« EelmineJätka »
to learn the English names for things edible and po- T. Farmer & Co., London. - Artificial fertilisers, and table in general demand, looking into a dictionary for the raw materials used in their manufacture. such words! Here I may give a list of English exhibi- Voile & Wortley, London.--Liquorice manufacturers. tors of matters appertaining to food and health and F. Selby & Co., Birmingham.- Patent safety and other comfort.
kinds of axles, coach springs, and general saddlers' ironJames Robinson & Co., Rawmarsh, Rotherham, York mongery. shire. --Original spiced vinegar.
Most of these enumerations speak for themselves and Andrew G. Soutter & Co., St. Mary Axe, London.- need no further description. Those about which there is Varnishes, paints, and sanitary appliances.
something more to say will, ere the next issue of the Central Queensland Meat Export Company, Fenchurch SANITARY RECORD appears, have been made more patent Avenue, London. -- Preserved meats.
to my eyes than they are at present; and hundreds of W. Guest & Son, Sheffield. - Furniture and other exhibits of other lands will have been telling of matters of polishing appliances.
interest to my readers. Lamb & Watt, Liverpool. -Scotch whisky and British wines. Pitt & Co., London.-Mineral and aerated waters.
ARTISANS' DWELLINGS IN DUBLIN. Renton Gibbs, Mill Street, Liverpool. —Heating and ventilating apparatus.
The visit of the Prince of Wales and Prince Albert Victor Easton & Anderson, Erith Iron Works.- Patent re- to the slums and to the improved labourers' dwellings in volving purifier, as used by the Antwerp Waterworks Dublin, as well as the approaching meeting in that city of Co. for purifying water from the river Nethe for the the Royal Commission on the Housing of the Industrial supply of the town of Antwerp, duplex pumps, and hy. Classes, has directed considerable attention to the domestic draulic lifts.
condition of the poorer classes in the metropolis of the Archibald Smith • & Stevens, Battersea.--Patent door sister country. springs.
There is no doubt that within the past decade there The Line-Throwing Sun Company, Dundee. --Ship has been a considerable improvement in the direction of guns for signalling and throwing lines for saving lise. providing new dwellings for the working classes, the
P. Murray Braidwood, M.D., Birkenhead. - Designs number of families thus accommodated within that peri..d of hospital ships.
being over 2,000 ; but much remains to be done by the Henry Smith & Sons, Stockport.-- India pale and municipal authority in actively dealing with unhealthy Scotch ales, and Imperial stout.
areas,' and in preventing the wholesale adaptation of Spratt, Bermondsey.-Ship-biscuits, and food medi- private dwellings to tenement houses without any structural cines and appliances for dogs, game, poultry, and other alterations. animals.
The buildings visited by their Royal Highnesses in the London Manure Company, Fenchurch Street.- Artificial | Coombe are those erected by the Dublin Artisans' manures and chemical manures.
Dwellings Company, Limited, in 1881. The area on The British Syphon Manufacturing Company, London.
which they are built is one of the nine unhealthy areas Syphons and seltzogenes sor aerated waters.
reported to the Corporation in 1876,* and comprises Frank Walcot, Sheffield.-New inventions of household 45 acres. It was cleared under the provisions of Sir
R. Cross's Act of 1875, at a cost of 24,000l., and was Walker & Harrison, London.-Ship, dog, and other leased to the company at a rent of 2001. per annum. biscuits, and poultry food.
This does not seem an encouraging financial result, but Thomas Meyers, Hull and York.–Cattle and poultry when it is consi tered that the average rates paid by the spice and pig powders.
old buildings were about 60l. per annum, and that they Thomas Bradford & Co., London and Ma ester.
now amount to over 6ool, a year, it will be evident that Vowel-washing machines, and machines for dairies. the ratepayers of Dublin have made a very sound investArnold & Co., Gloucestershire. -Ale and beer.
ment, altogether apart from the question of improved Chamberlain & Smith, Norwich.---Poultry food.
health. A, Bouke & Co., Stratford. - Ale and beer finings.
The area is laid out in two min thoroughfares, W. D. & H. O. Wills, Bristol.-Tobaccos.
40 feet in width, intersected by four avenues leading into The Malting Company, London. — Extract of malt. large squares. In the main thoroughfares are two-storey M'Call & Co., Houndsditch.-Preserved Meats.
cottages, letting at from 5s. 6d. to 75. per week, and in the H. Max, Kennington. - Decorated tables.
squares one-storey cottages rented at from 35. 6d. 10 45. P. A. Maignen, London.-Filters.
The entire surface of the streets, avenues, and squares is F. Falkner, Dublin.--Irish whisky.
laid down in asphalte. These are in all 100 two-storey, The Phosphor Guano Company, Seacombe. — Phosphor 104 one-storey cottages, and six shops, the erection of guano and artificial manures.
which, including all expenses, cost slightly over 26,000l. International Agency Company. -Life-saving apparatus.
The two-storey cottages are of two kinds, one (letting Slack & Brownlow, Manchester. – Filters.
at 7s. per week) is 15 feet in frontage, 24 feet in depth, James See & Sons, Leeds. – Thus described in the and 19 feet high, exclusive of yard ; the accommodation catalogue, “Furriers, curriers, leather belt manufacturers, consists of living room and parlour on ground floor, and merchants, and general will (sic) furnishers.'
two bedrooms upstairs ; the other (5$. 6d. per week) is Edward' Sydney, London. –Improved system of gas- living-room downstairs and two bedrooms above.
13 feet 6 inches in frontage, and 19 feet in depth, with one lighting. W. G. Clark & Sons, London.-Dog and poultry
The one-storey cottages which are confined to the biscuits.
squares are also 15 feet in frontage, 21 feet in depth, and G. Farmiloe & Son, London. -Water-closets and lava
10 feet high ; they contain a living room and one or two tories.
bedrooms, according to plan. Smith & Paget, Keighley.-Washing and wringing
All the living-rooms in the site are laid down in conmachines.
crete, and also the sculleries, yards, coal store, and closet. Jeyes' Sanitary Compounds Company, London. -Dis- The front walls of all two-storey cottages are red brick, infectants, soaps, sheep dip, &c.
backed with concrete, and the rear and cross walls are The General Fibre Company, London. ---Rice and
concrete, as are all the walls of the one-storey cottages. general grain deco ticators. Fullwoud & Bland, London.-Annatto for colouring by our Special Correspondent.
* See report on THE PRESENT SANITARY CONDITION OF DUBLIN,
SANITARY RECORD, Nov. 11 and cheese and butter, rennette, &c.
18, 1876, pp. 306 and 321.
The closets are on the dry system : they are only large being washed in the river. A commission has been named enough to contain one week's refuse, and are regularly consisting of M. Sax, M. Riche, Baron Larrey de emptied from cleansing passages at the rear : they were Luynes, M. Lagneau, and M. Jungfleisch to report on the adopted, after considerable inquiries, from the plan of the question. closets at Ripleyville, Bradford, where the water-closets M. Brouardel, Professor of Medical Jurisprudence and at first in use had to be removed ; and work very satis. Lecturer on Hygiene, has been promoted to the rank of factorily.
Commander of the Legion d'Honneur. Dr. Proust, The population in the dwellings at present is 1,020, as General Inspector of Health, has been named chevalie: compared with 960 before the clearance of the area. of the same order.
The death-rate over the entire population housed in the M. Bouchardat, the Veteran Professor of Hygiene as company's dwellings was, for the year 1884, at the rate the Paris Medical Faculty, has resigned. It is rumoured of 18.3 per 1,000, which compares very satisfactorily with that Dr. Proust will be his successor. that of the city. In comparing the mortality of persons M. Gérin-Roze and M. Duguet, at a meeting of the living in improved dwellings with that of an unhealthy Société Médicale des Hôpitaux, described three cases of city containing those dwellings, allowance must be made lead-poisoning resulting from handling chemical braise. on the one hand for the facts that mortality among artisan Braise is a special kind of charred wood, sold only by classes is higher than that of the superior social grades, bakers ; it is merely the burned wood left in their furnaces and i hat in artisans' dwellings is always to be found an when the fires are extinguished. The women attacked undue proportion of children, and, therefore, of lives at by lead-poisoning dried and packed braise which had been unhealthy ages ; and, on the other hand, consideration steeped in lead nitrate. All the workers were perfectly should be given to the circumstance that inhabitants of healthy before working in a factory of chemical braisc, artisans' dwellings are carefully selected from a class who and most of them continued in a good state of health until in their turn are entitled from their aspiration for im- the workshop, which was a large airy room, on the third proved dwellings to rank a 'peg' above their fellow floor, was removed to a small ill-ventilated room underworkmen, content with their homes; and also that there ground. People who eat meat grilled over fires of braise is a large proportion of inhabitants of artisans' dwellings thus prepared are liable to lead-poisoning, also tailors in the healthy age-periods of twenty to forty years.
who use this braise for their hollow irons. M. Labbé has The Dublin Artisans' Dwellings Company own twenty. observed lead-poisoning produced by eating bread which three acres in all, and, when their present engagements
had been baked over wood painted with lead pigments. are completed, will have provided within ten years of The Préfet of Police has issued the following decree. their formation cottage accommodation for about 1,050 A special service is to be organised for inspecting families, and block buildings for 200.
houses and apartments let furnished within the limit of Their Royal Highnesses, after having visited one of the the Prefecture of Police ; the territory included in the slums in Golden Lane, drove up to the Coombe, attended Prefecture and situated outside the fortifications is divided by Mr. Francis Knollys, private secretary, and Captain | into four districts. A health inspector of furnished apartHammond, R.N., naval aide-de-camp to Lord Spencer. ments is appointed to each district, and is obliged to visit They were received by Mr. Richard Martin, chairman, at least once a year all furnished houses and apartments in and Mr. Edward Spencer, secretary to the company, and
his district. All furnished houses recently put on the list by them conducted into one of the one-storey cottages in must be visited by the health inspector, also all lodgings Reginald Square.
which pass from the hands of one landlord to another
. Their Royal Highnesses spent about ten minutes in i he In the case of infectious disease breaking out in a lodging cottage, inquiring the position and wages, &c., of the house, the health inspector pays a visit of inspection withtenant's husband, and then examined the yard and closet.
out loss of time, and makes the necessary arrangements to The Prince of Wales was pleased with the concrete ensure the safety of the public health. In case of illness walls and expressed a favourable opinion as to their or forced absence on the part of the visiting inspector he durability : he also approved of the sanitary arrangements, is replaced by a colleague. After each visit a report is and thought the dry system preferable to water-closets sent in to the Préfet of Police. A general report is sent for such dwellings.
in by every inspector in the month of October. On leaving the cottage the Princes were surrounded by Le Conseil d'Aygiène et de Salubrité de Paris has raised a large and enthusiastic crowd, amid the cheers of which the question whether in the interest of pablic health their Royal Highnesses drove away.
isinglass ought to be used by pastry-cooks in making
In France, an article called Japanese Pearls
(Perles Japonaises), made with isinglass, is sold for making SANITARY MATTERS IN FRANCE. a soup which is highly esteemed. As isinglass is perfectly (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)
innocuous, the Conseil decided that it is not necessary to pro
hibit its use ; nevertheless, when used in the preparation A PREFECTORAL circular, lately issued in Paris, directs of creams and jams, the public are to be made aware of that dead bodies are not to be conveyed beyond the the nature of the article they buy. limits of the prefecture, unless inclosed in an oaken coffin, Le Conseil d'Hygiène et de salubrité Publique of the of which the planks are om. '027 thick, the iron bands Seide discussed at a recent meeting a report on the om. '03 wide, and om. '004 thick. If the body has to danger of infectious diseases being propagated by work. be removed to a distance exceeding 200 kilomètres (133 shops where bedding is purified and the wool recarded. miles) the coffin is to be made of lead om. '002 thick. It It was decided that such establishments should be in sometimes happens that when bodies are removed to a cluded in the second class of unhealthy establishments and distance of 200 kilomètres (133 miles) fluids and gases not in the third, as at present ; therefore, when the Min. escape from oaken coffins ; this vnseemly sight and over- ister of Commerce has sanctioned this change, the above powering odour have vividly impressed the municipal operations will be carried on in houses where hygienic authorities who have loudly called for a reform. The precautions are more rigorously observed. It is also forPréfet of Police, adopting the advice of the Conseil bidden to recard the wool of mattre-ses, to beat thai d'Hygiène, has decreed that henceforth dead bodies, material horsehair, in the streets of Paris. removed to a distance of 200 kilomètres, must be placed M. Ch. Girard, the principal of the Paris Municipal Labo in a coffin lined with India-rubber or cardboard steeped ratory, has sent in his report to the Préfet of Police. It in tar.
constitutes a handsome volume in quarto, numbering The Préfet of Police has requested the Conseil
[ Documents sur les Falsifications des d'Hygiène to examine the subject of the boat-wash houses Matières Alimentaires et sur les Travaux du Laboratoire on the Seine, and to consider the desirability of dirty linen Municipal.' Deuxième Rapport. One vol. Paris : 6.
Masson. 1885.) The chapters on mineral waters, wine,
FOOD THRIFT. cider, vinegar, milk, contain full information concerning the cheap and nutritious meal given to the unemployed their production ; also the different methods of falsi.
in Lisson-grove, by Dr. Norman Kerr, having proved a fication, and the means of discovering them. The same
most successful experiment, the committee of the Eminformation may be gathered concerning cheese, meat, fat, tallow, oils, cereals, bread, macaroni, vermicelli, &c. Temperance Society organised, by desire of Mrs. Tanner,
manuel (Maida-hill) branch of the Church of Englarc coffee, cocoa, chocolate, sugar, syrups, tinned meats, and vegetables and fruits . Nearly all hair dyes sold as in living in the vicinity of Edgware-road. the vicar's wife, a Penny Supper for about 160 poor people
The Misses offensive vegetable preparations contain mineral poisons. Cameron, of the South Kensington School of Cookery, Antiphelic milk contains either nitrate of silver, sulphate prepared the haricot stew, which formed the supper, and of copper, lead acetate, or mercuric chloride.
which was well tasted and apparently much appreciated. carbonate or subnitrate of bismuth are used in rouges and
Aster the soup hot coffee and brown rolls were served to powders; sulphide of arsenic and lead monoxides are found in epilatory pastes and powders.
each person, free of charge. Dr. Norman Kerr gave an
The chemical inspectors of the Municipal Laboratory paid in 1883 introductory address on behalf of Miss Cameron, and also
stated the object of the Society, which was to demonstrate 5,340 visits of inspection to the Paris markets, 22,312 to
that palatable and nutritious food could be obtained at a the restaurants, 2,065 to beer-shops (brasseries) and coffee.
very trifling cost.
He said it was a common error to supshops (cafés), 1,488 to pork-butchers' shops, 4,574 to
pose that meat was the only or the most nutritious food ; baker shops, 7,433 to grocer and fruit shops. Honest
here, for instance, was an excellent soup, made from the tradesmen approve of the Laboratory surveillance, and dishonest tradesmen have somewhat abated their fraudu- simplest and least costly ingredients-haricot beans,
onions and potatoes, which absolutely contained three lent practices since it has been instituted. Many of the
times the amount of nutrition of the same quantity of lean principal French towns have established municipal labora
People appeared to imagine that if any were sick tories on the model of the Paris Laboratory. The April number of the Revue d'Hygiène has several they needed 6 nourishment,' and were ready to force them
to eat meat; but invalids were more likely to be injured very interesting articles. One by M. Vallin, in which the
than benefited by such a course of treatment. Miss author treats of the connection between the use of sewage Cameron explained how she had made the soup, which for agricultural purposes and the incidence of typhoid contained the three necessary constituents of human food, fever, is of general interest. It appears that the deaths from typhoid fever in the French army have always been namely, nitrogen, carbon, and mineral salts. This could
be made at a cost of about a penny per head, for four much more frequent in the southern garrisons than in the northern. For instance, dividing the corps d'armées into
persons-a pint of haricot beans 2jd., 1 lb. onions id.,
2 lb. potatoes id., and seasoning £d. At the termination three groups, we find the following proportion of deaths
of the proceedings every one present was offered some of from typhoid fever for every 10,000 soldiers :
the soup to take home, and received clearly-printed in1867.
structions for making it. Northern Garrison
19.80 Centre Garrison Southern Garrison
SANITARY MATTERS IN AMERICA, The figures may differ year by year, but the Northern garrison has always the greatest immunity from this disease.
(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) We are told that M. Brouardel attributed the great mor
TENEMENT-HOUSE INSPECTION. tality in the south to the fact that sewage was there freely used on the fields in proximity to the barracks. M. Vallin | THERE is attached to the Health Department of the City proves, as we think satisfactorily, that this assumption of of Chicago a bureau for the inspection of tenement-houses, M. Brouardel cannot be supported, and that the compara- dwellings, and factories. It is in charge of Chief Inspector tive healthiness of the northern garrisons must be attributed W. H. Genung, and, as showing the practical workings of to other causes, which at present he does not attempt to such a department, some of the features as presented in the classify.
superintendent's report for the year 1884, just made public, Another article consists of the report of MM. Vallin and will be mentioned. Hudelo on the question of the propriety of allowing sewagę There were 28,092 inspections made during the year, matters to enter sewers when properly constructed and and the following information concerning each building is flushed. The Commission de l'Assainissement of Paris, in on file in the Health Office. its sitting of July 5, 1883, adopted a resolution authorising Date ; location ; ward. Owner or agent, address ; the discharge of sewage matters into suitable sewers. But, description of the building, storeys, size, material. Number fearing lest later experience and fuller knowledge of the of families in building, rooms, persons, males, females, subject might have discredited to some extent their use, boys, girls. Is there a store, workshop, or factory on the MM. Vallin and Hudelo, the secretaries of the two sub- premises? If so, where? Kind of business ; employer. commissions, were requested to prepare reports upon the Number of employés ; males, females, boys, girls. Are subject.
there any dark, damp, filthy, or unventilated rooms ? Are The reports, which treat the subject from the hygienic | the water-closet rooms clean and properly ventilated ? and technical points of view respectively, both support the Description of out-houses and barns, and how used ? Is use of proper sewers.
the sursace of lot below street-level, and how much? Are Now that the Commission has, with due deliberation the plumbing works in good repair, and well trapped ? arrived at this opinion, it is to be hoped that they will Are the buildings and yard properly connected with the initiate with as little delay as possible a thorough system sewer? Is the cellar well ventilated ? Is it clean and of main drainage, and relieve the city from its myriad dry ? What part of the premises need lime-washing ? cesspits, fixed or movable. There are other well written Sanitary condition of space under building, yard, alley, papers and reviews, which make up altogether a decidedly street gutter, corner catch-basins, and vicinity. Number interesting number.
and location of catch-basin., water-closets, and privies, and their sanitary condition. State what nuisances exist.
Is the water supply adequate and on each storey ? Any The Corporation of Richmond (Yorks) are providing a violation of ordinance ? Action taken by inspector, and new cemetery at an estimated cost of about 2,000l. ; one remarks. of the laudable features of the plan is that as a precaution From the above abstract of an inspector's blank, it may against infection the mortuary is divided from the rest of be seen that the sanitary information concerning the tenethe chapel by a glass screen.
ment-houses is reasonably complete in Chicago. Beide
the 28,092 examinations made under city ordinances, there tary survey of the State of Illinois. Blanks have been were 3,240 examinations made under the state law, of provided to every health officer, and he is expected to see buildings in process of construction. The owners or occu. that a complete sanitary survey of his locality is made and pants of 1,932 and 483 shops and stores complained of sent to the secretary before warm weather sets in. The sanitary defects in the plumbing, drainage, or ventilation tabulated returns will make an invaluable reference for the in such buildings, special examinations being made and study of epidemics. the defect corrected.
The employment of children under fifteen years of age for more than eight hours a day is forbidden, and the ordi.
EMPLOYERS AS LANDLORDS. nance pretty generally obeyed.
MESSRS. CHUBB'S NEW DWELLINGS. Improvements of a permanent character were made in 4,229 buildings of all classes, and included such repairs An illustration of the protective interest which employers and construction of catch-basins, trapping and ventilating are again beginning to show towards their workpeople house-drains, sewers, and soil-pipes ; ventilating bedrooms, will be found in the dwellings wh ch have just been com. work-rooms, bath and water-closet rooms, supplying light pleted and opened for the well-known firm of Messrs. and ventilating shafts, providing adequate water supply, Chubb in connection with their works, Glengall-road, Old supplying proper traps for plumbing and drainage ; Kent-road, S.E. The wishes of the workpeople were guarding dangerous machinery; providing egress from consulted before the scheme was put into effect, and a buildings likely to burn, &c.
committee of the employés will undertake the general It is recommended that the law be changed so as to details of management, as it is usually admitted that the compel all plumbing to be constructed in plain sight. This interested parties generally are the best judges of their provision, Mr. Genung believes, would encourage the own requirements. The buildings, so far as they at plumbers to do better work and to use better material ; present extend, consist, on the ground floor, of a large would educate the public to know good plumbing and dining.hall, 60 feet by 28 feet, in which 150 persons can material when they see it; it would greatly improve the dine, and twice that number can be accommodated when sanitary condition of houses, and make repairs easy to the hall is used for concerts or meetings, a coffee bar, perform, and defects easy to locate.
reading-room, kitchen and offices ; above are three floors The following is an instructive summary of what one of dwellings, nine rooms on each floor, so arranged as to department, with an entirely inadequate force, can accom
be let in tenements of one, two, three, or four rooms, plish :
without alteration. All room doors open to an external Factories and workshops examined
gallery, so that the possibility of foul air passing from
8,808 Stores examined
room to room is avoided. Access is given to them by a Miscellaneous places of employment examined
stone staircase open to the air on one side and the balconies Total examinations made....
or galleries on the front elevation, so that the air cannot 21,219
be conducted from floor to floor. The floor is flat, of Number of males employed .....
Portland cement concrete on iron joists, serving as the Number of females employed....
46,196 Number of boys under 15 years employed in stores.. 619
customary drying ground. Number of girls under 15 years employed in stores..
Each tenement is provided with a cooking-stove by Total number of persons employed in above places 2f 3.531
Barnard & Co., or the Carron Co., cupboard and coal
locker, and each room has two ventilators out of sight, Notices served in factories, &c.
formed in the meeting rails of the sashes. The usual form Tenement-houses examined.
of dust-shoot, with self-closing door on each floor is also Rooms in said houses Families in said houses.
adopted here, receiving the ashes and smaller kinds of Males in said houses ..
24,815 refuse, conveying it to the basement, from which it can Females in said houses.
23,528 be removed without entering the building ; this shalt is Boys under 15 years in said houses Girls under 15 years in said houses
also carried up and ventilated above the roof. A laundry 7,822
is provided on each floor of dwellings, so that the tenants Total number of persons occupying said tenement
need not be far from their rooms and families when wash.
48,343 Notices served in above houses
ing. Coppers and sinks are also provided, the waste-pipe Special examinations in factories, workshops, &c. 483 of the latter discharging over a grating in the open air, Notices served for same
346 W.c.'s are provided on each landing, and are assigned Special examinations made in habitations Notices served for the same .....
to the separate tenements, the tenants being furnished with
their own keys. Doulton's Lambeih closet has been used SANITARY SUPERVISION OF HOTELS.
with his vacuum waste-preventer, a very efficient and
economical combination. The soil-pipes are of iron, and It has remained for the Sanitary Protective League of are carried down outside the building into manholes
, the New York city to originate an entirely new sanitary move. upper ends being continued above the roof for ventilation. ment. It has prepared a Bill, which it will try and get They are jointed in red lead, and tested by being plugged passed by the State Legislature, which provides that in all and Glled with water. towns and cities in which there are boards of health, the The drains are of grey stoneware pipe laid in straight owners or keepers of all hotels and lodging-houses shall lines, and wiih regular fall from manhole to manhole, no apply to such boards for sanitary certificates, which shall bend or junction being used. All drain-pipes are jointed certify to the good sanitary condition of their houses. in Portland cement, and have been tested by having been These certificates shall not be granted to houses which filled with water after the lower ends had been plugged have not freedom from dampness of site or cellar, proper with clay. The bottom of the manhole in each case has drainage and plumbing, absence of foul and noxious been formed in cement concrete to the contour of the odours, adequate supply of water, direct light in sleeping pipes connected to it. In the last manhole, before the rooms, and at least 600 cubic feet of air-space for each drain reaches the sewer, a glazed stoneware capped occupant. Each innkeeper must obtain and display this syphon-trap has been inserted to shut out foul air from the certificate, as failing to do so subjects him to damages for
The drain is ventilated from end to end by pipes sickness of occupants during such negligence, and, in case carried above the roof. Doulton's grease trap has been of death, the executors of the deceased have cause for fixed outside the building to receive the wastes of bar and action.
kitchen sinks. State SANITARY SURVEY.
The water supply is on the constant system, and no water By far the most ambitious piece of sanitary work beirg can be drawn except direct from the main. The water for accomplished in the States at the present time is the sani- supplying the w.c.'s is stored in a cistern above them, and
420 4.394 42,994 10,445
is entirely independent of the drinking water. Tylor's Picturesqueness has been considered by fencing in a * waste not 'tap, which will allow one bucket of water to space of ground in front of the building, and it will be be drawn and will then close itself, unless turned again, laid out as a garden for the use and enjoyment of the has been used to check waste at the pail services. The
The work has been designed by Mr. E. Hoole, ventilation of the hall is effected by large inlet ventilators F.R.I.B.A., who has previously given much study to the placed under each window (see diagram), which admit the practical working of the question in more or less similar air from the outside into a chamber under the window shapes; and it is intended, if the present experiment cill, from whence it can be passed into the room by lifting should meet with the success it undoubtedly deserves, to
extend the buildings--provision having been made in the plan to enable this to be accomplished when necessary.
BRICK V, STONEWARE SEWERS.
For some years past it appears to have been the practic: for the Vestry of Paddington to put in large brick sewers in all cases, without regard to the number of houses to be drained. The erection of ten new houses in Manor Place, a short road with only one outlet, and in which not more than thirty houses can be built, recently led the Vestry to resolve to put in its regulation brick sewer of sufficient capacity to drain a town. A tender of 9871. was accepted, and this came up for sealing on Tuesday, _pril 21, Sir Charles Locock, Bart., in the chair. The Rev. Mitchell Cox proposed that the seal of the Vestry be affixed to the contract, whereupon Mr. Mark H. Judge, A.R.I.B.A., proposed the following amendment :-- That inasmuch as there is no evidence that the existing 12-inch pipe sewer in Manor Place is defective, and as a 12-inch sewer is of sufficient capacity to drain more houses than can possibly
be erected on the one side of Manor Place which can be Section of Air Inlet at Window Cill.
built on, this Vestry is of opinion that it would be an un
warrantable expenditure of money to liy any new sewer in the window-board which is hinged as a flao (shown by the
this road, and that to put in a brick sewer 3 feet 9 inches dotted line). As these cills are high, and the air has an upward tendency, no draught results.
by 2 feet 6 inches, as proposed, would not only be a gross
A series of outlet ventilators have been formed in the cornice, communi
waste of public money, but would require, in addition to
the cost of the sewer, 9871., a further outlay in the ereccating with special fues, which are carried up in the walls of the building
tion of a tall ventilating shaft to prevent the sewer from
becoming a nuisance and danger to the neighbourhood, The Dining Hall, Coffee Bar, and Reading Room are
including the new recreation-ground, which has been laid heated by steam, which is conveyed by wrought-iron pipes round the walls.
out at so great a cost ; it is therefore resolved that before All the cooking is by gas, the apparatus being supplied contract for a new sewer in Manor Place, the opinion of a
voting on any proposal to fix the seal of the Vestry to the by Mr. Thomas Nock, of Birmingham. The fumes from sanitary expert be obtained upon the following points :this gas apparatus are collected in a large iron hood im
1. Whether the existing 12-inch pipe sewer is of sufficient mediately above it, which terminates in Aues carried up to the top of the building. This iron hood is covered
capacity to drain the existing houses in Manor Place ?
2. Whether, if all the land which can be built over in externally with looking-glass panels in ebɔnised wood Manor Place should be covered with houses, a larger sewer frames, and forms the show case behind the bar, being will become necessary? 3. In the event of a new sewer furnished wiih shelves which carry glasses and orna- being considered necessary, should such sewer be a 3 feet
9 inches by 2 feet 6 inches brick sewer, or a glazed stoneThe flooring of the entire ground storey is composed of
ware pipe sewer of some smaller capacity? 4. What proLowe's wood-block paving, and consists of a bed of Port- vision should be made for the ventilation of the sewer land cement concrete, six mètres thick, covered with a
recommended? And that it be referred to the Highway layer of asphalte, on which the wood blocks are laid while
Committee to submit these four questions to one of the it is hot. They are thus securely held in their places, following authorities, viz., Mr. H. H. Collins, Fellow of damp is prevented from rising, and a warm noiseless
the Royal Institute of British Architects ; Dr. W. H. wood floor of good appearance is obtained, without any air space below in which dust or objectionable matter can
Corfield, Professor of Hygiene and Public Health, Uni.
versity College, London ; Mr. Rogers Field, Member of accumulate.
the In-titution of Civil Engineers ; Capt. Douglas Galton, Except in the living rooms and bedrooms, the brick
C.B., F.R.S., Chairman of the Council of the Parkes work has been worked fair' and left unplastered ; and in the ground storey a pleasant decorative effect has been
Museum of Hygiene.' This amendment was seconded by obtained from the natural colours of the pine ceiling ; the
Mr. James E. Hill, and on a division was carried by 27
to 17 votes. red-brick walls and the high Portland cement dado being Burchard, C.B., Dr. Bush, Mr. Collins, M.P., Mr. Ed
Mr. Judge received the support of Col. finished at the top by one course of glazed bricks with a
meston, F.R.I.B.A., Mr. Fardell, Mr. Overseer Mills, The ground-Aloor water-closets and urinals are easily Willis, and Dr. Parker Young. Strange to say, the con
Rev. R. F. Spencer, LL.D., Dr. Danford Thomas, Dr. accessible from the dining hall, but are isolated by an
struction of this enormous sewer was supported by an open area, which must be crossed before they can be
architect, Mr. H. Wilkinson. reached, thus preventing any accumulation of foul air in close proximity to the building. All the staircases are of York stone, and the balconies are formed of wrought iron The last quarterly report of the medical officer for the chequered plates. The ground storey and staircases are city of Durham states that of the four fatal cases of smalllighted by gas, which it has not been considered advisable pox that occurred during the thirteen weeks, it was found to bring into any of the living rooms.
that none of the victims had been vaccinated.