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from which they are shut off by a latched gate only. be done at comparatively slight cost by both landFacal matter lies about the few square feet of space lords and the sanitary authority to remedy the more allotted to the occupants of these seven tenements glaring evils. Great drawbacks to cleanliness and In another part of the same thoroughfare is a row healthiness are the unsatisfactory state of the surface of twelve houses, containing in all a population of drainage, the damp condition of the houses owing to some sixty persons, for whose use there were want of spouting and the existence of water in nominally three closets, all exposed to public view, the cellars, the dilapidation and foulness which Practically, however, the sanitary accommodation characterises so many of the privies and middens, was restricted to two of these offices, one of them and the want of a supply of pure water. We could being without a door, within full view of a much multiply such cases of bad drainage and insanitarifrequented footpath and the towing-path of a canal, ness as we have mentioned above by the dozen, did and also habitually used by the men and boys space permit. We have simply selected a few at employed at some adjoining ironworks, a short random, and from one ward only, as showing the cut' to which lies in immediate proximity to it. condition of things existing in a borough which How can habits of cleanliness and decency, or even claims—and with reason in some respects—to be in morality, be expected to be maintained under such

advance of many of the towns in the Black Country. circumstances ? On the opposite side of the road is In the more central parts of the borough, where the another row of ten houses, none of which have any population is very dense indeed, the unwholesome back doors. The closets for the use of the people conditions under which the people live are necesliving here are situate nearly 110 yards from the end sarily much aggravated. Little need for wonder is house, and can only be reached along the main road. there that when a disease such as smallpox or There are four of them, two being without doors, scarlet fever breaks out, it spreads with alarming and all within view of passers-by. The fæcıl matter rapidity, and is very difficult to get rid of. It is runs away into a gulley, where it stagnates or some little satisfaction to find that the authorities are percolates into the ground. In another part of the awaking to a sense of the responsibilities resting same ward the liquid filth from the middens runs upon them, and that the work of the sanitary dedown the yard to a convenient spot at the back of a partment is likely to be carried out in a more prompt, row of houses, where it forms a green, stagnant, active manner in the future. One thing is absostinking pool, percolating through the bricks and lutely necessary if any effectual improvement is to into the foundations of the houses, with results not be made, and this is the increase of the departmental pleasant to imagine. A large number of the houses staff. Under such a condition of things as we have in this and other wards in the borough are in bad indicated, it will be readily understood to be absorepair, unspouted, damp, and internally filthy dirty. lutely impossible for one sanitary inspector to proThe landlords will not do anything to them, or even perly supervise a borough like West Bromwich. And find the materials where the tenants are willing to yet up to the present time, there is but one such apply them. The tenants cannot afford to white- official. One cannot wonder that infected houses wash and colour or paper the walls and ceilings at should remain in a neglected condition, and become their own expense, neither can they remove to other centres of contagion for want of proper disinfection quarters on account of being, very many of them, in ard cleansing, or that general and easily preventable arrear with the rent, and knowing that to attempt to insanitariness prevails to so large an extent. 'Ait would be to run the risk of losing the few sticks of furniture they possess. Of course a great deal of THE BIRMINGHAM TOWN COUNCIL AND the dirt and squalor and general wretchedness is

ARTISANS' DWELLINGS. owing to the uncleanly and intemperate habits of the people themselves, and in some cases to their The report and recommendations of the Artisans' fondness for live stock, pigeons and poultry of Dwellings Inquiry Committee - a summary of various descriptions being kept in close proximity to which was given in the SANITARY RECORD for the houses, often in the houses themselves; it being June 16 formed the subject of a lengthy debate at a no uncommon thing to find the only cupboard in the special meeting of the Birmingham Town Council living room occupied at the bottom with coals, and held on the 24th ult. The mayor, in moving the above as a pigeon cot. In many cases, too, the adoption of the report, remarked that with regard to landlords find their houses wilfully pulled to pieces, the sanitary condition of the houses, many had been the quarries being torn up from the floor, and the cleaned and repaired to a considerable extent. The woodwork from any place available, and used for great difficulty in connection with the small houses various purposes. And as in some of the worst in the future was that those rented at 25. 6d, and places they can neither get rent or get rid of the 35. 6d. per week were occupied by persons most of people without resorting to harsh measures, it can- whom were not getting more than il. a week, and a not be wondered at that there should be a want of consequence of condemning those houses would be eagerness on their part to spend money on property to drive many of the people into the workhouse or to possessed under such unprofitable conditions. A lodging-houses, and the remedy in that case would case in point occurred only a week or two since. Abe worse than the disease. Many of the owners of labouring man who, by dint of industry and thrift, this small property, too, were in as impoverished had become possessed of several small houses in the a state as the occupants, and to attempt to close central part of the borough, had them painted and their houses without giving them compensation done up, inside and out. Shortly afterwards four of would be exceedingly harsh. The difficulty was not them were tenanted by Irish people, and in a few in regard to the erection of new houses, for the days from that they became so infested with building by-laws would prevent the erection on the vermin that he had to expend several shillings on same soil of defective property in the future ; but sulphur and carbolic soap, after getting rid of the in regard to the property put up before there were objectionable tenants, before he could make them fit any such regulations. They were assured on all for anyone else to inhabit. Still, a great deal could hands that the working classes were willing to pay

for a good house as much as 55. to 6s. per week, and and morality. The home has no attraction ; the good houses ought to be provided at that rent. man seeks attraction elsewhere. The conditions

Considerable discussion of a somewhat animated under which he is compelled to live will often not character followed, the report being ultimately ap- admit of the cultivation of self-respect, unless it be proved, with the exception of the recommendations inherent in him, and many people soon cease to as to cleansing the courts and providing closet trouble about keeping the house clean and tidy, accommodation, which were referred to the Health where everything around them is suggestive of all Committee, with instructions to report their views manner of filth and nastiness. A great responthereon. The Improvement Committee are also sibility rests upon local authorities in this matter directed to inquire how the principle of rent collec- alone. Let them set the example of cleanliness and tion, as devised and carried out by Miss Octavia decency in regard to the dwellings and their surHill in London, can be applied to the area under roundings. The occupants, however poor, will soon their control. The recommendations appended by follow it, and the moral, as well as the physical and the Artisans' Dwellings Committee to their reports sanitary well-being of the people will be conhave been somewhat adversely criticised, as but a siderably enhanced. lukewarm and half-hearted dealing with the question. They certainly do partake somewhat of the character of 'grandmotherly legislation. There could be no

SANITARY BUILDING LAWS IN NEW doubt in the minds of any one who followed the evidence given during the inquiry that the generality

YORK.* of the courts were in a dirty is not an absolutely in

By CHARLES F. WINGATE, Sanitary Engineer. sanitary condition. Yet it is only suggested that the * worst' courts shall be 'occasionally' cleansed by UNDER its English charter New York possesses public scavengers. Such courts as exist in Bir- almost no sanitary powers, and prior to the Revolumingham, having many of them a large resident tion there seems to have been no sanitary legislation population, should be regarded as thoroughfares and worth mentioning in the whole State. Even down to submitted to the same treatment. They require it, 1804, all legislation affecting the public health, which as a rule, more than many streets and open thorough-related mostly to quarantine and the removal of fares. Undoubtedly there ought to be no qualifica- nuisances, was limited in its application to the cities tion in so important a matter; whatever is done or

of New York, Hudson, and Albany, the only ones of left undone, every court in the borough ought to be

note at that time in the State. lighted and regularly and thoroughly cleansed.

In 1820, an elaborate Act of forty-five sections In addition to the physical and sanitary advantages, the moral effect upon the residents would not provided for a Board of Health for the three cities fail to be beneficial. People with cleanly habits them. It included a provision for Health Wardens

just named, and the navigable waters connecting find it difficult to practise and maintain them in the

to inspect dwellings and other buildings. After the midst of filth ; those who have not such habits will cholera cpidemic of 1832, local health boards were never acquire them under the conditions which too formed throughout the State. At about 1850 the often surround them. The necessity for the recom- Common Councils of New York and Brooklyn were mendation as to handrails to staircases being rigidly each constituted Boards of Health, with the result of carried out has been shown very recently by the

so mixing up politics with health administration that death of a man through falling over a staircase

in 1873 a change was made, and the present Board without a rail, during a drunken spree on the night of Health was created. The powers of the present of his marriage. On the whole it cannot be said

Board of Health, as regards buildings in New York, that the result of exhaustive inquiry has been

are thus set forth in the Sanitary Code :the solution of that difficult social problem-What

The first provision, sect. 17, is sufficiently comto do with the poor. The committee seem rather to prehensive :-No person shall hereafter erect, or have been content to shift much of their responsi

cause to be erected, or converted to a new purpose bility on to other shoulders, and the poor have to some extent to suffer for the municipal extravagance any part of which, shall be inadequate or defective

by alteration, any building or structure which, or of the past, which prevents the Corporation, by in respect to strength, ventilation, light, sewerage, or reason of the emp:iness of its coffers through daring of any other usual, proper, or necessary provision or enterprises, carried out with the most dazzling precaution, nor shall the builder, lessee, tenant, or splendour, from adopting practical and thorough occupant of any such, or of any other building or reform.

structure (within the right or ability of either to We have now endeavoured, though in but a cur

remedy or prevent the same), cause or allow any sory and imperfect manner, to describe the con

matter or thing to be done in or about any such ditions under which the poorer classes of Birming, building or structure dangerous or prejudicial to life ham, Wolverhampion, and other populous parts of

or health.' the Black Country district, live, move, and have

Sects. 18 and 19 repeat much of the above, and their being. The sanitary and social conditions are

add that no cellars or any apartment not at least two alike deplorable, and one is often the result of the feet above the level of the sidewalk are to be used other. One cannot wonder much at drunkenness, for sleeping purposes, or as a place of residence, nor cock-fighting, dog-fighting, and even prize-fighting any apartment where the floor is damp, or which being indulged in as often as possible, where so large is impregnated with unwholesome odours. Overa degree of brutality and ignorance and vice in its crowding is forbidden, Adequate privies or watermost ferocious form exists. Nor can these be swept closets' must be provided and kept in a cleanly conaway by all the moral and suasive influences dition. Rooms shall be adequately lighted and brought to bear, until the dwellings of the masses ventilated.' and their surroundings are less filthy and less hostile to all notions of cleanliness, decency, • Abridged from the Medico-Legal Journal. New York.

Later provisions (Sects. 190-93), adopted 1877, the tenements. Messrs. D. Willis James, W. Bayard required that in hotels, lodging, and tenement houses Cutting, W. W. Astor, Cornelius Vanderbilt, R. T. proper traps shall be provided under all plumbing Auchmuty, James Gallatin, Henry E. Pellew, F. D. fixtures, and insist on the ventilation of privy vaults Tappen, and C. P. Daly, who composed this comand the extension of soil-pipes through and above mittee, immediately proceeded to take steps toward the roof of every dwelling.

the formation of a joint stock corporation for the Sect. 201, adopted 1879, requires a permit for erection of a block of model houses for working lodging-houses. În short, the powers of the health men ; and also drafted a Bill (with the aid of Judge authorities, so far as the law is concerned, are abso- Charles P. Daly and of Professor Chandler) amendlute, and justified the saying that the Shah of Persia ing the existing Tenement House Act, which passed intended to establish a similar board in his domi- the Legislature in May. A very desirable clause, nions, in order to increase his power over his sub- imposing a licence on all tenement houses, was jects. Its control over nuisances,' says Dr. Stephen unfortunately struck out, and a clause inserted inSmith,' extends from the suppression of a crowing stead appropriating 10,000 dollars to aid in enforcing cock, which disturbs the inorning slumbers of the the law. sick, to the removal of the gigantic corporation of The Tenement House Act of 1867 did not prevent butchers, numbering 250 establishments.'

a building covering the whole lot. This was remeBut many of the provisions of the Code are vague died by requiring a clear open space, of not less and too general. The language is not specific, and than ten feet, between the building and the rear line leaves it to be disputed as to what is adequate of the lot, and by authorising the Board of Health ventilation and light, and as to what are unwhole- to restrict the proportion of lot to be covered to some odours and exhalations. If strictly enforced 65 per cent., whenever they deemed it advisable, to the letter the Sanitary Code would revolutionise except in the case of corner lots. the metropolis, but it would be impracticable to do The amended Act requires that every sleepingthis and also impolitic. The Tenement House Act room shall have at least one window, with a movof 1867 was the first law passed direcily relating to able sash, having an opening of not less than twelve sanitary building in New York City. Its main pro- square feet, admitting light and air directly from the visions were :

public street or yard of the said house, unless suffi1. The requiring in every interior sleeping-room cient light and ventilation shall be otherwise proof two ventilating or transom windows, each having vided, in a manner and on a plan approved by the an area of three square feet, and communicating Board of Health.' The Board are now approving either with a hall or with a room opening on the plans where the inside rooms open upon shafts of external air. 2. A suitable ventilator on the roof the following dimensions : For houses not more over the hall stairway. 3. Fire escapes to be pro- than three storeys in height, twelve square feet; not vided. 4. A water-closet or privy for every twenty more than four storeys, sixteen square feet; not occupants, and connected with the street sewer more than five storeys, twenty square feet. when such exists. 5. Cellars not to be used as Nothing was said about overcrowding. The Board dwellings without a special permit. 6. Garbage to are now authorised to require an owner to reduce be removed, and tenements to be kept clean and the number of occupants of any tenement house whitewashed twice a year. 7. Owners and agents' that they consider to be overcrowded, until a mininames to be posted on the front of the building. mum of 600 cubic feet of air space is secured to This has been a dead letter. These provisions en- each tenant. The amended law also permits the abled the health authorities to effect many reforms; Board of Health to require the presence of a responbut they were lacking in several particulars, after- sible person, either the owner or a janitor or housewards supplied in subsequent amendments.

keeper, in every tenement house occupied by more In the autumn of 1876 general attention was than ten families. For a number of years the Board drawn to the evils of the New York tenement house of Health had been very much assisted in their work system by several circumstances. Special investi- by the co-operation of the sanitary company of gations had been made by two leading charitable police. In 1876 they were deprived of their serassociations in the city into the condition of this vices, and the committee found that the clepartment class of buildings, and important facts relative to was much crippled in its usefulness thereby. A their defects made public in reports and through the provision was incorporated into the new law, which press. In December of the same year the sanitary has secured to the Board the services of thirty engineer offered 500 dollars in premiums for the best policemen. designs for a model tenement house on an ordinary On March 12, 1883, a law was passed by the city lot, 25 x 100. In response to this competition State Legislature prohibiting the making of cigars 206 designs were sent in by architects from all over in tenement houses after Oct. 1. The chief objections the country, and were exhibited. While the plans to the tenement-house cigar-factories are that they selected for approval came nearest to fulfilling the are a sanitary nuisance, detrimental to education terms of the competition, the committee emphat- and an illegitimate interference with a legitimate ically declared that in their view it was impossible to trade. The mortality among children is excessive, secure the requirements of physical and moral as it must be when children, from six years of age health within the narrow and arbitrary limits of the upward, spend most of their time stripping tobacco ordinary city lot; they, therefore, recommended and bunch-making. The school laws cannot be further agitation to secure needed legislation, regu- enforced, and the parents receive such low wages lating the number of occupants, the amount of open that they are compelled to make their children work. space, the provisions for light, ventilation, and These places are also physically demoralising, owing cleanliness on sound sanitary principles.

to bad ventilation, long hours of labour, the night Simultaneously with this announcement a mass and Sunday work, and eating food that is impreg. meeting was held, at which a committee of nine nated with tobacco. There are from 18,000 to was nominated to suggest measures for reforming 20,000 persons engaged in cigar-making in the shops and factories in New York, and there are

same footing. If, however, they had to prove their about 2,000 manufacturers. The tenement-house qualifications by such an examination as I have manufacturers number 28, and they employ from suggested, the best plumbers would receive the 3,500 to 3,750 persons. The hours of labour in the credit they deserve, and the ignoramuses would factories are from 50 to 57 per week. In the tene

have to be content to wait longer for a certificate or ment houses they vary from 70 to 103 hours per

receive one of a second grade. week, and the workers get from it dols. to 2 dols.

Within a few years the attention of the public has per thousand less than is paid in the factories.

been drawn to the very high buildings, mostly for Owing to their long hours they can make cigars offices or apartment houses, being constructed in all faster than they are consumed, and that is why so

parts of the city, and their effect upon the health many cigar-makers are out of work in this city and safety of their inmates and persons living near Several physicians have strongly condemned this by. This is a subject which calls for immediate trade. They say that bronchial catarrh, pneumonia, attention, and a committee of leading citizens are inflammation of the lungs, and various nervous

now considering what restrictions should be placed diseases are engendered in houses where such a

on the height of such buildings. The chief objectrade is carried on.

tions to the lofty buildings now coming into vogue Similar prohibition may be necessary in time with

is that they darken the streets and exclude sunlight the manufacture of clothing in tenement houses,

from neighbouring windows. The right to light and excepting under special restrictions, owing to the

air has been established by innumerable lawsuits in risks of contagious disease being conveyed by the England, and is not to be disputed. By general clothing to the public at large.

consent, the property adjoining a huge French flat In the following winter the same public-spirited is lessened one-fifth or more in value by the erection gentlemen who had obtained the amendments to

of the latter. The adjacent streets and yards are the Tenement House Act secured the adoption of made permanently damp, lower rooms become an enactment requiring that the plans of the plumb- uninhabitable, neighbouring chimneys and soil-pipes ing and drainage of all new buildings must be sub

have to be raised to be of any service, the wind mitted to the Board of Health for approval, and that

sweeps through the narrow streets with gusty viothe work itself shall be executed in conformity to

lence, causing discomfort and sore throats; lastly, their rules and subject to official inspection. It was

tall buildings invite fire and threaten the safety of also required that all plumbers should be registered their inmates; they also disfigure the appearance of at the Board of Health and licensed. The value of the city, and may spoil a whole neighbourhood, as this law is demonstrated almost daily, and the fact they are rarely tastefully designed. An example of that its provisions are being adopted by other cities this is seen on Fifty-seventh Street, which contains all over ihe country, and are recommended for adop- some of the finest residences in the city, whose tion abroad, is the best proof of its merits. It pre

architectural appearance is wholly destroyed by scribes, first, that all plumbing in new buildings several huge structures built in the plainest and must be executed according to certain rules; these cheapest manner, which inevitably seize the visitor's rules have been drawn up in consultation with engi- eye and mar all their exquisite surroundings. It is neers, plumbers, and sanitarians of the highest quite time a stop was put to this practice, and that standing, and hence represent the best thought and

all buildings, or, at least, dwelling-houses, should be experience of our time in this line of work. They limited in their height as in Paris, proportionate to insist upon the use of good material and workman

the width of the street, avenue, or open space in ship, having work accessible and as far as possible

front. open to view, thorough ventilation and perfect trapping of fixtures, disconnection of all house drains FEVER FROM WANT OF WATER.–At the last meeting from the sewer or cesspool, separation of the water of the Hexham Rural Sanitary Authority, Dr. Maclagan, and food supply from any source of pollution, abun- Medical Officer of Health, stated that several fresh cases dant flushing, isolation of fixtures from living rooms, of typhoid fever had broken out at Eltringham ; in his and, finally, suitable tests when the work is done to opinion the outbreak of the disease was entirely caused by ensure that the plumbing is safe. As a result we deficiency of water. The Inspector reported that he had can say that all the new houses plumbed since the supplied disinfectants to eleven sever-infected houses in the law went into operation are free from defects com

small village of Eltringham. mnon to the mass of other dwellings, and which have

PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. - At a meeting so injuriously affected the health of their occupants. of the parishioners of St. Bride, Fleet Street held The bitterest opponents of the law have ceased

in the vestry of the church, under the presidency of their complaints against it. The manner of its en- the vicar, the Rev. E. C. Hawkins, M.A., the quesforcement is a credit to the health authorities, while tion of the erection of public baths and washhouses for special praise is due to Messrs. Gallatin, Meyer, and the parish was brought under consideration.

Mr. J. Prof. Chandler, who secured the passage of the law. Lewis moved a resolution affirming the necessity for soine During the first eight months of 1882, dwellings to

such provision, and suggesting as a site the disused burial. the value of 344 million dollars were erected in the ground near the Farringdon Street fruit market. metropolis. What is now needed is to extend the

said the parish had in hand the sum of 3,000l. in application of this law so as to include alterations

the shape of an accumulated sund from parochial proin existing buildings as well as new ones, more espe

perty, and he thought the money could not be better used cially in large jobs of work costing over 100 dollars.

than in providing an establishment of cleanliness and The registration of plumbers should also be supple- chair, expressed his warın approval of the project, and

health. The vicar, in putting the resolution from the mented by a formal examination before a competent said that the money derived from parish property would be board of each applicant for registration, so th it the far better spent in establishing an institution for the public public can be able to distinguish between competent good than in distributing it in doles to a few individuals, and incompetent workmen. At present the registra- the inevitable tendency of which was to reduce wages and tion is a mere form, and all applicants stand on the raise rents. The resolution was adopted unanimously.


averaged 21:4, and had the death-rate in 1882

corresponded with this average, no less than 48,338 ANNUAL REPORT.

more deaths would have been registered. This iinBy J. HAMPDEN SHOVELLER.

provement in the general health of the country

appears to have been shared in by persons at each The Forty-fifth Annual Report of the Registrar. age-period during each of the two years 1881 and General of E and has been recently issued. It 1882, so that the conditions prevailing in those contains detailed abstracts of the marriages, births, years must have been favourable to health in all and deaths registered in England and Wales during stages of life. The rate of mortality among infants the year 1882, prefaced by a valuable and interesting showed the usual excess in the manufacturing and analysis of the vital statistics of that year.

mining counties, and was lowest in the agricultural The growth of the population of England and

counties. Wales during 1882, occasioned by the excess of births In the urban population of England and Wales, over deaths, was 372,360 ; but this does not repre- consisting of about fifteen millions of persons, the sent the real increase. Emigration and immigration death-rate during the year under review was 21'1, have to be taken into account. The population of while it did not exceed 17'2 in the rural population this country in the middle of 1882 is estimated at

of about ten and a half millions. Both these rates 26,413,861, an increase over that of the preceding showed a marked decline from the average rates in year of 352,125, a number more than 20,000 less than preceding years. the balance between the births and deaths of the

The number of names added to the alphabetical year. In consequence of the unprecedentedly large indexes of marriages, births, and deaths in England numbers of emigrants during the past few years, the

and Wales during 1882 was 1,814,478. These loss of population due to the large excess of emigra- records, for the convenience of public reference, tion over immigration must recently have been con- extend from the year 1837, when civil registration siderable.

was first established, to the present time, and contain The marriages during 1882 numbered 204:405,

an aggregate number of 66,619,275 names. The equal to a rate of 15.5 persons married to each 1,000

number of searches in these records during 1882 persons living. It is satisfactory to note that the was as many as 33,597. marriage-rate, which fell year by year from 1873 to 1879, has since steadily recovered. Of the marriages POISONOUS Dyes.— The danger of wearing next the during 1882, nearly 72 per cent. were solemnised

skin articles of clothing dyed with substances obtained from according to the rites of the Church of England. | benzol and other products of coal tar has been fully recog. The marriages included those of 124 persons de nised by medical men, who have given instances of the illscribed as divorced. In no less than 15 per cent. of effects caused through the absorption by the skin of these the marriages the officiating minister neglected to irritating and poisonous compounds. Their warnings are insert in the register the name of both parties, or of repeated and illustrated in a case of exhibits sent io the one or other of them. The mean age at marriage | Health Exhibition by an authority on skin diseases, Mr. among those whose ages were duly stated was 27.9 James Startin, M.K.C.S. In this case, which will be for males and 25.6 for females. "The educational | found in the Dress Section in the East Quadrant, near the test supplied by the signing of the marriage register

entrance from the conservatory, are specimens of some of with a mark instead of the person's name shows a the beautiful aniline colours-rosaline, magenta, violet red, progressive improvement, though it has not, during methyl violet, Bismarch violet, &c.—and gloves and stock the last few years, been so rapid. The proportion of ings dyed with the substances by which these hues are

obtained that, in cases coming under the treatment of the persons who were unable to sign their names was

exhibitor, had produced eruptions on the skin of women 15'2 per cent. in 1882, which was a smaller propor- and children, in some instances of a very severe character. tion than in any previous year ; still the fact remains Below are shown many vegetable dye stuffs, and gloves, that even now 13-2 per cent. of the men and 17°1 per stockings, and other portions of dress dyed with them, cent. of the women of England are unable to sign from which no danger of the kind need be apprehended. their names in writing; though in the year 1850 no less than 31 in each 100 men and 46 in each 100

VEGETARIANS are taking up the feeding of the children women who married were unable to sign the marriage describes the experiment in the Daily News. A room

of the poor on a self-supporting basis. A correspondent register. The total number of births registered in England King's Cross court at 35. a week ; three saucepans and

which had a small fireplace with hobs was taken in a and Wales during the year 1882 was 889,014, equal other cheap utensils were bought ; two or three mothers 10 a rate of 33.7 per 1,000 persons estimated to be

were asked in to help and to learn to cook ; a shilling was living. This was the lowest birth-rate recorded invested in lentils and vegetables, and 6d. in two wheat since 1853, and was considerably below the average meal loaves. So the dinner was made by the teacher and rate in the preceding ten years. Of the 889,014 the mothers, and eaten with relish by the mothers and births, 452,752 were males and 436,262 females, so some fifteen to eighteen children for a week. So far the that to each 100 females 103.8 males were born. dinners were free. The mothers were then asked to club The proportion of illegitimate births was fewer in together ; they were to take the cooking in turn, day by proportion to the population than in any previous day ; one fire was enough ; and the cost had been found to year; though, in consequence of the diminution of vary from 8d. to is. for twelve to eighteen portions of a the legitimate births, resulting from the decline in

little more than a large breakfast cup each. Accordingly the marriage-rate, the proportion of illegitimate to

the women are now cooking daily at their own expense total births did not show any decline.

the two-gallon saucepan full either of strong lentil soup, The deaths registered in 1882 were 516,654, and Children-each woman has three or four – and they have

peas pudding, or sweet porridge. They feed their own were equal to a rate of 196 per 1,000 persons living. some left, which others in the court buy at three ladlefuls With the single exception of 1881, when the death- for a penny. One day they fed their party for a shilling, rate was 18:9, the death-rate in 1882 was the lowest and sold the remainder to a non-co-operator for 2}d.; and on record. During the ten years 1871-80 the rate the soup is beautiful.'

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