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REPORT OF THE METROPOLITAN
by the Treasury to continuing the duties appear to
be that the debt due by the Board would assume BOARD OF WORKS FOR 1883.
very formidable proportions by the borrowing of this THE work of the Metropolitan Board of Works in
sum and of others, for other improvements which creases every year, and, in view of the probability of appeared to my lords' as not sufficiently urgent to an alteration in the local government of London, justify a continuance of a tax which adds 7 per cent. this report is of unusual value, as it shows the vast
to the cost of coals. The parks, commons, and open ness of the labour that will be required from the spaces are also referred to, and, as they comprise proposed new Municipality. The Board has charge 1,769 acres, the cost of their purchase, 484,0001., and chiefly of matters affecting the metropolis as a
of their maintenance is by no means to be regretted. whole, leaving those which are of a local character, The action taken by the Board to close the ventisuch as scavengering, providing and maintaining lators of the District Railway is stated at length, and sewers, supervising the construction of house drain the decisions arrived at by the Committees appointed age, and the general sanitation of the various by Parliament are considered to be contrary to what parishes, to the vestries and district boards. The the public has reason to expect, and by no means number of meetings of the Board and committees satisfactory to the Board after the large expenditure during the year amounted to 379, of which 104 were
they had incurred. meetings of the whole Board, including 59 of the
Under the head of gas supply we are informed Works Committee and 275 of other committees; an
that the limit for ammonia is now 4 grains in 100 immense labour for 46 persons to perform.
cubic feet of gas, and of sulphur from April to OctoThe supplementary main drainage works decided ber 17 grains, whilst from October to April the upon in 1879 consisted chiefly of storm overflows for maximum is to be 22 grains per 100 cubic feet. various parts of the metropolis, so as to prevent These limits have not been exceeded on any of floodings of various low-lying districts; but, judging casion by any of the companies to an extent suffifrom accounts lately received from places in the cient to justify any adverse action being taken by vicinity of the Lea, the scheme has not been suc
the Board. The gas is required to have a lightcessful so far as that part of London is concerned. ing power of sixteen candles when consumed at The metropolitan improvements during the year are
the rate of five cubic feet per hour, but the important fully stated, and the relaxation granted as to the statement is made that there is some room for doubt number of artisans' and labourers' dwellings, which whether in districts on the north side of London, have to be provided when old houses are pulled remote from any testing place, the gas is always of down, is especially referred to, as enabling the Board as good quality as in districts where the gas is tested. to carry out several long delayed improvements.
The Board has suggested, therefore, that additional Amongst these may be mentioned the new street
testing-places should be provided. The results of from Tottenham Court Road to Charing Cross; the the working of the Cattle Diseases Act are fully menremoval of the houses in unhealthy areas in Lime- tioned, and it appears that 16,523 animals were house, Lambeth, St. George's in the East, Green- found in premises where the stock were attacked wich, Whitechapel, and other places. As regards with contagious diseases, and of these 2,718 were several representations which the Board have re
affected with one or other of these diseases ; 1,226 ceived respecting blocks or groups of houses that were killed, 1,422 removed, and only 39 died. The were deemed to be unfit for human habitation, they injury that might have resulted from the use of the were referred back to the vestries of the parishes diseased meat and of the milk of the affected cows from which they were sent, because the Board con
certainly justify the cost-nearly 3,800l.—for carrying sider they are required to take action only when out this Act. The examination of the London dairies, complete re-arrangement of the area is required, in milk-shops, cowsheds, and slaughter-houses has been cluding the opening up and widening of the streets actively carried on, as 26,386 visits were paid to the and passages which intersect it, so as to bring in 1,121 cowsheds, 231 dairies, 1,941 milk-shops, and more light and air.' The cost therefore of the minor the 809. slaughter-houses that have been placed on improvements necessary for providing sanitary dwell- the registration list. Two new slaughter-houses have ings for the poor will fall in future upon the parishes been licensed during the year, and 44 have been shut in which these small areas exist, and not upon the up, so that the gradual closing of the smallest and whole of London. This is a very important deci
most unsuitable slaughter-houses is rapidly continusion, especially as regards the poorer metropolitan ing, the number when the Act was passed having parishes, and may have to be reconsidered.
been 1,429. The Infant Life Protection Act has not The report refers at some length to the bridges been a success, and its working during the year has over the Thames, nine of which are vested in the not been much more satisfactory than before. This Board, three are under the control of the Corpora- chiefly arises from the difficulty of ascertaining the tion, and one only-viz. Westminster-was built and persons who are engaged in baby farming, but is maintained at the cost of the State. The question
as many as 280 infants were found in unregistered of providing additional means of communication houses. In six cases only was the Act found to between the north and south sides of the river below have been infringed, and only two prosecutions were London Bridge is especially dwelt upon. The en
instituted. There are only 37 registered houses in gineer to the Board brought up in 1883 a scheme for London. The details as to the supervision of streets a new bridge and two tunnels, at an estimated cost
and buildings, including theatres, as well as of many of five millions sterling, which was abandoned, so
other matters, are fully set out, but the space already far as the bridge is concerned, by the refusal of the taken up prohibits even their enumeration. Government to support a Bill for the extension of
The Corporation of Newcastle have resolved to apply to the coal and wine dues. The Board seem to have the Local Government Board for leave to borrow 16,000'. acted wisely in abandoning the scheme, as in 1889, to defray the cost of the proposed hospital for infectious when these dues will cease to be payable, the rates diseases to be erected at Heaton, according to the plans will be considerably increased. The chief objections ( already approved by the Council.
NOTES OF THE MONTH.
Simon exhibit, at greater length than in a memo
randum, the doctrines concerning cholera in PUBLIC APPRECIATION OF INFECTIOUS
Europe which have been continuously held by the HOSPITALS.
principal medical advisers of the English Govern
ment. Dr. Buchanan believes that they are comIvour issue of April last (see vol. v., new series, P: 498) manding more and always more adherents among we recorded an instance of the growing appreciation sanitary authorities on the Continent, though hitherto of the usefulness of infectious hospitals, especially with they have not obtained sufficient recognition in pracregard to the admission and treatment of children.
tical effort. The extracts from the reports of medical Another gratifying proof of this is afforded by Mr. inspectors on the other hand are primarily inCharles Harper who, in a recent report on the health tended for the assistance of those who may of the rural district of Bath, observes that he has no difficulty in persuading parents to send their cholera or with any outbreak of the disease in Eng
have to deal with local conditions provocative of children to the hospital. In fact, it appears to be in land. Both series of extracts will at the present such good repute that the small children think it a
moment be of service as indicating the true lines of great hardship to be sent home, and often cry to
preventive action against the disease which is now return. Mr. Harper speaks in high terms of praise threatening Europe. of the kindness shown by the hospital authorities, and adds that this, together with the extension of principle of cholera prevention is, that .cholera
For public use in this country the all-important knowledge as to the nature of infection, will tend to
derives all its epidemic destructiveness from filth, make the public more anxious to obtain the advan
and specially from excremental uncleanliness,' and tages of isolation. Even now the patients are not *the local conditions of safety are, above all, these all drawn from the poorer classes, but to a certain
two : (1) that by appropriate structural works all the extent from those who are able to make some contributions towards the expenses of their maintenance promptly and so thoroughly removed, that the
excremental produce of the population shall be so and treatment. In addition to verifying, in a
inhabited place in its air and soil shall be absolutely remarkable degree, the information collected by
without fæcal impurities ; and (2) that the water Dr. Thorne when in tigating the su ect, Mr.
supply of the population shall be derived from such Harper's experience proves that even during the
sources and conveyed in such channels that its conpast two years a very considerable improvement has
tamination by excrement is impossible.' taken place in the attitude of the general public
These are the words of Mr. Simon, written nearly towards statutory hospitals.
twenty years ago and embodying the experience of
nearly twenty previous years. They were written INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REARING OF when local sanitary authorities in England had INFANTS.
seldom begun their work; when port sanitary With the object of combatting the ignorance dis-authorities had made no provision for dealing with played by parents in the rearing of their offspring, imported disease ; and when special orders in face Dr. Cameron has suggested to the Town Council of
of cholera were requisite in order to give such powers Huddersfield that they should adopt the plan already
as those authorities have now long possessed as carried out in several cities at home and abroad of standing defences against all infectious diseases. It presenting to every person registering a birth a small is certain that in proportion as the sanitary authorihandbill containing brief directions for the manage-ties of England have done their regular work, and ment of infants. He proposes that the first handbill exercised their ordinary powers for the protection of shall contain only information about the feeding and the public health, the country has now even less to clothing of infants, the ventilation of their rooms,
fear from cholera than in former invasions of Europe &c., with brief directions for the prevention of in- | by the disease. The extracts from reports of medical fectious disease. On the approval of this, a separate inspectors relate to certain local appearances of cholera pamphlet on the treatment of measles and whooping- in England during the years 1865-66. The specimen cough should be prepared and distributed from reports relate to occurrences of cholera at Theydonhouse to house. Dr. Cameron believes that these Bois, in Southampton, on Irish mail steamers, at a broadsheets would be of essential service to num- village near Bristol, and among migrating foreigners bers of intelligent but inexperienced mothers, and passing through English ports. Thus they show he strongly recommends the suggestion to his autho- cholera making its appearance under a variety of rity. The plan, which is deserving of every com- circumstances, and they afford some instructive mendation, has been tried with excellent results in instances, first of the customary, though sometimes several parts of the country, and there is no reason obscure, relationship of cholera with foul water or why its adoption in Huddersfield should not be air ; secondly of the way in which the disease has equally successful.
been restricted to the locality of its first appearance
and has rapidly become extinguished there. OFFICIAL VIEWS AS TO CHOLERA. With a view to further indicating the true lines of
ALLEGED INJURY BY VACCINATION. preventive action which should be followed in the The anti-vaccinators make up in misdirected energy event of cholera reaching these shores, Dr. Bucha- what they lack in numbers. Their latest attempt is nan, the medical officer of the Local Government an endeavour to make capital out of certain words Board, has prepared a preliminary report on the used in the National Health Society's useful leaflet subject
, which is accompanied with extracts from of' Facts concerning Vaccination,' in order to make reports made by himself and other medical inspectors appear that the Local Government Board was stultiin the years 1865-66 and 1873. In Dr. Buchanan's fying itself by approving language which Dr. Cory's language, the reprints are intended to serve a double case traversed. Mr. George Russell, however, was purpose. The extracts from the reports of Mr. able without difficulty to meet Mr. Hopwood's astute
inquiries on the subject. He pointed to the words of lies in the house drains and closets. Many of the the pamphlet,' that with due care in the performance house drains are badly laid, more especially in of the operation no risk of any injurious effects from newly-erected cottages. The closets, sanitary or it need be feared,' and that such mischief as the com- water, are constantly getting out of order, chiefly munication of a foul disease by vaccination could through the negligence of those who use them; and, only happen through the most gross and culpable if it were not that they are always placed out of doors carelessness on the part of the vaccinator.' These in cottage property, the consequences would be much statements were in no way inconsistent with the more serious than they now are. Moreover, waterreport of the medical experts respecting Dr. Cory's closets of an old-fashioned construction and imper
The committee reported expressly that the fect action are still to be found in the better class of infants from whom Dr. Cory took lymph for his ex- houses, and, consequently, typhoid is as frequent in periments on his own arm were in such a condition them as in the poorest cottages. The large oldof obvious syphilitic disease as would certainly have fashioned privy cess-pits, some of which still reprecluded their use as vaccinifers by even an incon- main, are also answerable for their share of siderate and reckless vaccinator. Indeed, they were typhoid. In regard to the purity of the water supply selected by Dr. Cory for his self-vaccination because of his district, Dr. Strange observes that in so porous they were unquestionable syphilitic cases. It is a a soil as that of Worcester, percolation of foul rule of practice in the profession not to use in vacci- matters may take place along great distances undernation lymph taken from a child in whom there ground. The discharges from typhoid patients are is any suspicion whatever of syphilitic taint, or often thrown into drains, or buried lightly in the indeed in whom there is any skin disease, al soil, without efficient disinfection. These may, and though of a character known to be harmless, and doubtless do sometimes, gain entrance into the wells. the observance of this professional rule is strictly And this is all the more probable because some years enjoined by the Local Government Board in its in- ago (1866), when well-water was largely used, hunstructions to public vaccinators throughout the dreds of wells were found to be terribly polluted country. The Board saw no reason to alter their with sewage matter. Dr. Strange reminds his view with regard to the pamphlet in question, which authority that a prevalence of typhoid reflects dishad been revised by their medical officer, and had credit upon the sanitary arrangements of the town, been recommended for house-to-house distribution. and he appends a list of practical suggestions, which,
if carried out, would soon bring about the removal
of this blot. The authority should bear in mind A YOUTHFUL SANITARIAN.
Mr. Simon's opinion, that 'present knowledge seems DR. H. C. BARTLETT, F.C.S., in his address on
very positively to say, that the degree and extent in 'Some of the Present Aspects of Practical Sanita
which enteric fever shall remain unexterminated tion, delivered at the anniversary meeting of the
from England will expose the degree and extent in Sanitary Institute of Great Britain, on July 10, refers
which sanitary administration had failed in rudito the written examination of May Austin, aged 13,
mentary duties.' Standard VII., who sends in a paper from the Rea Street Board School, Birmingham, shown in the
ISOLATION PROVISION FOR SCARLATINA. School Board exhibit at the International Health Exhibition. Dr. Bartlett goes on to declare that in In commenting on the prevalence and fatality of answer to the question 'What special points would scarlet fever in Northampton during the past year, you think of in choosing a house ?' the answer was Mr. Lee Cogan again draws the serious attention of Dryness, light, good air, good water, and good the Town Council to the fact that, in the absence of drainage. In delineating these principal points,' means for hospital isolation, efforts to cope with the the descriptions are so terse and full, so complete, disease, with the object of checking its propagation, and leave out so little of what is essential, that were rendered, if not positively inert, at least, comunless the whole examination and teaching is the paratively speaking, ineffective. As Mr. Cogan cut-and-dried result of mere memoria technica, points out, infectious hospitals afford advantages nothing could be more satisfactory. If May Austin beneficial both to the sufferers and also to the can reply on paper equally well to half a dozen more community at large. The circumstances under questions coming equally within the scope of our which these patients can be treated in well conown examinations, and pass a by no means more
ducted institutions are manifestly in every respect difficult vivå voce, he feels bound to admit to him- | immeasurably more favourable for them than when self that he, as an examiner of the Sanitary Insti- | treated in their own homes. The public by the tute, must pass that very clever little girl-certainly removal of infected persons is preserved from the as a sanitary inspector, and perhaps as a local dangers of infection. The experience of almost surveyor.
every town possessing an infectious hospital testifies to the benefit to the public health afforded by such
institutions, and Mr. Cogan anticipates that before TYPHOID FEVER IN WORCESTER.
long every town of any size throughout the country In his last report on the health of Worcester, Dr. will see the absolute necessity of providing itself Strange discusses the question how it is that, with with a sanatorium for the disposal of its infectious the causes of typhoid fever so well ascertained, the sick. It is, indeed, for cases of scarlatina that, as disease still prevails in a town supposed to be Dr. Thorne has emphasised in his report on the drained and scavenged like Worcester. It is, he subject, isolation is most constantly and most believes, that the draining and scavenging are im- urgently needed. The mortality it occasions ex• perfect. The sewers are defective, there being a ceeds that of any other communicable fever prefrequent issue of sewer-gas from the gullies. It was valent in the country; it is highly infectious, and to remedy this defect that eighty new ventilators there are no effectual means apart from its isolation were fixed a short time ago. But the chief fault l by which its spread can be stayed. It is to be
hoped that the Town Council of Northampton, are 'very capable citizens indeed.'
To the arguwho are responsible for a population of nearly ment of this point we shall not, of course, address 55,000 persons, will no longer delay the erection of ourselves ; but there is one complaint made by quite a suitable hospital, the more so now that the exten- a number of members in the course of the debate sion of cholera to this country is by no means an which has a wider significance, and that is the unlikely contingency.
absence of any definition as to what constitutes a
dwelling-house. The late Master of the Rolls, one THE DELANCEY FEVER HOSPITAL.
of the acutest intellects the world has ever seen, in
an appeal case with reference to the term 'dwellingThe report recently presented on the work of the house, said . What that means nobody can say Delancey Fever Hospital during the first decade of
And he went on to observe, I have tried, and tried its existence affords abundant evidence of the benefits in vain, to frame an exhaustive definition which is which accrue to a district provided with properly satisfactory to my own mind.' Where so eminent a equipped isolation accommodation. This is evi- lawyer has failed, it would, of course, be predenced in a striking way by the immunity which
sumptuous of us to offer an opinion ; but may we Cheltenham enjoys from small-pox. Although suggest that opportunity should be taken in some during the past ten years the disease has gained a
way or other to settle the question which has exerfooting in the town on twenty separate occasions, cised so many minds in Parliament and elsewhere. yet not a solitary case has remained in the district for over forty-eight hours, nor has the disease in any opportunity of doing this, and it is after all in con
The Franchise Bill appears to afford an excellent instance spread beyond the family it entered. These results have undoubtedly been brought about by the about the meaning of the term chiefly arise.
nection with the voters' register that the wrangles prompt and energetic measures which have in each case been adopted for the isolation of the sick, for the thorough disinfection of the premises, and the
DIRTY TENANTS. vaccination of the inmates. Notwithstanding that there was a considerable prevalence of scarlet fever
The Gateshead Sanitary Authority have instructed in some of the lower parts of the town, 59 cases
their inspector to take vigorous action against those having been reported during 1883, but five persons people who habitually keep their houses in a filthy only were sent to the hospital by the Town Council
, condition, to the danger of the public health. Mr. and two by the Board of Guardians. As the com- Jones, the inspector, has accordingly summoned mittee of the hospital observe, these numbers tell
several persons before the magistrates, as it is betheir own tale of cases allowed to go through the yond doubt that much of the disease in the borough disease at home, often in crowded localities, with the is caused entirely by the filthy habits of such people. absolute certainty of widening the circle of infection,
On the 13th ult. Thomas Dickison, of 4 Chapel and so defeating the very objects for which the insti- Street, Gateshead, was charged with having his tution was founded. It is to be hoped that in future house in an indescribably filthy condition. The deyears the local authorities will avail themselves more
fendant did not appear, but his wife said that they extensively of the accommodation afforded by the
had six children in the house, and none were hospital, and this will doubtless be accelerated by
healthier. The magistrates ordered the house the material reduction which has recently been made
to be thoroughly cleansed at once, and adjourned in the scale of charges. Dr. W. R. Smith, who
the case for a week. Their decision would depend appears to have bestowed much care on the working upon how their orders were complied with. "The of the hospital, notes that the average age of the Corporation of Newcastle, at their last meeting, 48 cases of scarlet fever was 15 years, and the ave
acting under Sect. 90 of the Public Health Act rage length of stay a little over forty-three days. All of 1875, passed some by-laws for the better regulathe patients were discharged cured. During the tion of tenemented property, which will enable them year the erection of a small-pox laundry and wash
to deal more effectually with dirty tenants and rehouse was completed, and the hospital was provided fractory landlords. The motion was strongly opwith a self-acting disinfecting apparatus.
posed, on the plea that the terms of by-laws were not publicly well known, and that they would pro
bably be infringed unwittingly. Mr. Annan, as a WHAT IS A DWELLING-HOUSE?
matter of justice, gave notice that he would move at A GOOD deal of somewhat heated controversy arose
the next meeting that they be rescinded. in the House of Commons on May 27 with reference to a definition suggested by Sir Edward Watkin that
FOREIGN SANITARY EXHIBITS AT THE 'a household qualification' and 'a dwelling-house qualification should mean respectively a tenement
HEALTH EXHIBITION. containing not less than two habitable apartments. VISITORS to the Health Exhibition, if they will take The honourable baronet, remarking that the dwell- the trouble to examine some of the examples shown ings conferring the franchise ought to be dwellings by foreign exhibitors, will be able to make instructive fit for Christian people, argued that the class in comparisons between these and some of the exhibits which fathers, mothers, and children of both sexes of our own country. From a strictly sanitary point lived in the same room could not be regarded as perhaps they will not be able to do so, as the foreign capable citizens, and were unfitted, therefore, for the sections generally seem to have ignored the question dignity of a vote. This view was disputed by Mr. of drainage on any scientific principle, and this Gladstone, who brought his Midlothian experience to perhaps is not to be wondered at, as any one having bear upon the question, and Sir Charles Dilke, whose had much experience of foreign hotels and houses position as Chairman of the Royal Commission on must have come to the conclusion that both science the Homes of the Poor has convinced him that the and principle are entirely wanting. In the Belgian majority of the one-roomed population of the country Section they will see that the sanitary arrangements
of some of their large schools are more or less illus- preceding year 1883, the number of emigrants for trated, but that, however, on lines which we should each division of the United Kingdom, as well as the scarcely care to follow. A few efforts are also shown number of foreigners, showed a decrease, the largest as regards housing the poor, although on a small proportional decline being in the Irish emigrants. scale, but one example on the building society prin- In British emigration the decline amounted to 20 ciple goes carefully into the cost, and gives the results, per cent. among the English, 27 among the Scotch, which certainly seem to be very satisfactory, and and no less than 38 among the Irish. The numbers might be in certain circumstances developed more of British emigrants, which during the first six fully in this country, where the want of organisation months of the three years 1881-83, were 115,793, is a great hindrance to the movement. In the French 148,730, and 178,955 respectively, declined, as Section, however, some attempts at sanitation may before stated, during the first half of this year to be noticed ; an apparatus for disinfecting clothing 129, 129, or as much as 28 per cent. Of these and bedding by means of hot air and fumigation is 129,129 emigrants of British origin, 82,276 sailed for illustrated, and several hygienic works and brochures the United States, 19,476 for British North America, are given; but these we are afraid are special cases, 22,799 for Australia, and 4,578 for all other places. and the majority of Frenchmen have not yet awakened Compared with the corresponding period of 1883 the to the broad principles which are rapidly becoming emigration to the United States declined 27 per so general here and in America. Some instances of cent. ; to British North America, 30 per cent. ; to housing the poor, also on a small scale, are shown, Australia, 25 per cent. ; and to all other places but the illustrations scarcely lead us to suppose that 25 per cent. With reference to the proportion of the sanitary requirements are met in the way that the population of the three divisions of the United we are accustomed to.
Kingdom who emigrated during the first six months of the current year, it may be noted that of each
million of their estimated populations 2,657 English, SLAUGHTER-HOUSE REFORM.
3,138 Scotch, and 9,296 Irish, emigrated. These A LITTLE tract with the above title reaches us from proportions showed a marked decline from those Coventry. Some particulars relating to the Public recorded in the corresponding period of 1883, when Abattoir movement having been supplied to the they were 3,340, 4,358, and 14,326 respectively.
Coventry Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals,' the committee thought it advisable to lay the information before the public, together with
SANITARY ARRANGEMENTS IN THE CITY. some extracts from the reports of various societies, At a recent meeting of the City Commissioners of in the hope that it might help forward the provision
Sewers it was moved, that in all instances where of improved accommodation for slaughtering in new houses were being erected the Commissioners Coventry. We heartily wish the compilers of the of Sewers should place themselves in communicapamphlet all success. Coventry, like so many other
tion with the building or other owner, and treat with important towns, has no public slaughter-house, and
him or them for the construction of a proper ventithe slaughtering is done in fifty-three private lating shaft in the chimney-breasts or party or other slaughter-houses, the condition of many of which is walls for the purpose of ventilating the sewers, far from satisfactory from a sanitary point of view, carrying the ventilating shafts well above all adjoinmany of them being 'small, situate in the midst of ing roofs. At first sight this may appear to be a crowded localities, approachable up entries and pas
rather startling suggestion, to bring the foul gases sages, in close proximity to dwelling-houses, and in
from the sewer through the house. At present the one or two cases are to the front of the street, where sewers under the public roads are ventilated by a the public may witness the slaughtering.' We are number of iron gratings placed in the centre of the pleased to see that organisations for the repression roads and communicating by means of brick shafts of cruelty to animals are taking this matter up. with the sewers, these gratings serving both as Those who desire the efficient inspection of all car
inlets of fresh air and outlets for the foul air. But cases intended for the food of man, and that killing it must certainly strike anyone that the idea of shall be done under wholesome conditions, will find discharging the gases at the level of the roadway is useful allies in those who are working for the pre
rather a primitive one, and not in keeping with the vention of cruelty. The general provision of public advanced views in other directions, and it would slaughter-houses, and requiring that all killing and undoubtedly be a great improvement to disperse dressing be done therein, is the only way to prevent
the foul air above the roofs of the houses. If every cruelty, no less than the only way to stop the trade house in a road were provided with a 4-inch ventiin diseased meat.
lating pipe attached to the branch drain leading from the sewer, the gratings in the roadway would
then become inlets of fresh air, and the discharge EMIGRATION
of foul air being so thoroughly subdivided, and also By the issue of the emigration return for the month effected above the houses, the arrangement would of June we are enabled to summarise the returns then become as safe as could be well imagined. for the first six months of this year. It appears that The ordinary suggestion is that the ventilating pipes during this period there has been a very marked should be carried up outside the houses. The decline in emigration from the United Kingdom. advantage of placing the pipes inside is that they During the first half of 1884 the total number of would thus be kept warmer and the up-draught be emigrants from the various ports where emigration stronger. It would be objected at once that in case officers are stationed was 165,594, of which 129,129 of a single joint of this pipe becoming defective the were of British origin (including 71,088 English, house would be poisoned by gas from a great length 12,040 Scotch, and 46,001 Irish), 35,116 foreigners, of sewer, but in new houses this danger might be and 1,049 whose nationality was not distinguished. averted by placing the pipe in a carefully and Compared with the corresponding period of the specially arranged flue, so that any escape of gas