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year on the epidemics which prevail in the depart

DRAIN-TESTING. ments convinces one that "la contagion de la fièvre typhoide est un fait acquis désormais à la science.”'

By HENRY MASTERS. That enteric fever may be treated with safety to o:her patients in the general wards of a hospital is SOME few years since a letter appeared in a con. true, but this does not in the least show that it is not temporary drawing attention to the importance of contagious, but only that in certain circumstances house-draining being free from leakage, and advising it is not so. In particular, where the ventilation every one who had a drain in their house, to procure is good, the cubic space abundant, and the general a certain quantity of ether and pour it down a sink sanitary precautions complete, it does not spread or closet, and then, if any defect existed, the ether any great distance; but that under such circumstances would escape and the defect be discovered. This it does not spread far is no evidence that it does not amateur system of drain-testing took immensely spread at all. By due attention to the conditions with the public, and, I dare say, there was a run just mentioned, typhus, enteric, and scarlet fevers upon the ether market for a time, and even now I might be treated together with impunity; and when meet with people who have just tested with ether. one thinks that theinfective matter of the enteric fever | The letter did good, for it taught the public that it parient is for the most part contained in his stools ; | wasimportant that their house-drains should be sound that these are passed into vessels which are imme- and free from leakage. There are in England and diately removed from the ward and emptied into the Wales about 4,000,000 houses, and I should not be drains, there remains nothing to infect the non-enteric astonished that, if these were tested, at least 3,000,000 patients in a general ward, and consequently there would be found defective. is nothing surprising in the fact that such patients Drain-testing by strong scents is not a new thing, do not contract enteric fever. It is quite otherwise for in my early days (nigh fifty years ago) I have a with the nurses. These are in close contact with the vivid recollection that if water in which cabbage had patients, have to remove their excreta, empty and been boiled was discharged into the kitchen sink, c'ean the bed-pans, collect and remove their soiled its odour invariably escaped into the cellar, up the linen, feed them, clean them, and move them about staircase, and, I dare say, the air of the reception in bed. Their position, therefore, in relation to the rooms and bedrooms did not escape being highly patients is entirely different from that of the other charged with this vegetable test; but then in those patients in a general ward, and the difference is days everybody considered it the right thing, if able, shown by the fact that they do frequently take the to have drains under their houses. As a matter of fever ; how they do so may not be quite so clear. course, such drains must emit a bad odour, or how It should, moreover, be remembered that enteric should a stranger be able to discover the locality sever is a disease of childhood and youth, and that of that useful appendage to a house—the wateras a consequence a large number of nurses are pro- closet. “Follow your nose,' was the order of the day, tected by a previous attack.

and your nose seldom played you false. In these latter days we are more alive to defects in drains,

and drain-testing has become quite a business, and Messrs. Robert Boyle & Son's Patent Self-acting Air consequently we have all our fads in this direction ; Pump Ventilators have just been applied by the Admiralty

one is strong for chemicals, another for smoke, to the whole of the drainage system at Sheerness Dock. another for filling with water, and another trusts to yard. Messrs. Boyle have also recently applied their the sense of smell to detect the natural drain odour, system of ventilation to the General Post Office, Liver- and the latter class of testers are legion, and they are pool; General Post Office, Leeds ; Grand Hôtel de generally of 'opinion strong,' for, say they, if you Grasse, Alpes Maritimes; Albert Memorial Museum, cannot detect any drain odour the drains must be Exeter; Brixton Town Hall; Rochdale Free Library, perfect. As I have for many years practised in each Rochdale ; New Public Baths, Forest Hill; and the and every of these testings, I will give my experience, Convent of the Good Shepherd, Hammersmith.

and in doing so I trust that I shall throw some light EARLY SANITARIANS. - In the course of the discussion

upon the question of drain-testing, for I find that which followed Dr. Corfield's paper on ‘The Spread of

some of those who ought to know are not all so wellInfectious Diseases,' read at the International Health

informed as they should be. Exhibition on June 14, Dr. Walford remarked that • There

I take rather a broad view of this drain-testing, was nothing new in sanitation ; the earliest medical officer

for I do not believe that either of the systems enumeof health, and perhaps the best, was Moses. The prin

rated above are applicable in all cases. Take, for ciples laid down by him were of the very best, though, instance, the case of an old house; you want to know unfortunately, they were better fitted for dwellers in tents if the drains are free from leakage, and your client than for residents in large towns. (This aspect of the will not hear of breaking ground, as he feels sure all sanitary question was fully dealt with by Mr. Ernest Hart is right, for he has constantly

had traps put in. Now in his lecture on Mosaic Sanitation, delivered some years these traps are the rub. There is a trap at the 350 to the Jewish Working-men's Club.) Dr. Walford closet and at the foot of the soil-pipe ; another at also pointed out that Cyrus fully understood the value of the end of the passage, another under the cellar, pure water, only drinking the produce of one particular river, and that boiled.'

another just out of the house, and another close to the common sewer, or cesspool. So here we have

the drain divided into six sections, or pockets, and it A RECENT Parliamentary paper gives the number of human corpses found in the river Lea in the years 1882

is found that water passes freely from the waterand 1883. In all, eighty-five bodies were found in this

closet to the cesspool, for you can hear it enter that river during these two years, and the result of the coroners' receptacle by applying your ear to the bung-hole of inquests held upon them was a verdict in thirty-five cases

the man-hole stone, or cesspool ventilator. To apply of accidental death, in one of wilful murder, and in eight

a smoke test in a case like this would be absurd, for of suicide ; while in forty-one cases no opinion was ex- the most you could do would be to try one or two pressed by the jury as to the cause of death.

sections through a sink or bung-hole, but if you put

carefully a strong peppermint oil, ether, aniseed oil, well set. Some consider that a soil-pipe is best or nitro-benzole, and plenty of hot water to follow, tested by water—if the pipes are strong, well and the chances are you may fairly test the drain from good ; but I have a lively recollection of a lead end to end, and may find if this test has been effec- soil-pipe being so tested, and the lower end of the tive by applying your nose to the bung-hole or ven- pipe gradually assuming a leeklike shape. In draintilating pipe, and so discover if the test has gone testing by water it is well to be provided with from end to end. The advantage of the chemical turned plugs of several sizes, about three inches test in such a case as I have described is that no long, covered with India-rubber. Some prefer trap in the line of the drain will interfere with its leather cups, with plugs of cork inside them. free action, for wherever the drainage flows the Upon applying the smoke test it is necessary to test will also flow, leaving particles upon the sides take some precautions. All outlets (such as airof the drain ; so you have a long line of scent from openings) should be plugged, and also the outlet of closet to cesspool, and, if proper precautions are the drain should be cut off ; for I have known cases taken, you will be able to discover about the locality when a strong current set in the direction of the of the fault, if any.

main sewer, in which circumstances the smoke If we have laid down new drains, and know where would be found to pass from the house instead of the traps are, there is no better test than smoke by to it. You must also regulate the quantity of smoky the fan, and the machine made by Messrs. John material according to the capacity of the drains and

pipes to be tested, for a mansion will require more smoke than a coitage ; and if you can cut a small hole into the drain at several places, and cork all but one up, an examination of cork after cork will assure you that smoke is present at certain points, and disclose if the drain-pipes have been laid without pockets or accidental cesspools, caused by the pipe layer allowing the pipe here and there to sink. In some cases you will find a difficulty in getting at the pipe to make a hole into it. In such cases attack a gully or trap outside the house, or even the kitchen sink, extract all the water from the trap with a sponge, and insert the smoke-pipe, bound round with a duster or house-cloth, or a flexible tube may be passed through the trap water, and the water in

the tube expelled by your breath. The great advanWatts & Co., engineers, of Bristol (who also supply tage of smoke-testing is that you can see, as well as test-paper), I believe to be the best in the market; smell, the exact locality of the leak, or at any rate at any rate I find it handy and effective, and, if you can follow the smoke to the clefective parts, for packed in a box, is not a heavy package to travel it is of a strong flavour, flavouring the earth round a with.

defect. In some cases I have known it leave a sort Water-testing has its limits, for seldom will of tint upon the earth. With the smoke test you a system of drains stand water pressuie. Take a do not require to be so careful of handling the appacase ; a small house has a 6" drain from back to ratus as in chemicals, for touching a peppermint front, is trapped at the sewer, has a scullery and a cork will scent your fingers or dress, and will occayard sink. The trap and sinks are plugged securely, sionally give a false scent; therefore too much care and you let on the first floor water-closet service cannot be taken in chemical testing. pipe, until the basin is nearly full ; all at once the The sketch herewith shows a suitable bag for water sinks, for something has given way; probably carrying your chemical apparatus; it is in two an underground pipe burst. You inquire into this, parts, the upper a Gladstone or other approved and find that the drains have been submitted to a leather receptacle, and should contain a set of pressure of about 12 lbs. per square inch. This upon tools, viz., a square-faced and pointed backed geothe 6-inch pipe is more than 200 lbs. per inch run. logical hammer, useful for cutting a small hole in To my mind this is a pressure that no drain should be a ware pipe, and also as a centre punch ; an submitted to, for drains are not made to carry high pressure water. It may be said that should a stoppage take place in the underground drain, everything should be strong enough to resist the water rising in the soil-pipe ; but this can seldom, if ever, take place, for an escape at the scullery or yard-sink would at once draw attention to the stoppage. Water-testing is very well for a ware drain that has 3 or 4 feet rise, but nothing above that height should be filled with water, except the drain is of iron. There is this advantage in a water test-you fill the pipes and watch the effect ; if it falls but slightly it shows that there is a leak somewhere ; if they are tested before American drill, to make. 3-16th inch holes in iron being covered up you can detect the spot ; but if pipes ; a square rimer ; a screw tap, such as used the drain is covered the whole must be opened and by gas-fitters ; a curved pipe, with taper screwed examined, for the leaking water will travel under ends, for fixing into a soil-pipe; several receptacles the pipes for many yards and possibly be absorbed for chemicals, which may be screwed upon the by the soil. Water-testing should only be tried upon curved pipe. These receptacles have taps bottom new open drains, and after the cement-jointing is 1 and top, and the contents are discharged into the


pipe by opening the under tap first and the upper Having studied the various directions of the drains afterwards, and the chemical will pass down by and pipes, endeavour to inject into each section a

test of different odour ; but, before commencing, all doors and windows must be closed, air-pipes and main drains stopped. Give your assistant full instructions, and keep him outside the house. He should be provided with the chemical box, several buckets of hot water, and a jug Your position is inside the house, having previously provided yourself with what you require. Your assistant will drill the outside soil-pipe, or see that an outside sink is clear, and inject a test, which he washes down with hot water. If the test should be put in an outside soilpipe, you can assist its development by pouring some hot water into the inside closet. Your next duty will be to enter each apartment, commencing near to where the test is applied, carefully closing each door after you ; and if any test is discovered escaping, endeavour to find its exact point of escape, and make a note. You may find it necessary to try inside soil-pipes, because there may be traps top and bottom, and this may be done by putting down the closet a 'torpedo,' suspended by about a yard of string.

To describe the mode of testing in every case would far exceed the limit of this piper, but, like everything else, to be successful requires experience

and a large amount of ingenuity, for the difficulties gravitation ; but it may be advisable occasionally to are many, and not least is having inaccurate smelling screw a funnel on the upper end, so as to run some powers; and it is astonishing how defective the water through from a jug. This test is better sense of smell is with some people. I have met applied out of doors, if possible, for it is next to with individuals who have failed to detect any scent impossible not to allow a small escape. Some lead even from oil of peppermint dropped into a glass of or gutta-percha plugs, to screw into the pipe holes hot water, and again others who have scented out after you have finished ; a screw-driver ; a light one's test-bag as it was taken through the house. A hard chisel ; a taper-piercer, to make holes in lead successful tester must, therefore, cultivate this impipes ; some nails, string and wax tapers; some portant sense, so as to be able to distinguish the slips of brown paper, which have been soaked in difference between one scent or another, and it is vinegar and saltpetre, for simple smoke-testing, such well to procure the use of any inmate's nose also, as as waste-pipes, &c. There should also be some tin it confirms your own opinion, and is evidence. A divisions, to contain two stoppered bottles, having a perfumer can tell to a nicety the kind of scent contablespoonful of diluted sulphuric acid in each, and tained in a bottle or cake of soap, and their proporabout six ' torpedoes,' each charged with two ounces tions, and I see no reason why drain-testers should of oil of peppermint.

not be able to distinguish the scent escaping into the The lower part of the bag is a box, having a cover house that his assistant has injected into ihe drain well secured and jointed with rubber, so that no outside. scent can escape. This box should not be taken Another important matter in drain - testing is inside the house, and it should be fitted inside with tenperature. If the house to be tested be occupied tin divisions, to receive, say, two stoppered bottles, and plenty of fires going, and the outside air at each to contain lb. of ether ; two bottles, each to freezing point, the probability is that your testing contain 2 ozs. Hotchkiss's oil of peppermint ; two will be very successful; on the other hand, should bottles, each to contain } lb. of oil of murbane your test be applied to an empty house, and the out(artificial almonds); a duster or two, and practice side temperature warm, very leaky drains may not will perhaps suggest other tools, apparatus, and be detected ; in the latter case it is better to put off tests. With such a bag, fitted, you can commence your testing till a more suitable day. operations; and first I should advise you to make For chemical testing, Hotchkiss's oil of pepperan inspection of the whole premises, and take a mint stands first on the list-dose, from one to two rough sketch of the basement floor, noting by a x ounces-and it can be detected in the drain for every sink, by a every soil or waste pipe, by o twenty-four hours after it has been applied ; next, every rain-water pipe, and by dotted lines the sup. sulphurated ether-dose, four to six ounces--this posed position of drains, underground tanks, bench passes off in about four hours, and care should be marks, cesspools, &c., and the more notes you take taken not to allow a light to come near the ether, the better. Examine all upstairs apartments, making or for it to accumulate in pockets. separate sketch of closets, bath-rooms, and lavatories, I tested the drain of one house with ether, and a with notes of fittings, water supply pipes, overflows, fortnight afterwards a workman opened a cesspool &c. You will be now in a position to commence

into which the test had found its way, and upon testing, as you will have a fair knowledge of the scheme striking a light to examine the cesspool, he was of drainage. At the same time, if you can get a blown about three feet into the air, and had some local mason and plumber who have had something slight burns; and a lady client once informed me to do with the drains, they can give you much out that she had tested her own drains at night, by of-sight information which you will find valuable. I pouring into an outside sink a bottle of ether ; the

result was that she was thrown some distance from

THE HOUSING OF THE the seat of cperation, and her servant, who had the candle, ran for her life, and some light woodwork POOR IN BIRMINGHAM AND THE near took fire.

BLACK COUNTRY. Nitro. benzole is a powerful test and retains its smell about as long as peppermint ; it has a strong

(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) almond scent-dose, six ounces. Oil of aniseed is

[Sixth Article.] about the same character as murbane, but it cannot be successfully used in cold weather. There are The newly - incorporated municipal borough of other tests, such as oil of thyme and eucalyptus ; | West Bromwich is one of the most pleasantly and but I find ihe above are sufficient for my practice. healthily situated towns in the Black Country dis

In chemical testing great care must be taken not trict. In some respects it has advantages which are to be deceived by a false scent. If your assistant not possessed by any other of the numerous parishes passes through the house after opening a test- between Birmingham and Wolverhampton. Its altibottle he may leave a trail behind him, which may tude is high, it being in occupation of some of the be mistaken for an escape from the drain. A lady highest table land in England. And although on amateur informed me that she had tested her drains, the west and north it is subject to noisome fumes and found them in a dreadful state. She poured a from chemical works and the black sulphurous bottle of peppermint into an inside water-closet, clouds which belch from the throats of numberless and she traced the scent up her staircase and into forge and foundry chimneys, together with the choice every room of the house. The test of course passed atmosphere wasted from a couple of extensive gasthrough the closet door into the warmer atmosphere works, on the cast the eye wanders over many a mile of the house, and so deceived her. A test properly of pasture and woodland only limited in one direcapplied in this case discovered no defect whatever. tion by hills which bcund the horizon, and in the

In the upper bag I have suggested bottles with a other extending on the one hand to the metropolis of little sulphuric acid in them. These are for taking the Midlands, and on the other to the borough samples of water from the pump, tap, or under- of Walsall. Over this wide expanse the populaground rain-water tank; and although I do not tion is very sparse ; factories, foundries, and forges advise the readers of this paper to turn amateur are unknown, and the atmosphere is as clear and chemists, I think they should have sufficient know- pure as the landscape is full of natural beauty. ledge to be able to tell the difference between good Nothing more astonishes a stranger to the locality and bad water, or to test in a simple manner the than to emerge from the lower parts of the town and water they may find in use in a house they are behold stretched before him so extensive and beauticalled upon to inspect. If you get a sample of ful a vision. Upon the slope of the town overlooking fairly good water, and put it into a test-tube with a this scene lies a park of fifty-six acres, given to the drop of permanganate of potash, it will colour it a inhabitants by the Earl of Dartmouth, the Lord of very light pink, and it should remain this colour for Sandwell, of which estate it previously formed a a day at least ; but if you treat a sample of foul part. In respect to the advantages we have herein water in a similar manner it will immediately mentioned, the inhabitants of West Bromwich are assume a yellowish colour, showing that it is not in a position to be envied by the many thousands of pure ; and if such water as this be found in a their less fortunately situated neighbours.

West house, the sooner an analytical chemist's opinion Bromwich is also fortunate in its High Street, upon it is taken the better.

one of the finest in England - and in its public

buildings, all of which are ornaments to the town. DISINFECTION OF Rags. — The Treasury Department It is not so fortunate in its sanitary administration, of the United States has given the following directions for

and however well its claims to be a prosperous and disinfecting rags imported into the United States from progressive town may be maintained in its comEgypt. They have been pr pared after consultation with mercial and general municipal relations, the claim the Boards of Health of New York, Boston, and New to distinction fails when submitted to the test of Haven. 1. Boiling in water for two hours under a pres. sanitary science and sanitary advancement. Like sure of fifty pounds per square inch. 2. Boiling in water most of the other towns in the district, it has been for four hours without pressure. 3. Subjection to the action aroused to a sense of its shortcomings in matters of confined sulphurous-acid gas for six hours, burning one appertaining to sewage disposal and purification and-a-half to two pounds of roll brimstone in each 1,000 through fear of the Rivers Pollution Prevention Act cubic feet of space, with rags well scattered upon racks.

of 1876, with the penal enactments of which it has Domestic Poisons.-In a lecture recently delivered at been threatened by its big neighbour Birmingham, the Health Exhibition, Mr. Henry Carr dealt with the on account of its pollution of the river Tame. Like dangers arising from the presence of arsenic in wall papers most of the other towns in the district, also, it has and domestic fabrics, to prevent which a Bill had been turned its attention to the remedying of this evil, drafted, the provisions of which were not more stringent and has in hand a drainage and sewage purification than those already in force in Germany, Sweden, and scheme, which may, or may not, be in operation at other countries. Owing to the investigations which had the end of six or seven years. Like the other towns been made there had been already a great diminution in in the district, it has suffered from epidemic incurthe use of arsenic colours, but the public needed to be reminded of the fact that green was not the only colour in sions of infectious diseases, and at the present time which arsenic was to be feared. Several specimens of is under the sway of an outbreak of smallpox, which paper-hangings were exhibited in pairs representing has maintained a more or less strong hold upon the arsenical and non-arsenical colours of very nearly the same

place for more than a year and a half. All the neighshade. The two principal methods of testing for arsenic bouring towns—Tipton, Darlaston, and Wednesbury were next described in detail, and Reinsch's recommended especially—have been subjected to this dread scourge, for general use as being more easily carried out and suffi. and West Bromwich was about the last town in the ciently accurate for all practical purposes.

district which succumbed. For some months it was

very virulent, and taxed the utmost resources of the trickled away down the yards, while the ashes and place. When it first broke out here there were house refuse, overflowing from the inadequate no means of isolation, and it was only after or ruinous receptacle, formed a festering stinking sime months' delay, and by dint of strong heap in the open yard. It is no uncommon thing pressure from without, that the sanitary depart- in some parts of the borough to see an open midden ment of the Corporation inade such efforts to or cesspool standing in an exposed position in a grapple with the disease as were likely to prove yard, in some instances contiguous to a street, proeffectual. They hired a temporary building to serve tected only by a few inches of brick wall. In one the purpose of an isolated hospital, and took yard especially there is a green, stagnant pool, some measures for carrying out long-delayed plans for the feet in width, actually below the surface of the ground, erection of a permanent hospital. After a while the unfenced and unprotected in any way from the childisease began to flag, but it has never been thoroughly dren of all ages playing in the immediate vicinity. stamped out, and during the last few weeks has When a heavy shower of rain stirs up these fetid broken out again almost as badly as ever. It would pools, especially after the contents have been accunot be wise, it might not even be correct, to say this mulating for some length of time, the stench is was the result of any shortcoming on the part of something to be avoided. The removal of all this the sanitary department. But there seems to be a filth is carried on by nightmen, and every particle of generally felt and a frequently expressed conviction it has in miny cases to be taken through the house. in the minds of the inhabitants that the work of that A few instances, taken from actual observation, department is not so vigorously and effectually will show the statements above made are not in any carried on as it might be, and that there is too way overdrawn. The borough is divided into six apparent an inclination to underestimate the danger wards. Greets Green Ward, which is on the lowest and neglect or dally with precautions.

level, is one of the most insanitary. In one court West Bromwich is a municipal borough, with a opening into the main road are fourteen houses, population of about 60,000, situate between four and containing between sixty and seventy persons, for five miles from Birmingham, and between seven and the use of whom there are four small privies, with eight from Wolverhampton. It covers an area of one open midden. In another court close by, the 5,710 acres, and its population is lodged in about houses are arranged in the shape of the letter T. 10,850 houses, giving a proportion of about five and The privies allotted to these houses were some of a half persons to each house. In too many cases, them without doors, and the middens were in a very however, especially in the small insanitary dwellings imperfect condition. In one street twenty-one houses which are huddled together in the poorer and more open into one unpaved yard, in which are six closets. chickly populated part of the town, it is no uncommon At the time of the inspection above referred to, the thing to find nine or ten persons in occupation of a middens and ashpits were so full that the liquid three-roomed cottage. In respect to overcrowding, oozed up through the brick floors of the closets, however, the town is in a much better position tha'n and a great heap of ashes and house refuse had its neighbours. The industries of the place include formed in the yard, where it had been accumulating coal mines, iron foundries, hollow ware, and spring for some weeks. In another street are two courts, balance manufactories, nut and bolt works, &c. the occupants of which were entirely without water The water supply is derived from wells, and the for dietetic purposes, and had to rely upon rain mains of the South Staffordshire Waterworks water, which, even when properly filtered, is most Company. The latter is reliable ; the former is unpleasant in flavour, owing to the smoke and fumes generally otherwise. There is no system of drainage through which it has to pass. At the junction of for sewage. The storm water and swill water from two thoroughfares in this neighbourhood, the inthe houses runs along the street channels-where habitants of a row of twelve houses deposited their there are any—and is carried with the detritus from ashes and other house refuse, forming a heap neither the roads into the watercourses and the canal. The agreeable to sight or smell. In another place, formopen midden system-one of the most filthy and ing a thoroughfare between two main roads, much unwholesome systems of dealing with animal of the fæcal matter seemed to be deposited on the excreta in existence-prevails in all but the newest surface of the ground, while a couple of cartloads and better class houses, where the middens are of house refuse occupied a conspicuous position, covered and fitted with a ventilating shaft. There is and appeared to form a kind of playground for the probably no part of the district where more glaring children. instances of sanitary neglect and filthiness can be Abutting on the Greets Green Road-a main found, combined with inadequate closet accommoda- thoroughfare-were three cottages in process of tion and an absence of the requirements of decency demolition, the remnants of a row. Two of them and cleanliness. The regulation allowance of closets were tenanted. More miserable tenements could in all the more thickly-populated parts of the scarcely be imagined, and yet a man and his borough is one to three houses ; in some places daughter, employed at neighbouring brickworks, there is but one to four or even five. They are had lived in one or other of the row for forty years, generally placed side by side, sometimes within a paying a week rent. About fifty yards few feet of and facing the house, door, occasionally a away were the remains of a closet, utterly unusable, hundred yards or more away.

Many of them and the functions of nature had to be discharged in have no doors, or had not until very recently, when the open. There were no back doors, nor any wateran independent inspection of the borough with pub- supply. One would think even the most supine of lication of the results directed particular attention to sanitary authorities would have had no difficulty in what in some cases was no less than a public scandal. declaring such hovels unfit for habitation. A row The middens and ashpits, generally combined, were of seven houses facing to the Greets Green Road, found so full in dozens of cases that the liquid sewage and opposite large ironworks, also have no backways. was forced up through the bricks or flooring of their sanitary offices comprise two closets at one end closets, and lay in shallow pools on the surface or of the row, reached direct from the public footpath,

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