; Bibliander, to A.
thing that was past.
dam ; Eufebius, Clemens Alexandrinus, Cornelius
LETI (Gregorio), an eminent Italian writer, was Agrippa, and others, to Moses ; Pomponius Mela,
descended of a family which once made a considerable Herodian, Rufus Feftus, Pliny, Lucan, &c, to the
figure at Bologna : Jerom, his father, was page to Phænicians ; St Cyprian, to Saturn ; Tacitus, to the
prince Charles de Medicis; served fome time in the Egyptians ; fome, to the Ehtiopians; and others, to
troops of the grand duke as captain of foot; and the Chinese : but, with respect to these laft, they can
settling at Milan, married there in 1628. He was af- never be intitled to this honour, fince all their charac-
terward governor of Almantea in Calabria, and died ters are the signs of words, formed without the use of
at Salerno in 1639. Our author was born at Milan letters ; which renders it impossible to read and write
in 1630, Atudied under the Jesuits at Cosenza, and their language without a vast expence of time and
was afterward sent by an uncle to Rome, who would trouble ; and absolutely impossible to print it by the
have him enter into the church; but he being averse help of types, or any other manner but by engraving,
to it, went into Geneva, where he studied the govern- or cutting in wood. See PRINTING,
ment and the religion there. Thence he went to Lau- There have been also various conjectures about the
fanne; and contracting an acquaintance with John different kinds of letters used in different languages :
Anthony Guerin, an eminent physician, lodged at his thus, according to Crinitus, Moses invented the He-
house, made profession of the Calvinist religion, and brew letters; Abraham, the Syriac and Chaldee ; the
; married his daughter. He settled at Geneva ; where Phænicians, those of Attica, brought into Greece by he spent almost twenty years, carrying on a correspon- Cadmus, and from thence into Italy by the Pelardence with learned men, especially those of Italy. Some gians ; Nicoftrata, the Roman ; Isis, the Egyptian ; contefts obliged him to leave that city in 1679; upon and Vulfilas, those of the Goths. which he went to France, and then into England, where It is probable, that the Egyptian hieroglyphics he was received with great civility by Charles II. who, were the first 'manner of writing : but whether Cadmus. after his first audience, made him a present of a thou- and the Phænicians learned the use of letters from the fand crowns, with a promise of the place of historio. Egyptians, or from their neighbours of Judea or Sagrapher. , He wrote there the History of England; maria, is a question ; for fince some of the books of but that work not pleasing the court on account of his the Old Testament were then written, they are more too great liberty in writing, he was ordered to leave likely to have given them the hint, than the hieroglythe kingdom. He went to Amsterdam in 1682, and phics of Egypt. But wherefoever the Phænicians was honoured with the place of historiographer to that learned this art, it is generally agreed, that Cadmus city. He died suddenly in 1701. He was a man of the son of Agenor first brought letters into Greece ; indefatigable application, as the multiplicity of his whence, in following ages, they spread over the rest works show. The principal of these are, 1. The uni- of Europe. See ALPHABET and WRITING. versal monarchy of Louis XIV. 2. The life of Pope Letters make the first part or elements of grammar ; Sixtus V. 3. The life of Philip II. king of Spain. an assemblage of these compose fyllables and words, 4. The life of the emperor Charles V. 5. The life and these compose sentences. The alphabet of every of Elizabeth, queen of England. 6. The history of language consists of a number of letters, which ought Oliver Cromwell. 7. The history of Great Britain, each to have a different found, figure, and use. As 5 vols 12mo. 8. The history of Geneva, &c..
the difference of articulate sounds was intended to exLETRIM, a county of Ireland, in the province of press the different ideas of the mind, so one letter was Connaught, 44 miles in length and 17 in breadth; originally intended to fignify only one found, and not, bounded on the east and north-east by Cavan and Fer- as at present, to express sometimes one sound and managh, by Sligo and Roscommon on the west and sometimes another ; which practice has brought a great south-west, and by Longford on the east and south-east. deal of conf
deal of confusion into the languages, and rendered the It is a hilly country, with rank, grass, which feeds a learning of the modern tongues much more difficult great number of cattle. The chief town is Letrim, than it would otherwise have been. This consideraTeated not far from the river Shannon. It contains tion, together with the deficiency of all the known al4000 houses, 21 parishes, 5 baronies, 2 boroughs, and phabets, from their wanting some letters to express
5 fends 6 members to parliament.
certain sounds, has accasioned several attempts towards LETTER, a character used to express one of the an universal alphabet, to contain an enumeration of fimple sounds of the voice ; and, as the different simple all such single sounds or letters as are ufed in any
lansounds are expressed by different letters, these, by be- guage. See ALPHABET. ing differently compounded, become the visible signs Grammarians diftinguish letters into vowels, confoor characters of all the modulations and mixtures of nants, mutes, liquids, diphthongs, and characterisounds used to express
our ideas in a regular language ; ftics. They are likewise divided into capital and small (See Language). Thus, as by the help of speech we letters. They are also denominated from the shape .
. . render our ideas audible ; by the aslistance of letters we and turn of the letters; and in writing are distinguishtender them visible, and by their help we can wrap up ed into different hands, as round-text, German-text, our thoughts, and send them to the most diftant parts round-hand, Italian, &c. and in printing, into Roman, of the earth, and read the transactions of different ages. Italic, and black letter. As to the firft letters, what they were, who first in- The term LETTER, or Type, among printers, got on
Letter. ly includes the CAPITALS, SMALL CAPITALS, and Accordingly Cicero says : “ In writing letters, we Letter. re small letters, but all the points, figures, and other make use of common words and expresiions." And
marks cast and used in printing ; and also the large Seneca more fully, “ I would have my letters to be
ornamental letters, cut in wood or metal, which take like my discourses, when we either fit or walk to-
place of the illumined letters used in manuscripts. The gether, unftudied and. caly.” And what prudent
letters used in printing are cast at the ends of small man, in his common discourse, aims at bright and
pieces of metal, about three quarters of an inch in strong figures, beautiful turns of language, or la-
length; and the letter being not indented, but raised, boured periods ? Nor is it always requisite to attend
easily gives the impression, when, after being blacked to exact order and method. He that is master of
with a glutindus ink, paper is closely pressed upon it. what he writes, will naturally enough express his
See the articles PRINTING and Type. A fount of thought without perplexity and confusion; and more
letters includes small letters, capitals, small capitals, than this is seldom necessary, especially in familiar
points, figures, spaces, &c.; but besides, they have dif- letters.
ferent kinds of two-line letters, only used for titles, Indeed, as the subjects of epistles are exceedingly
and the beginning of books, chapters, &c. See Fount. various; they will necessarily require some variety in
LETTER is also a writing addressed and sent to a the manner of expression. If the subject be something
person. See Epistle.
weighty and momentous, the language should be
The art of epistolary writing, as the late transator strong and folemn; in things of a lower nature, more
of Pliny's Letters has observed, was esteemed by the free and easy; and upon lighter matters, jocofe and
Romans in the number of liberal and polite accom- pleasant. In exhortations, it ought to be lively and
plishments; and we find Cicero mentioning with great vigorous; in confolations, kind and compassionate; and
pleasure, in some of his letters to Atticus, the elegant in advising, grave and serious. In narratives, it should
specimen he had received from his son of his genius be clear and distinct; in requests, modeft; in commen-
It seems indeed to have formed part of dations, friendly; in prosperity cheerful, and mournful
their education ; and, in the opinion of Mr Locke, in adversity. In a word, the style ought
to be ac-
it well deserves to have a share in ours. “The wri- commodated to the particular nature of the thing about
* ting of letters (as that judicious author observes) which it is conversant.
enters so much into all the occasions of life, that no Besides, the different character of the person, to * gentleman can avoid shewing himself in compofi- whom the letter is written, requires a like difference “ tions of this kind. Occurrences will daily force him in the modes of expression. We do not use the same
to make this ufe of his pen, which lays open his language to private persons, and those in a public fta
breeding, his sense, and his abilities, to a feverer tion; to superiors, inferiors, and equals. Nor do we “ examination than any oral discourse.” It is to be express ourselves alike to old men and young, to the wondered we have so few writers in our own language grave and facetious, to courtiers, and philosophers, who deserve to be pointed out as models upon
to our friends and strangers. Superiors are to be ad-
occasion. After having named Sir William Temple, it dressed to with respect, inferiors with courtesy, and
would perhaps be difficult to add a second. The elegant equals with civility; and every one's character, fta-
writer of Cowley's life mentions him as excelling in tion, and circumstances in life, with the relation we
this uncommon talent; but as that author declares stand in to him, occasions some variety in this respect.
himself of opinion, “That letters which pass between But when friends and acquaintances correspond by
familiar friends, if they are written as they should be, letters, it carries them into all the freedom and good.
can scarce ever be fit to see the light,” the world is humour of conversation ; and the nearer it resembles
deprived of what no doubt would have been well worth that, the better, since it is designed to supply the room
its inspection. A late diftinguished genius treats the of it. For when friends cannot enjoy each others
very attempt as ridiculous, and professes himself “ a company, the next satisfaction is to converse with
mortal enemy to what they call a fine letter." His each other by letters. Indeed, sometimes greater
aversion however was not so strong, but he knew to freedom is used in epistles, than the same persons
conquer it when he thought proper; and the letter would have taken in discoursing together ; because,
which closes his correspondence with bishop Atterbury as Cicero says, “ A letter does not blush." But still
is, perhaps, the most genteel and manly address that nothing ought to be said in a letter, which, considered
ever was penned to a friend in disgrace. The truth in itself, would not have been fit to say in discourse ;
is, a fine letter does not confilt in saying fine things, though modesty perhaps, or some other particular
but in expressing ordinary ones in an uncommon man- reason, might have prevented it. And thus it fre-
It is the proprie communia dicere, the art of giving quently happens in requests, reproofs, and other cir.
grace and elegance to familiar occurrences, that con- cumstances of life. A man can ask that by writing,
stitutes the merit of this kind of writing. Mr Gay's which he could not do by words, if present; or blame
letter, concerning the two lovers who were ftruck what he thinks amiss in his friend with greater liberty
dead with the same flash of lightning, is a master-piece when absent, than if they were together. From hence
of the fort ; and the specimen he has there given of it is easy to judge of the fitness of any expression to
his talents for this species of compofition makes it stand in an epiftle, only by considering, whether the
much to be regretted we have not more from the fame same way of speaking would be proper in talking with
the same person. Indeed, this difference may be alWard's Of the Style of Epifiolary Composition. Purity in the lowed, that as persons have more time to think, when Oratory.
choice of words, and justness of construction, joined they write, than when they speak ; a greater accu-
with perspicuity, are the chief properties of this ftyle, racy of language may sometimes be expected in onc,