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Between Rochester and Warsaw the sleepers are, at many points, too old in life, and larger renewals are necessary. South of Warsaw they are in better general condition, and from Ashford Junction to the State line the ties are in good order.

Since the last inspection almost the entire remaining iron rail has been replaced with steel, and at this time but two or three miles remain. A number of sidings have been lengthened to accommodate the growing business of the road, and point switches are taking the place of those of the stub pattern. Signs for guiding enginemen, and mile posts, bave been provided.

North of Ashford Junction the mamtenance of lino and surface at many points is very ordinary, owing in part to the want of sufficient ballast and the sleepers being too old, and in part to the limited number of seetionmen employed. The effect on the rail is rapidly showing itself. South of Ashford a much better track adjustment exists; but here, also, there is great need of ballast.

Each of the station buildings was examined and found to be cleanly and generally in good order, and fairly furnished.

Buffalo Branch, From Ashford Junction to Buffalo Creek Junction. This portion of the road is about three years old. It has very little masonry, all the openings being trestle and pile bridges, except the large viaduct spanning the valley of Cattaraugus creek. During the present season additional bents have been driven at the end of trestles to better uphold the ends of stringers which were built resting upon mud sills in the embankments, and the em. bankments continually shrinking, made it a constant work to keep a properly surfaced approach to the bridge floors. All the piling and trestle work are strongly built and in sound condition. Bridge No. 45, a through Howe truss, is in good order and has good pile abutments. The long iron viaduct over Cattaraugus creek resting upon very high iron piers, has been improved by covering the masonry pedestals with a thick coating of beton by Dr. Goodrich, protecting such of them as had been affected by the water and frost. All sharp curves, and there are a number of them at the south end of this branch quite abrupt, are strongly braced, and the soft wood ties are now almost entrely replaced with oak sleepers. The surface and line of track is generally very well maintained, and the road. way neatly kept. The stations were inspected and found in good order. At Springville there is a very neat station, having two waiting rooms well furnished, and the yard is embellished with tasty flower beds and well-kept lawns. Oak Orchard is also well and neatly maintained, and also has flower beds and lawns. At West Seneca a new station and depot has been provided to accommodate a cemetery used by the citizens of Buffalo. This also has pleasant surroundings, and is well suited for its intended purpose. At Buffalo Creek Junction the road of same pame is used to its junction with the Central-Hudson road at East Buffalo, and thence to Exchange Street depot of the latter road.

In general the Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh railroad property is in reasonably good condition. The large amount of timber work requires constant care to keep it in proper condition, which as a whole appears to be done. All highway-crossing signs, except in one or two instances, were found in place. The through truss bridges south of Ashford Junction have the upper tie members so low as to hardly clear trainmen on high box cars. It is suggested that warnings be placed at any such obstruction as shall by measurement be below the height established in the circular issued by the Commissioners.

The engines and coaches of this company are very well maintained. Such of the passenger cars as could be readily seen, were examined and found in good order, cleanly and well painted.

CLOVE BRANCH RAILROAD. The Clove Branch railroad extends from a junction with the New York, Dutchess and Connecticut railroad to Sylvan Lake, a distance of four and one-quarter mules, and from Sylvan Lake to Clove Valley, a further distance of four miles, and is operated under a lease from the trustees of the New York, Boston and Montreal Railway Company. The road is mostly used for the transportation of iron ore from mines at Sylvan Lake. There is also a little traffic in passengers and farm produce. For the business of the road it is very well maintained, and a careful inspec:ion revealed no defects that could reasonably be considered as objectionable. The rail is iron, secured with fish-bars at ends, and laid with broken joints. It is very well fenced with posts and boards, and the roadway was found neatly kept. As a whole the ties are in fair condition, and renewals wbere necessary were being made. South of Sylvan Lake is userl solely by freight trains, and that only once cach way daily, and the maintenance of superstructure was found quite ordinary. The openings have good masonry superstructures. South of Andes is a twelve feet span waterway, lately overbauled and provided with a standard floor. At Sylvan Lake is another like structure in good condition. There are three truss bridges as follows: Over Fishkill creek is a low through Howe truss, eighty feet span, the timber of which is in good life. It has a strong bridge floor. Over a stream is a Queen truss, forty feet span; some of the truss members are sap rotten, but it is in fair condition otherwise, and has a standard floor. The last bridge is an A-truss in good condition. One or two short openings have open floors. All bighway crossings have caution signs, and tbere are no low overhead obstructions. At Sylvan Lake the curves are quite abrupt, but they are well braced. The gradients of road-bed are considerably undulating Generally the track was found in reasovably good adjustment. The station buildings are quite small, and at pone are tickets sold. DELAWARE AND Hudson CANAL Co.'s RAILROADS. The last inspection of the railroads operated in this State by the Delaware and Hudson Capal Company was made in October, 1884, and reported in the first volume of the Com. missioners' Reports for that year. The present inspection was made in considerable detail, except some of the branch lines, which were examined from the rear of regular trains, which did not afford opportunity for critical inspection,

The Utica, Clinton and Binghamton, and the Rome and Clinton railroads have recently been transferred to the New York, Ontario and Western Railway Company, and were not inspected.

Binghamton to Albany. As before, the inspection began at Binghamton, the westerly terminus of the Albany and Susquehanna railroad. This road is double-tracked between Nineveh and Sidney, Oneonta and Colliersville, and East Worcester and Quaker Street. On these portions the grade has been improved and nearly all

the trestle work replaced with excellent masonry and mostly iron bridges and girders. The road-bed has been reballasted, and both tracks brought to an excellent condition. A number of miles of new steel rails have been laid this season between East Worcester and Cobleskill. The sleepers are as a whole strongly maintained. Near East Worcester the ties of one track appears to be too old, the rail has cut deeply into them, and on curves evidence of respiking shows that the ties will not hold the track firmly in gauge.

Between Binghamton and Nineveh considerable improvements have been made, the most noticeable being the new iron bridge near Harperville, where at the last inspection there were two 180 feet spans of wooden deck Post truss. The masonry of this structure has been relaid, and there is now one span of plate girder deck, and two long spans of deck riveted lattice, well constructed. The whole has a standard floor. There has been some reballasting on this part of the line; much more however appears necessary to be done, particularly near Osborne Hollow. Generally the road-bed is of ample width; one or two points only, on embankments, were noticed as too narrow, one of which was on a curre. These narrow banks occur where the track has been recently raised in ballasting. Considerable ditching in cuttings is necessary for a proper drainage of road-bed.

Bridge No. 105, a Howe truss deck over a highway east of Osborne Hollow, is very old and has four bents under it. Bridge No. 104 is a new plate girder deck over a highway, and has a standard floor and abutments of strong masonry; it formerly was a truss of iron rails. Bridge No. 102, an under farm crossing, consisting of five bays of trestle, is in strong life of timber, but the flooring has ties too widely spaced, and there are no guard rails. Watchmen are stationed at all wooden structures, and water barrels provided. East of the tunnel is, a thirty feet span straining beam deck truss, (No. 101) covered. It has one decayed floor beam. Reference is made to the strain sheets furnished by the company, as the structure looks light in truss rods. The bridge has good abutments, the ties are none too closely spaced; it has no guard rails, and is located on a curve. Bridge No. 100, an iron riveted lattice deck, of about ninety feet span, is well floored and painted. Bridge No. 84, is a double intersected riveted lattice, through truss of three spans. The lower chords bave a bottom plate that holds water. There is danger of corrosion, and drain holes should be provided. Bridges Nos. 78, 77 and 76, are single openings of about twelve feet span. An abutment of one of these is broken and falling, but is well shored. Where track has this season been raised in reballasting, the stringers of minor openings have also been raised, and frequently the blocking between wall plates or masonry and the track string. ers is crudely done with small pieces of board, or ties, placed on top of each other. Noth. ing was observed as really unsafe, but liable to become so. It would be better to raise the masonry to conform with the raised superstructure, or provide a more substantial block. ing. A cattle pass west of Oneonta, has broken and falling masonry, it is now shored up, but should be rebuilt or filled up. No. 62 is a Warren girder deck; 'it wants painting. No. 45 is an old timber trestle of three spans, that requires to be renewed. East of Knowers. ville, bridge No. 17, a ten feet span waterway, has poor masonry, and west of same place is a cattle pass of abont the same span, in like condition. The stringers are supported by bents inside of abutments. Bridge No. 13, cast of Guilderland, is a very old trestle, crudely blocked up, so much so as to largly reduce the waterway; the structure is about thirty feet in length and should be rebuilt. No. 12 is an old Howe truss, thirty feet span, resting upon bents, one of which leans sideways; it should also be rebuilt. There is no masonry at these two last mentioned structures. Bridge No. & is a deck Howe truss, about thirty feet span, covered. The timber is in good life but the truss rods appear light. Reference is made to the strain-sheets furnished by the company. Bridge No. 4 is an under farm crossing with masonry broken and falling; it is shored up.

The foregoing enumerates nearly all the defective structures, and is certainly a great improvement over the coneral condition when last inspected. Nearly all the cattle guards and single span opeainge have iron girders, either of rolled beams, riveted plate, or of iron rails oveted together, or held in place with cast iron sockets resting upon wall plates. There are only three wooden truss bridges romaining; all the others are of iron, mostly of recent construction. There are six truss rod girders, and twenty.five trestle and pile bridges of three to ten bays each, and a few iron rail trusses. As a whole the bridging is in commendable condition, and the structures found defective in life of material, or con. dition of masonry, are small, and could readily, and should, be renewed.

The roadway and superstructure are in good order, and line and surfuce of track well maintained, the whole showing improvement. The floor system adopted, or at least largely prevailing, except that of very recent construction, does not provide for a guard rail at ends of ties sufficiently large to hold a derailed wheel in line of rail, nor are inside guard rails used except in one or two instances.

Albany, Whitehall and Rouse's Point. All steel rail, excepting a few miles between Plattsburgh and Rouse's Point. A large outlay of money and labor since the last inspection is evident. The road between Coons junction and Ballston junction has been double tracked, making a double line of rails from Albany to Saratoga, except between the junctions at Green Island and Waterford. North of West Troy depot is a thirty-feet span plate girder deck bridge, the south end resting upon bents, the abutment being defective. The ties on bridge floor are too widely spaced. At Green Island junction stub switches are used on both tracks out of main line; safety. switches should be substituted. The bridge over the Hudson River between Green Island and Troy, carrying a double-track railroad and double roadway and sidewalk, is of the best construction. The four spans adjoining Green Island are of older build, and have plates on bottom of lower chords, forming a channel. Water, mould, dust, and consequent corrosion, accumulate in these channels, and drain-holes should be made at intervals through bottom plate, and channel kept clean of cinders or any thing that will hold moisture. Other than this, and one or two minor defects, the entire structure is in excellent condition.

The road from Green Island to Waterford junction is single track. Crossing from Green to Adams Island, over an arm of the Mohawk river, are four through 100-feet spans of high Howe truss, eighteen feet six inches between trusses, which allows for a wagon road beside the track. The truss rods of these spans have been reinforced by rods placed outside of trusses with an oak saddle or gib above and below the chords. These saddles are split, and rods unequally strained. Tron channel bars are suggested in place of the wooden saddles. The roadway is a private farm crossing for one or more land owners, and has elements of danger, in that there is no fence or guard rail between the roadway and track. A team meeting a train would be very likely to attempt to turn around, which cannot be done except by obstructing the track or falling into the river. A proper barrier between the track and the roadway is suggested. Bridge 13, from Adams to Van Schaick's

Island, a through Howe truss, with roadway alongside of track, bas no barrier between. The bridge is old, decay has commenced in some of the lower chord members; truss rods partly reinforced, and additional rods at hand; many new ties are wanted in floor. Bridge 16, between Van Schaick's Island and the mainland, consists of two new fixed spans, through and pin-connected trusses and a riveted lattice draw over channel, all in good condition. The south approach is a newlyconstructed trestle bridge. There is also a roadway alongside the track crossing this struc. ture, with a high board fence between, forming an effective barrier. Bridge 17 is a fifteen feet span stringer bridge; timbers old, and new material at hand. The sleepers between the Green Island shops and Waterford are many of them very small in size, and quite too old in life, especially on curves. The general line and surface of track is in fair order. A number of shade trees within the roadway are too near the track, and should be removed, not only at this point, but throughout the entire line of the company; wherever obstructions arise they should be blown down. Telegraph poles are frequently noticed as too near the line of rails, not only on this, but mostly every railroad in the State. While they are not as liable to be thrown across the track as a tree in full foliage, yet they have obstructed trains and accidents have occurred. It would be on the side of safety to keep them sufficiently away from the rails. From Waterford Junction to Saratoga the double tracks are in excellent condition, and one track between Coons and Ballston Junction is quite new. The main line is nearly all strongly tied, and for quite the greater part well ballasted and ditched and the road-bed and way neatly kept, weeds, brush and grass being closely cut to boundary lines. It is advised that more care be taken to keep the ends of iron and wood-girders and bridge seats free from dirt and accumulations of litter, weeds and grass, as such are liable to corrode iron and decay timber. There has been a consid. erable renewal of steel on this portion of the road during the present season. Many structures of iron and of wood have been built, taking the place of timber or iron rail girders. Crossing Kayaderosseras creek is a three truss riveted lattice of two spans, in good condi. tion, having a standard door, as bave all bridge floors of recent construction. The pier of this structure has been undermined and is now being rebuilt. North of Saratoga the main line and branches are single track. Seventeen miles of new steel rail has been laid from Fort Edward south, and the track newly ballasted. Near Gansevoort Station, in chang: ing rails, a number of places were noticed where omission had been made in spiking to all the t es, an oversight that will probably receive attention. Five successive ties were tlus noticed at one place on the outside of rail and outside of curve. The small openings and cattle-guards have either old iron rail or timber stringers closely tied, and in some in. stances ties of cattle-guards are bereled, making a further obstacle to farm stock. Near Smith's Basın are two cattle-guards with rails on stringers and close to a stub switch, which should receire attention. A number of fish-bars were found broken near Fort Ann. Bridge 64, a fifteen feet span opening, has masonry crumbling under stringers. North of Comstock's are two open culverts with rails on too old stringers, which should be renewed and properly floored. Bridge' 65 is a through riveted lattice over canal, the north abutment of which has been recently rebuilt. Bridges 66 and 67 are each two spans of plate girder decks, new, and bave standard floors. Bridge fi8 is a new riveted through truss and well

floored. North of Whitehall depot is a tunnel lined with brick. This structure is under Į the center of a street, and portions of the arching have failed. A number of buildings,

some of them brick, border the street over the tunnel. Water and gas pipes and sewers obstruct the work of renewal of arch now in progress. The soil is clay, and has to be removed to rebuild the tunnel, making it a difficult, complicated and expensive work. Strong stone abutments of an excellent character are being laid, the archway of brick is heavy, and the work is being thoroughly done. South Bay trestle is about one mile in length. The bents are spaced ten feet between centers, and rest upon piles cut off at surface of water or marsh, which originally formed the bents. The stringers are eight by fourteen inches section, double. The bents appear to be in fair condition, but many of the stringers show decay, from one to three inches in depth, but such have sound timber adjoining. It would be better to remove all the old timber, and as far as possible fill the trestle. In resurfacing the trestle blocking was noticed between the corbels and track stringers. The corbels are short and deeply gained over the caps, offering little additional strength. The decayed stringers are mostly at the south end of trestle. No guard rails are used. At the north end of trestle are two spans of riveted lattice through, and a through plate girder draw, the whole being of recent construction, and with the exception of some old ties, are in good order.

No. 7 is a long trestle recently filled, except two bays left for a waterway. No. 8 is a long pile bridge in good order. No. 9 is a long trestle bridge in fair condition. No. 12 is a very poor trestle, crudely blocked up under stringers and has evidently a soft, unstable foundation calling for constant care. It should be rebuilt. North of Putnam is a trestle, referred to in previous reports as of poor foundation, in soft, deep marsh, and where great trouble to keep in fit condition for use has been experienced. During the past year the trestle has been partly filled. Where a waterway is to be maintained cribs were used for abutments, and these have proved a failure. They are now out of proper position, and the track is maintained by blocking up the approaches, and across the open. ing are pile bents. North of this were a few short pile and trestle bridges that have recently been filled. Portions of the embankment affected by waves of Lake Champlain are quite narrow, and the work of filling out and rip-rapping was in progress. Bridge 16 is a fifteen-feet span waterway, with bent in center. The abutments are of good masonry, but the stringers are too old and should be renewed. Between Whitehall and Patterson are a number of waterways from ten to fifteen feet span. They have good masonry abutments and old rail stringers, and generally a strong flooring, but the guard rails are small, answer. ing only the purpose of holding the ties in position.

Åt Fort Ticonderoga is a steamboat dock built about 200 feet from the shore, with a double-tracked approach at each end. When navigation is suspended the dock and trestle are not used, trains moving over the main track on shore of lake. A careful inspection was made of this structure, and with the information before obtained, it appears quite necessary that the whole should be thoroughly repaired before another season. There is considerably too much decayed timber in this trestle, and the planking and hand-rails are old and ecure.

Bridge 19 was a long trestle when last inspected. Since then abutments and a pier have been constructed, upon wbich are one fixed span of deck-riveted lattice, and an iron jack-knife draw over channel and outlet of Lake George. The fixed span has a standard floor. North of Addison Junction is an eight-feet span waterway, with tim, ber bents. The planking in rear of bents is broken, and the whole is in bad order and should be rebuilt. Another opening similar to the last mentioned is in like condition. The next large structure is a riveted lattice deck. The ties of this bridge want renewing in part, and the trusses should be painted. The rail at the south end rests upon the parapet walls, and the stones are badly crushed under the rail, which is somewhat bent and liable to break, especially in frosty weather. South of Crown Point is a plate-girder deck, well floored. The masonry is falling, and girders rest ou bents pending the rebuilding North of the same place are two spans of iron bridge, one a plate girder and the other a deck-lattice. The pier has settled and is leaning over; both spans are on bents. There is evident care taken to remove stone liable to fall on track from the face of all rock cut. tings, of which there are many, and some of them very heavy. The faces of these cuttings appear to be very clean of loose or dislodged rock. The next opening is thirteen bays of trestle work, with bents resting on piling. It has been recently overhauled and is now in good order. Guard-rails are omitted. At this point are about 600 feet of nar. row embankment on the outside of a curve, the slope commencing nearly under the outside rail.

Bridge 24 is a new plate girder deck and has a standard floor. The ends of girders should be freed from earth, °Bridge 28 is a through low Howe truss, forty-feet span. This. structure is old, with upper chords sap rotten, if not more. The truss rods are too light. The bridge rests upon one abutment and one bent. Bridge 39 is an old trestle, and on a curve: the ties are very poor and widely spaced; it has an inside guard rail. This bridge should be repaired or rebuilt. Over Boquet river is a riveted through lattice in good order, and has inside guard rails of iron. At Wadham's Mills is a stub switch with an open floor cattle.guard twenty feet distant. Considerable ballasting has been done from this point portherly during the present season; too many old, soft wood ties on curves at this point; renewals were being made. At Boynet siding is a stub switch, with two open. floor cattle-guards very near, which should receive attention. Bridge 37 is a 100-feet span deck-riveted lattice of recent construction ; it has a standard floor. Another stub switch, thirty-five feet from an opeu-floored cattle-guard. Such defects as these should be reme: died by using a safety switch, or flooring the openings or filling them up. From Wells. borough northerly the road follows the bold rock shore of the lake on an almost

continu. ous curved line. The superstructure is in the best of order and strongly tied. There are here a number of open culverts with rail on stringers. Where recent repairs have been made strong floors have been provided. Bridge 38 is a 150-feet span deck-riveted lattice; it has a new standard floor; the iron work needs to be painted. Bridge 39 consists of twenty-three bays of trestle work, sixty feet high, on a sharp curve. The trestle has lately been repaired and has inside guard rails; a few new ties are wanted. One post in the fifth bent from the south end was noticed as defective. Bridge 41 is a through riveted lattice, with bottom plate on lower chord, through which drain holes are wanted. Bridge 42 is similar in all respects. Bridge 43 is a deck-riveted lattice. The floor beams, top of chords, are old, and manyof them should be renewed. South of Valcour is a six-feet span waterway with open floor about twenty feet distant from a stub switch; and another like defect at the norih end of same siding. Bridge 48 is a riveted lattice deck, the iron work of which needs painting.

At Plattsburgh is an under street crossing having old wooden stringers ; a plate girder for renewal is at hand. A brick station building has recently been constructed at Platts. burgh. This structure is two stories in height, the upper story being on a level with the street and the lower with the railroad. The whole is as well arranged as possible, and orercomes the difference in elevation between the street and railroad.Closets, water, and all conveniences are provided, and the large waiting-room on second floor is well furnished. The lower story is to be used in part for a dining-room. The building is of the Queen Anne style of architecture and its construction reflects credit upon the company. It is ornamental to the village and convenient for the public.

Between Plattsburgh and Rouse's Point the rail is iron, portions of which are overworn, and short pieces of rail used in repairs. Bridge 60 is a sixteen-feet span girder rod truss, hasing three stringers under each rail, and two truss rods. The timber is quite old and should be renewed. Nearly all the cattle-guards on this part of the main line have open floors, and a number of ten feet span water-ways are of like construction. Bridge 61 is an iron viaduct, constructed of old rails and iron bents resting upon masonry. There are six spans of rail girders, twelve feet between centers, and one span of eighteen feet of the Warren type over stream. The structure appears very strong. North of West Chazy 19 an eighteen feet water way; one abutment is being rebuilt. At a highway crossing are cattle-guards with stringers about eight feet in length. One of theso guards was found in an unsafe condition. The ends of stringers were so far decayed as to give little support to the rail which was spiked to them. The road north of Plattsburgh has many old timbers in cattle guards and open culverts, and it is suggested that a careful inspection of each be made and all partly decayed timber replaced with new material. These stringers are generally fourteen inches square; some of them have been used until spikes holding rails refuse to hold in the timber, and the stringers have been turned over on side. One stringer was found so unfit to sustain the weight imposed as to require immediate blocking. Bridge 69, an eighteen feet span, has three nine by seventeen-inch sectioned stringers, and corbels four feet in length. It is located on a curve. The ties are old and decayed.' Fish plates are used for braces to hold rail in position. The abutments are of limestone and of excellent quality of work. North of Chazy are two cattle passes on strong masonry abut. ments. The wall plates are decayed and crushed, permitting the rail to rest upon the parapet walls. There is danger of rail being broken, especially in cold weather. The masonry on this part of the road is, with few exceptions, of an excellent quality of cut work with good bridge seats. Crossing Champlain river is a deck riveted lattice bridge the iron work of which wants painting. There are many open floored structures that could readily have ties on top of stringers by using thinner wall plates, which could generalıy be safely done as the coping of bridge seats are of closely.cut work. South of Rouse's Point is an open floor cattle guard with a three-throw switch twenty-feet distant. At Rouse's Point the Ogdensburgh and Lake Champlain railroad crosses at grade, and from this crossing to the Canadian line, a distance of about two miles, the superstructure is said to be maintained by the Grand Trunk Railway Company.

The sleepers north of Whitehall are generally in strong life and the entire roadway and bed is well and neatly kept, and line and surface of superstructure very workmanlike. It will be noticed that of bridges other than short openings and cattle guards, there are very few objections, but to small openings, especially on the northerly end of the road, there appears to be insufficient attention given, and they are not, in too many instances, main

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