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manner.

English appliances), flushing tanks, waste.preventing stove for warming the apartment. The addition at the cisterns, &c., are clearly described. The other systems other end is similarly divided into three. In the centre is are necessarily disposed of at more moderate length, and a passage for exit, with on one side a room containirg two the work concludes with a useful chapter upon ihe best water-closets and a urinal, and on the other side a similar means for disposing of the sewage of an isolated country room with two lavatory basins and a sink. house.

It would seem to be very undesirable to have a separate This work contains a great deal of information on sani- exit passage ; we fancy that this door would practically be tary subjects, and in parts is singularly complete. The always locked, and so we think the space might have plates at the end of the volume that have been specially been better utilised. We would point out that the closets drawn are all that could be desired, but the illustrations in are not at all well placed, and should have been detached the text are simply trade catalogue engravings, some of them from the ward by cross ventilated lobbies; that the of a rather coarse description. The English blocks, with 'tisanerie' is not a proper place for the bath (for filling their lettering and dimensions, in some cases, must have and emptying which no provision appears to have been a strange appearance to foreign eyes. If MM. Putzeys in made); that a doctor's room would be more approanother edition would not only describe the various systems priately placed (in our view) in the general administrative of warming, lighting, drainage, &c., but would attempt a buildings; and that the tisanerie,' which practically judicial comparison of their merits, we think that they represents the nurse's room, is not provided with a window would add considerably to the value of a very useful overlooking the ward. : volume.

To continue the doctor's description of his pavilion, we find that he requires that the walls and ceiling shall be

rendered in Keen's cement or with słucco trowelled to a Description d'un Nouveau Système de Pavillons Permanents | polished surface, so that it can be frequently washed with

pour le Traitement des Maladies Epidémiques et Con. disinfectants. tagieuses. Par le Dr. Félix Putzeys et E. Putzeys. The walls, he considers, should have a thickness of Librairie Polytechnique, Liège.

*33 mètres, which is practically it brick. In very exposed This description of Dr. Putzeys' pavilions for contagious positions he recommends hollow walls, though their use diseases is interesting, and may with advantage be com- in England is not so limited, and is greatly to be recompared with similar work that has been lately carried out in mended for hospital buildings under all circumstances. this country.

Dr. Putzeys advises the execution of careful subsoil The subject of Dr. Putzeys' essay covers simply the drainage, and the installation of an impermeable platform construction, heating, and ventilation of a detached one- of concrete covered with asphalte under the building. The storied pavilion, the unit as it were of a large hospital, Aoor is shown to be of hard wood parquet bedded in and he does not enter into such subjects as the choice of bitumen upon the concrete. site, the aspect and prospect of the building, the necessary The water-closets are fitted up in the ordinary English space that should intervene between the blocks, or their relative disposition and grouping.

The ventilation is ingeniously arranged. Between the The importance of these points is fully admitted, but ceiling and the ridge a continuous foul air duct is formed, the author considers them to be outside the scope of his delivering into a foul air chamber over the tisanerie' present work.

and doctor's room, which is obtained by placing flat The drawing accompanying the essay shows a ward for ceilings over these rooms at the level of the springing of twenty beds, the dimensions of which are as follows : the trusses. From this foul air chamber eight flues in an 31.20 mètres in length, 7 mètres in width, and 5'35 mètres internal wall descend and enter a duct under the floors of in height, to the centre of the curved ceiling. At a the rooms, and this duct in turn is connected with air height of 4 mètres cambered wrought iron trusses are spaces in rear of the stoves already mentioned. placed, and the lower curved members of the trusses are When the stoves are in use the air chambers become connected together with slightly arched fillings-in of tiles heated, and a powerful extraction current is established. or thin Dutch bricks.

In the ceiling of the ward are numerous openings into the Dr. Putzeys claims two advantages for his cambered ceil. foul air duct, fitted with movable metal louvres. Dr. ings. Firstly, he obtains larger cubical contents with the Putzeys states that the fire in the 'tisanerie' is always in same height of ridge and walls ; and secondly, that he use, so that the system of extraction is constantly in action, rounds off the angles of the ceiling which is admittedly but in order to provide for an emergency, when the stove desirable as diminishing the corners that retain dust and might be out of use, he has provided three extraction cowls germs.

in direct communication with the foul air duct, but closed Now for our part we cannot see that the second when the ordinary system of extraction is in use by a advantage is obtained ; and though the first advantage is Boyle's ventilator arranged in form of a valve. gained, it is only obtained at considerable additional For the proper ventilation of an insectious ward our expense. We would suggest that the arrangement which author considers that each patient should be provided with is being advocated in England, namely, that of flat ceilings 150 mètres of fresh air per hour, which means the comwith well-rounded junction between the latter and the plete changing of the atmosphere of the room three times walls is at once a better and cheaper disposition. The in each hour. The principal inlets of fresh air that can vertical angles of the walls should also be rounded off, be used in warm weather being the windows, we notice although they are not so shown in the work before us. that he has advisedly discarded the Continental casements

The section of the pavilion represents a surface of and employs double hung sashes with fan sashes on 32 square mètres, giving a cube of so mètres per bed. If centres.Air is also admitted at the skirting level, and in we reser to similar work in England, we shall find that winter is warmed by passing over hot water pipes. 6 feet 6 inches lineal of wall space, 85 feet superficial of At each window a coil of hot water pipes is placed to floor space, and 1,000 feet cube of air space per bed is assist in the general warming of the ward. Where the generally considered sufficient, so that Dr. Putzeys' proper attendance cannot be obtained to look after a hot provision may be accepted as being liberal in the extreme. water circulation, Dr. Putzeys admits the use of stoves,

The pavilion is extended at each end beyond the limits but not otherwise. of the ward. In the extension at one end we find a This system has been adopted in a pavilion recently central passage, which forms the entrance lobby of the erected at Verviers, and has, we are told, given great building, with, on one hand, the 'tisanerie,' having a satisfaction. closed kitchener used in preparation of food and medi- In conclusion, we think that the design before us is a cines, &c., and in this room the bath is kept. On the great improvement upon anything of the sort that we have other hand the doctor's room is shown, with a closed seen abroad, especially in the careful treatment of the

Price 45.

subject of ventilation, though we venture to think its as compared with other systems of heating, are given, author might probably improve it by reference to work of showing an advantage in favour of the Æolus. Illustrathe kind recently carried out here.

tions of the heating apparatus used by the company are shown, and ventilation generally is exhaustively discussed, including a very cheap mode adapted for workmen's

houses, industrial dwellings, &c. A chapter is devoted to NOTES ON BOOKS.

the Æolus automatic system of ship ventilation, and

prominence is given to several ventilators, cowls, &c., the 1. Gas Works Statistics, 1885. Seventh Issue, pp. 110.

interest in which the company have acquired, and special Price 35. 6d.

features of other makers that they use in connection with

their own. 2, Water Works Statistics, 1885. Fifth Issue, pp. 40.

A portion of the work is devoted to electroPrice 25. 6d.

motors and other electrical apparatus connected with bells, 3. The Gas and Water Companies' Directory, 1885. burglar and fire alarms, &c. The work is concluded with Ninth Issue, pp. 258.

a number of well-executed diagrams of some of the prinEdited by Charles W. HASTINGS. Scientific Publish- cipal buildings ventilated by the company, including the

offices of the Daily Telegraph. It has, we believe, been ing Company, Limited, 22 Buckingham Street, W.C.

compiled by Mr. R. Oakley, the engineer to the company. These three useful publications are correlated the one with the other. No. I gives particulars as to gas companies and gas departments of corporations in as many as Tenth Report of the State Board of Health for 1,049 towns at home and abroad, stating in the great

Minnesola. 1884. majority of cases the number of tons carbonised, the We are much indebted to the Boards of Health of the annual make and sale of gas and its illuminating power, American States for the very valuable and voluminous the price per 1,000 cubic feet, the number of consumers, reports of their doings, with which they favour us. If we and the dividend paid. If particulars are desired as to the cannot review them at length, it is from no lack of apprecapital expenditure of each company, its address or officers, ciation of their interest, but because (sanitary matters in Book No. 3 must be referred to. This gives the date of America being a good deal behind our own experiences) formation of the undertaking, its share and loan capital the lessons which the reports teach are of no special signiissued, its dividends, the name of the chairman, engineer ficance to us in England. The Minnesota Board of Health is or manager, secretary, address, distance from London and evidently extremely anxious to do its duty, and to get the by what lines of railway, population, and the like. Similar laws of public hygiene understood and acted upon by the particulars as to water companies are also given in No. 3; | people entrusted to its care. The record of its efforts to and in No. 2, which is a much thinner book than the others, stamp out small-pox, for example, may be commended to are contained particulars as to the source of water supply and the attention of our English Local Government Board. whether by gravitation or pumping, the quantity raised per Americans seem to have an unconquerable hankering after annum, the water rate or other charge, if constant service statistics, but to be incapable of summarising events or is given, &c., in 286 English and foreign towns. No epidemics. If we may venture upon a friendly criticism doubt Mr. Hastings is aware of the Parliamentary Return of this report (it would equally serve for the report of any as to Urban Water Supply in 1879, which contains par- other State Board of Health), we would say that its ticulars as to 944 districts. Might he not extend his list effect is almost wholly lost by diffusiveness. A closely considerably from this source ? All these books are care- reasoned epigrammatic account of the Board's doing; and fully, and, so far as we have been able to check them, aspirations might command general attention. It is accurately compiled, and they ought to be very useful to hopeless to expect people to wade through 400 pages of those connected with the important enterprises of gas and diurnal detail.

water.

LAW REPORTS.
The Science of Sanitation in Plain Language.
This is a sensible little pamphlet by Sharp & Co., of in

UNWHOLESOME MEAT AT FRODSHAM.
Holborn Circus. After describing the ordinary defects of
sanitary work, Messrs. Sharp describe and illustrate three

At the Eddisbury Petty Sessions, Cheshire, on Wednessystems. 1. The old pan-closet and closed soil-pipe. 2.

day, the 27th ult., Rupert J. Saunders, of Main Street, A system of house-drain ventilation of 1875 date,' that the Runcorn Union Rural Sanitary Authority for having

Frodsham, butcher and sausage-maker, was summoned by bears some resemblance to the arrangement authorised by the Model By-laws. 3. Their continuous' system of

in his possession a quantity of meat for the purpose of house-drain ventilation, in which the soil-pipe is used as

preparation for sale, the same being unwholesome and

unfit for food of man. Mr. W. H. Linaker, of the firm of an inlet for fresh air, and an extraction-pipe is attached to the house side of the disconnecting-trap placed in front of

Messrs. Linaker and Linaker, appeared to prosecute on

behalf of the sanitary authority, and Mr. Dreaper, of the premises. A few general hints on sanitary subjects

Chester, defended. Mr. James Farrington, inspector, conclude this pamphlet, which Messrs. Sharp have allowed to tell its own tale without the interposition of any of the

proved the seizure of the meat, and Dr. J. Adams, medical usual testimonials.

officer of health, gave evidence as to the state and condition of the same. The defendant was fined iol, and costs.

THE FOOD AND DRUGS Act.--A HEAVY FINE. Perfect Ventilation, By the Æolus Waterspray At the Birmingham Police-court, before Messrs. Ellis Ventilating Company, 235 High Holborn, W.C.

and Marris, Adam Simpson, farmer, of Haunton Manor This work treats in an exhaustive manner of the Æolus Farm, near Tamworth, was summoned, at the instance of Waterspray system of ventilation, and calls attention to Mr. John Parker, chief inspector of nuisances, for selling the many notable buildings, both at home and abroad, milk adulterated with 24 per cent. of added water. Mr. that have been successfully ventilated by its aid. It is C. A. Carter, assistant town clerk, prosecuted.

Mr. unnecessary to enter into details of the Æolus system, Parker, inspector under the Food and Drugs Acts, visited which is widely known, and to the value of which our own New Street Station on April 28 last, and took a sample of columns have borne testimony. This little work under the milk consigned by the defendant to James Holt, of review, profusely illustrated, shows the application of Cowper Street, Birmingham, and submitted the same to the Æolus to all kinds of buildings, and in connection with the public analyst, which, upon analysis, was found to heating apparatus also. Examples of the cost of working, contain 24 per cent. of added water. The churn which contained the milk was labelled Contents warranted new opened on April 29. The Board was formed in 1881, and pure milk,' and signed A. Simpson-[an ominous as the result of a joint application by the Improvement name-Ed.] The guard of the train that conveyed the Commissioners and the Rural Sanitary Authority to the milk deposed that the churn was placed in his van at Local Government Board for a provisional order. The Elsord Station, and had not been disturbed until taken out district covered includes Stourbridge, Upper Swinford, at Birmingham, when Mr. Parker took charge of it. Amblecote, and Wollaston, with a total population Defendant stated that he was totally unaware of the adul- amounting to nearly 20,000. The system of treatment teration. Some time ago he complained to his cowman eventually carried out was broad irrigation, the sewage that there was not a sufficient quantity of milk, and he being collected at the pumping station, whence it is consupposed his man had put water in to make up the quan- veyed to about 130 acres of land near Whittington. The tity; he was very sorry that such a thing had occurred. estimated dry weather flow of sewage is between 500,000 Defendant was fined iol. and costs.

and 600,000 gallons per day. Duplicate pumping-engines have been supplied by Messrs. Hathorn, Davey, & Co.,

and have a total lifting capacity of 2,000,000 gallons per SANITARY JOTTINGS.

day. The rising main is 27 miles in length, composed of

14-inch iron pipes, and by causing the main at its highest Public Health SOCIETY OF CALCUTTA. -The third point between the pumping station and the farm to act as a lecture under the auspices of this Society was delivered by syphon, by an arrangement which is under the control of Thomas Jones, Esq., the subject being • Drainage and the engineer, it is calculated that one-fifth of the pumping Preventable Disease in Calcutta.'

power will be saved. The carriers on the sewage farm An epidemic of measles has raged in Dublin since the consist of about six miles' length of earthenware pipes. beginning of the year. It has not, however, assumed to The original estimate for the works was 18,1161. ; the anything like the same proportions as in sormer years. In actual cost is not expected to exceed 17,600l., or, inthe month of April 71 deaths from this disease occurred. cluding cost of land, about 25,000l. There is a great deal This rate of mortality, though high, was, however, 33 yet to be done in the matter of drainage of the district per 1,000 persons less than in the previous month. before the Stour will be entirely cleansed from the pollu

In consequence of an outbreak of small-pox at Brotton- tion which has hitherto flowed into it. in-Cleveland, the schools have been closed by order of

WATER SUPPLY. the School Board.

Messrs. Le Grand & Sutcliff, Artesian Well Engineers There were ninety-two applications for the surveyor. and Contractors, Bunhill Row, London, have recently ship of Wednesbury, at 200l. per annum, the majority of succeeded in tapping a fine spring of water at Alnwick ty whom were very experienced men. A meeting representing the East Kent Combination of 72 feet. The same firm have also settled a most import

means of an Abyssinian tube-well bored to a depth of Sanitary Authorities has decided to forward a memorial to the Local Government Board, urging upon them the of their operations, there is now a daily supply of four

ant 'water question ' at Southampton, where, as a result desirability of a legislative enactment for the compulsory million gallons of excellent water. notification of infectious diseases. Instances were pointed out where the concealment of these diseases by medical men and others, until they broke out in a district, had been attended by disastrous results.

CORRESPONDENCE.
SEWERAGE.

Audi alteram partem. Mr. Laws, City Engineer of Newcastle, has prepared a plan for the efficient sewerage of the Ouseburn district of (All communications must bear the signature of the writer,

not necessarily for publication.] that city. Some years ago the Ouseburn was a nearly pellucid rivulet, and a walk along its picturesque banks was most enjoyable ; now this small stream receives the THE VENTILATION OF HOUSE-DRAINS AND sewage of the suburban district of Gosforth, comprising

SOIL-PIPES. about 6,000 inhabitants, which, it is almost needless to As three letters have now appeared in the SANITARY state, has materially diminished its attractiveness, as well | RECORD, in reference to our Continuous Current system as proved a nuisance in the locality through which it of house-drain and soil-pipe ventilation, which you kindly passes. Mr. Laws' scheme embraces a main sewer and noticed in your March number, we beg leave to reply to two branches to serve other districts, the cost of which to them. the city he estimates at 12,6641. He also urges the de- Referring to H. C. B.'s objections—p. 486-to the sirability of the co-operation of the Gosforth Local Board arrangement of what he terms our anti-vacuum pipes in the scheme to render it efficient, which they have (which arrangement, by the way, we doubt if he has agreed to give.

rightly understood), we can only say that, even granting The annual report of Mr. W. S. Till, borough surveyor that the angle of reflection' from the periphery of a soilof Birmingham, shows that during 1884 2 miles 7 furlongs pipe may be equal to the angle of incidence' thereon, we 97 yards of public sewers were constructed, making the entirely fail to see how the passage of soil from an upper total length of sewers under the charge of the Town closet could choke up the pipes in question. Council 186 miles, 7 furlongs, 30 yards ; 372 private Referring to his views on traps, we cannot do better drains were laid into sewers, and 6 miles 6 furlongs 194 yards than quote Mr. Baldwin Latham, who says (Sanitary Engiof streets and roads were declared highways, linging the neering, p. 425): 'It cannot be too fully impressed upon total highways in the borough to 192 miles 3 furlongs, all persons using traps that no trap can be relied upon 129 yards. There were also constructed 4 miles i fur- unless protected by a ventilator to relieve it from pressure. long 33 yards of undeclared highways, and 2 miles, In reply to Mr. Masters (P. 486), we can only suggest 3 furlongs and 2 yards of private road and passages. that the difference, which he seems unable to perceive, Plans were approved for 1,285 new buildings, an increase between his system and our own, may be that, whereas his of 50 compared with the previous year, and there were is (as he says) intermittent, ours has been shown to be 947 notices concerning dangerous structures forwarded to continuous in action owners, an increase of 180 on those of 1883, the result The aim which we had in view when we illustrated our probably of the recent inquiry into the general condition system was not to claim any great discovery, but to call of the dwellings of the poor.

forth opinions as to which is really the best, simplest, and The pumping station and sewerage works in connection | least expensive method of dealing with the important queswith the Stourbridge Main Drainage Board were formally tion of drain v ntilation.

As far as we can understand Lieut.-Col. Turnbull's delivered up to a lessee in a perfect sanitary state, and system, it seems to differ very materially from our own, as before long to become quite the reverse. In a case which we employ a single ventilation-current, whereas he appears came under my own observation, a short time since, the to employ two-one for the drain and another for the soil. tenant of a house had closed the end of a bath waste, pipes. The merits of rotary cowls were fully discussed in which was properly disconnected from the drain, as he your October and November numbers, 1884.

objected to pipes being lest open at the end, feeling quit 11 Holborn Circus, London, F.C. SHARP & Co. sure that it was not correct

A SANITARY ENGINEER. DRAIN TESTING WITH 'SANITAS' OR "TEREBENE' OIL.

PREVENTION OF FIRES IN THEATRES. The communication from Mr. MacMahon, on page 502, Our attention has lately been drawn to an article on the is interesting ; but, so far as my experience goes, testing by above subject appearing in your issue of May 15, p. 509. smell alone is not nearly so satisfactory as by both sight Will you allow us to point out the objection to tungstate of and smell combined. With the smoke test you can con- soda, recommended by Captain A. W. Shean, which is vince people of leaking drains, &c., where any amount of this—viz., that it scales off, and has to be applied every smell would hardly do so. And the smoke also indicates

two or three weeks to be effective. Our cyanite, on the more clearly where the defect is.

contrary, is permanent in effect when once applied, and I know a case of a gentleman who had his drainage all

we may add, while on the subject, that it is the only means sorted; then two years after it was professionally tested of fire prevention which has been certified and approved by the oil test, when all was found correct except a slight by Sir William Harcourt, Bart., Captain Shaw, C.B., smell somewhere near an upper flat w.c. The gentleman C. J. Phipps, Esq., F.S.A. (architect of over forty theatres), requested to have the exact spot where the defect was

Thomas Verity, Esq., Surveyor to the Lord Chamberlain, pointed out, but this could not be done. He demurred to

and other distinguished authorities. You further mention disturbing his fittings, and sent for another party to apply that wood may be made incombustible by soaking over the smoke test, when the defect-a small leak at a joint four or five days in certain chemicals. Now, with our in the soil-pipe-was soon discovered and put right in a

cyanite, soaking is perfectly unnecessary; one liberal coat few minutes.

with a brush, or at most two coats, rendering the wood The oil test, as Mr. MacMahon points out, has one persectly fireproof-i.e. proof against flame. advantage - viz., in not requiring particular apparatus, and Amongst the large number of buildings which we have it is serviceable in many cases.

cyanited (including the Home Secretary's private house) 2) Renfrew Street, Glasgow. W. P. BUCHAN.

we may mention that cyanite has been used in nearly all May 18.

the theatres in London of recent construction, including the Prince's, Empire, Novelty, re-constructed Criterion, &c.

E. E. MARRIOTT. SPINDLE-VALVE STENCH-TRAPS. In regard to the spindle-valve stench-trap shown on

ERRATA. page 531, as patented by Mr. T. S. Truss, Chiswick, Middlesex, in 1884, I would like to ask him wherein

In the SANITARY RECORD for May 15, page 540, in consists its difference between, or improvement' upon, the last paragraph of Mr. Fredk. H. Smith's letter, the spindle-valve trap illustrated by figure 70 in my patent commencing If after eight hours,' &c., read after of July 9, 1878 ?

instead of .if.' After the words Mr. W. H. Drake' in I would also ask Mr. Francis William Kelly, Minnea- next line, read “has' for had.' polis, Minn., wherein does his anti-syphoning Ball In Mr. Barnes Austin's letter, page 540, after the word Trap,' dated Sept. 9, 1884, differ from the siphon ball-judgment,' six lines from the bottom, there should have trap of mine illustrated at Fig 278 of the fourth edition been a full stop. Also for the word 'when,' substitute of my book on 'Plumbing,' published in January 1883?

However.' 21 Renfrew Street, Glasgow. W. P. BUCHAN. May 18.

THE HOUSING OF THE WORKING DAMAGES FOR DEFECTIVE DRAINS.

CLASSES. I venture to think that the paragraph which appears

How best to help the slender store, under the above heading in the current number of the

How mend the dwellings of the poor? SANITARY RECORD (page 500), is somewhat misleading, as it might be supposed from this that the landlord of a THE HOUSING OF COLLIERS.-Although much has house, and not the tenant, is the party liable for main- been done during recent years by the owners of collieries taining the drains in an efficient sanitary condition. In and others to improve the homes of our mining populaan ordinary lease, as drawn at the present time, I believe tion, much more requires to be done before that large that there is, almost without exception, a covenant which section of the industrial community, are afforded full provides that the tenant shall keep the drains, amongst opportunities of obeying the canons of health or morality. other things, in good repair, and, this being so, there can Thousands of pitmen in the counties of Durham and hardly be a doubt as to the tenant's liability. I have been Northumberland now live in old cottages provided by unable to obtain a full report of the case in question their employers, which have been built upwards of forty (Chichester v. Lance), but it seems to me that it is excep- years ago, and are a reproach to our boasted civilisation. tional, and it is stated in paragraph relating thereto Many of these wretched hovels are situated within a cirwhich appeared in the Globe of April 15, that the .house cuit of twenty miles round Newcastle ; they consist of one had been taken for three years, under an agreement which room from which a ladder reaches up through a trap-door made no special mention of the drains.'

to an unceiled and miserable lost or garret, which is only It is to be hoped that when it becomes law that land. separated from the sky by a layer of tiles, which rarely lords are to be held responsible for the sanitary state of suffices to keep out the rain, rendering this upper storey their houses, it will, at the same time, be made illegal for useless for habitation. The family, iherefore, whatever tenants to, in any way, interfere with the drains, for so their number may be, necessarily crowd into their one much ignorance exists, in respect of the most simple only habitable apartment, often with the most pernicious sanitary matters, that it is quite possible for a house to be results. As an illustration of the evil effects of these un

came

sanitary dwellings, we quote from a report presented to Cadogan. This ground has been handed over to the the Hexham Rural Sanitary Authority at their last association by the Rev. H. Guildford Sprigg, vicar, and monthly meeting, by Dr. Maclagan, medical officer of is proving a most attractive resting place in the busy health, who stated that on May 27 a case of scarlatina thoroughfare. was reported from Water Row, Wylam. On visiting this Mr. Peter Denny, of Helenslie, and Mr. John McMillan, case he found that this very small one-roomed cottage and of Coilege Park, formally presented the inhabitants of loft held nine persons. The father, a miner, was at work, Dumbarton with a public park on Saturday, May 30, and the mother also was at work in some gardens near ; It has cost about 20,000l. the seven children of the family being under the care of the eldest, who could not be more than ten years of age. The child affected was in bed, having the baby

EXHIBITIONS. beside her, the latter's arms being round her neck. While in the cottage, a troop of children

At the eleventh Congress of the Italian Medical Congress, which in, whom he found to be the children of the will be held next September at Perouse, there will be an Exhibition neighbours. Under such circumstances it was almost a

of sanitary as well as of medical and surgical appliances. hopeless task to attempt to stay the progress of an outbreak of infectious disease. On the same day a case of SANITARY INSTITUTE OF GREAT BRITAIN. scarlatina was reported from Wylam, where it was said to

HEALTH EXHIBITION, 1885. be well known that children went to the school this child

An Exhibition of Sanitary Apparatus and Appliances and Articles attended from infected houses. Dr. Maclagan further of Domestic Use and Economy, will be held in the Floral Hall, stated that the condition of many of the cottages in which

Belgrave Gate, Leicester, from Sept. 22 to Oct. 10, 1885, in connec

tion with the Eighth Autumn Congress of the Institute. several of these cases of infectious disease had appeared

Four Silver Medals are offered by the Gas Department of the was deplorably inadequate either for purposes of health or Corporation of Leicester for Gas Stoves exhibited under the following decency, and probably if the members of the Royal Com

classes:

1. For the best Gas Stove or Gas Apparatus for cooking purposes mission directed their attention to the housing of miners

for families, to include means for heating a good supply of water. in many of the rural villages of England, they might find 2. For the best Gas Cooking Stove suitable for an artisan's family, quite as much to warrant their interference in such homes

for at least six persons. as in the worst parts of many large towns. The Chairman

3. For the best and most economical Gas Fire.

4. For the best arrangement for Heating Baths by Gas. remarked that all they could do would be to summon Silver medals are also offered by the Exeter Gas Company-1. For this unfortunate miner for overcrowding. They could the best Gas Stove or Gas Apparatus for cooking purposes for not close the houses ; they were built before the Act families, including a sufficient supply of hot water. 2. For the best

and most economical open Gas Fire. became law, otherwise he would close the whole of

Forms of application for space and other particulars can be obtained Wylam; it was the plague-spot in the district. They of E. L. Box, Curator, 74A Margaret Street, London, W. were damp, miserable houses, and it was heart-breaking to go and see them. It will be remembered that George Stephenson, the eminent engineer, was born in one of

COMPETITIONS. these colliery cottages at Wylam, and it is unfortunate, after the lustre he shed on his native place, that it should

AMBULANCES. now be in such evil repute. Wylam, however, is by no means singular amongst colliery villages in the north for

The Empress of Germany has offered 5,000 francs (£209) for the

best model ambulance of wood. This.prize will be competed for next its sanitary deficiencies; its counterpart may be seen at Sep!ember at Geneva. The merits of the ambulances will be judged Seghill, Westmoor, and other pit-villages near to New- by the International Committee of the Red Cross of Geneva. castle. If inquiries were instituted, revelations could be made as to the condition of these places which would

WESTGARTH PRIZES. startle even the Royal Commissioners.

The Committee appointed by the Council of the Society of Arts to The Duke of Northumberland proposed to build some consider the Essays sent in for the above prizes, have reported to the new workmen's dwellings at Alnwick, but, as the Local

effect that in their opinion none of the Essays realise the require

ments of the offer in such a manner as to justify them in recommend Board did not approve of the plans submitted to them,

ing that the full amount of the prizes offered by Mr. Westgarth the project has been abandoned for the present.

should be awarded. They recommended, however, that prizes amounting in all to £600 should be awarded as under:

Three prizes of £100 each, to H. H. Bridgman, 42 Poultry, E.C.;
J. Corbeit, 24 Barton Arcade, Manchester; W. Woodward, 7 Duke

Street, Adelphi, W.C.
CREMATION NOTES.

Three prizes of £50 each, to A. Wynter Plyth, Court House, St.
Marylebone, W., and R. Greene, Berry Wood. Northampton ; Cle-

ment Dunscoinbe, City Engineer, Liverpool ; C. Scott, Town Hall, A CREMATION society has been formed at Worcester,

Belfast, and J. W. E. Tilley, Royal Avenue, Belfast. Massachusets.

Six prizes of £25 each, to A. H. De Wind, Comber, co. Down ; Two "crematories' are about to be erected in the J. S. Fairfax, 3 St. Paul's Road, Camden Square, N.W.: Victor Communal cemeteries of Ravenna and Luga.

Jetley, 8 North Audley Street, W.; T. E. Julian, 22 Palace Road,

Roupell Park. S.W. ; W. H. Newell, M.D., 201 Palisade Avenue, A deputation from the Urne Society has waited on the Jersey City. N.J.. United States of America; G. W. Usill, Haldon President of the Austrian Cabinet to ask that cremation Lodge, Southfields, Wandsworth, S.W. should be authorised. This society comprises 800

The Council, after consultation with Mr. Westgarth, have accepted

the report of the Committee, and awarded the prizes as recommended. members, amongst whom every class is represented; they It has been determined that the three Essays to which prizes of £100 have collecied sufficient funds for the constriction of a were awarded shall be published on behalf of the Society. crematory apparatus.

SANITARY DWELLINGS.

The Sassoon Institute of Bombay has offered its gold medal, PARKS AND OPEN SPACES.

supplemented by a money prize of 300 rupees from the Municipal Commissioners, for the best design for sanitary dwellings for the

labouring classes. God Almighty first planted a garden, and indeed it is the purest of all pleasures.'

THE PRIZE OF THE COMMISSION DE L'HYGIENE

DE L'ENFANCE. On May 29 the ground attached to Christ Church, The Commission de l'Hygiène de l'Enfance offer a prize of the Battersea, which has been laid out and provided with

value of 1,600 francs (£64) for the best essay on the following subject :

- Rechercher quels peuvent être les rapports de la syphilis et du seats by the Metropolitan Public Gardens Association,

rachitisme dans la première enfance (To discover the relation existing was formally opened to the public by the Countess of between rickets and syphilis in infants).

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