« EelmineJätka »
Ventilation, Aldous & Sons' system of, 475 Water-closet, Pearson's, 188
Whitechapel, labourers' dwellings in, 471
Shank & Co.'s, 414
open Spaces in, 341
-sanitary state of, 442
"The Unitas,' 413
White lead, Mr. Condy's improved system for
Water-closets, bowl for, Frey's American the manufacture of, 581
non-poisonous, Freeman's, 582
Bostel's 'Excelsior,' 172
Burnett's attachment for, 534 Whiteman, Mr. George (Mexborough), a come
the Crown, 171
mendable act of, 83
the ‘Eos,' 414
Mr. W, T., on unpatented inven-
Sutcliffe's improvements in, 378
Water companies, the metropolitan, 495 White's hygeian rock building composition,
heating for houses, Mr. W. Eassie on, whitestown, insanitary conditions at, 409
Wholesome adulteration, 103
impure, cause of, at Kendal, 243 Wright's Mr. G., exhibit at the Architectural
and Building Trades Exhibition, 472
Wigan, insanitary, 105,
Wilkes's metallic flooring and Eureka Co.'s
potable, organic ingredients of, 548 exhibit at the Architectural and Building
purification of, 328
Trades Exhibition, 473
rate, alleged excess of, 431
Willesden Paper Co.'s award at the Building
Trades' Exhibition, 477
Regulation Bill, "Lord Camperdown's, Williams, Frodsham, & Co.'s improved metallic
supplies, cutting off of, 22, 384 Willoughby, Dr., on figures, facts, and fal.
domestic, the selection of,
Wilson & Sons' cooking and heating stoves, 475
Engineering Co.'s award at the Sanitary
small towns in
exhibit at the Archi.
tecturaland Building Trades' Exhibition, 475
at Newcastle and Gateshead, 388 Wilson's Buildings, City of London, 78
deficient at Plaistow, 289 Window-sash, Verity Brotners, reversible, 375
for fire extinguishing purposes, Windsor Urban Sanitary Authority, 194
Wingate, Mr. C. T., on sanitary building laws
in colliery villages, county Dur. in York, 11
Winter health-resorts, 194
of Lincoln, 368
Withington, Medical Officer's report, 32, 528
of London, 59
Wolpert's simple method of testing the purity
of Newmarket, 124
of air, 402
to cities and towns, regulation Wolverhampton, poisoning from salmon in a
bulged tin at, 21
to Irish towns, 167
Women's unions, 90
Wood enclosures of sanitary fittings, Mr.
D. J. Ebbets on, 304
Trades Exhibition, 472
works at Southborough, opening of, Worcester guardians and urban powers, 344
typhoid fever in, 62
new at Kenilworth, 388 Work and feeding, 316
for the unemployed, 511
Statistics, 1885, rev., 597 Workhouses, consumption of stimulants in, 463
Watford Local Government district, 344 Working classes, fish for ihe, 16
Medical Officer's report, 528
- housing of, 78
of the Alkali Acts, 2:2
cheap ventilation for, 117
in East Stonehouse, 542
municipal provision of,
at Leith, 38
Boyle's ventilation for, 75
in plumbing as a substitute for lead, 230 Workshop sanitation, 357
Wortley Guardians, 344.
Sanitary Inspector's report, 53!
Medical Officer's report, 528 Wright & Co.'s award at the Sanitary Institute
Sanitary Officer's report, 531 Congress, 176
exhibit at the Architectural and
Building Trades Exhibition, 475
Wright, Dr. Thomas, the late, 29
rural, sanitary authority, 602
Wells, Abyssinian or tube, 68
Mr. F., on the formation of district
YATEST; Chorlton-on-Medlock Union,
"Wenham' patent lamp, 173
Hayward & Co.'s exhibit at the Archi-
tectural and Building Trades Exhibition,
Year's work, a, 4-4
| Yeovil, public baths at, tog
the people, 79
York, typhoid fever at, 566.
Yorkshire Association of Medical Officers of
Youthful sanitarian, a, 62
'new street ?' 246
Whee'er's Pixene, 72
Where to take a Holiday (Holiday Number of ENOBIA bath, 477
Zymotic disease, deaths
cabins of both sexes and all ages, the Canal Boats Act was passed, based on a memorial I drew up in
1873, and which was signed by seven boatmen, only OUR CANAL POPULATION AND THE one of whom could write his own name, and is as
follows :CANAL BOATS ACT OF 1877, AND
“We, the undersigned, think and speak, from conTHE AMENDING BILLS OF 1881, versations we have had with other boatmen, that no 1882, 1883, 1884.
child under thirteen and no female under eighteen
years of age should be employed on or allowed to By GEORGE SMITH, of Coalville.
sleep in canal boats. The cabins should be so
made as to allow of proper ventilation, and not les; FOR more than a century our canal boat toilers have than 105 cubic feet of spice for each person. Power roamed over the country with their floating homes, should be given to the workshop or sanitary auth)carrying goods and spreading disease and im- rities to enter a boat at any time, and either deta'n morality, which have, in sadly too many instances, or order to be removed any person suffering from inleft unhealthy influences on their track.
fectious diseases on board. The name of the owner, The science of sanitation and the blessings of the number of the crew, and date when last education were, and are still, almost unknown to our examined by the inspector should be painted in a canal-boat workers. It is fearful to contemplate the prominent place on the boat. Our children ought to amount of infectious diseases that have been carried be educated and protected as children on other from town to town and village to village during the work are. We regret to think that not more than last century.
two out of every 100 under the age of fourteen can Within the last few years 2,000 deaths took place read or write, and not more than five out of every in a very short space of time in one of our large 100 attend a place of worship on Sundays.' towns, which disease, the medical officer of health After no little amount of trouble I succeeded in said, was introduced to the town by a canal inducing the Government, in 1875, to allow the bɔat; in fact, it is to be feared that hundreds, if not Royal Factory and Workshops Act Commission to thousands, of deaths have taken place since the inquire into the condition of our canal population ; passing of the Canal Boats Act of 1877 by infectious the chairman being Sir James Fergusson, vicediseases, that have been carried to various parts of chairman, Lord Frederick Cavendish, and the the country by canal boats and travelling tents and secretary, Sir George Young. The result, after
hearing a mass of evidence from boatmen, boatA boat from Staffordshire, with several children women, canal proprietors, agents, factory inspectors, having small-pox on board, was for some days last magistrates, and others, was that they recommended summer among a number of boats, upon which and in their report that no women and children should round them there were some hundred men, women, be allowed to live in the cabins at all, which cribbed and children, of all ages and sizes, at Lower Heyford homes, I say most certainly, were never intended to Ironworks, and unchecked by either the sanitary be sleeping quarters for more than two or three men inspector or doctor until brought to bay by Mr. or youths. So long as the canal traffic was chiefly Collins, the manager. How long it had been moving in the hands of the canal proprietors, the evils of to and fro among the boats in the Staffordshire and huddling promiscuously together had been fairly other districts before it arrived at Lower Heyford I kept under control by pressing their own regula. could not learn.
tions. Now the canal proprietors concern themA few months ago I came upon a boat at Brau- selves more about the traffic itself than the people ston in which there were five children fearfully ill of engaged in it, and have, as a consequence, lost all fever. In addition to the five children there were a moral control over the boat people, as the boats are man, woman, and a 'chap.'
no longer owned by them. This state of things Recently a boatman lay ill of a most dangerous opened the cabin doors for the women and children sever in a cabin in Staffordshire, and while he lay wider than they had ever been before—the boatmen there his wife was confined of a baby by his side. not caring to shut them—with a sad result not
Within the last few weeks a canal boat carried only easy enough for a child to see, but a result small-pox from Worcestershire to Gloucestershire ; that has told its tale upon the country, and upon the and, more recently still, it has been conveyed from boatmen themselves. We may shut our eyes to the near London to some of the midland towns. In the fact ; nevertheless, the fact remains, viz., that the boat there were man, woman, chap,' and five-boatmen and their families of to-day are not so some say six-children. The woman, instead of healthy as the boaters of the past generations. stopping at her cottage home in the country, as she Disease is more rise among the children, bottles of could afford to do, and educating their children, had physic are more frequently called for at the preferred to huddle together in the cabin, not six chemists, as they move through the country, and the feet square, and to put their linen out to be washed hoarse, gruff cough and voices are more noticeable where small-pox was at work; and it is to be feared among the women than formerly. that, in defiance of the Canal Boats Act of 1877 and An English narrow canal-boat cabin is about all sanitary and educational laws, the seeds of this 8 feet 6 inches long, 5 feet 6 inches wide and 5 feet dreadful disease will be producing a crop of work high, and is the floating home of a boatman and his for the doctors and sanitary officers where it is the wife and three, four, five, or six children of both least expected.
sexes and all ages and sizes, with a chap' frequently After some years of hard work and agitation, with into the bargain. a view to secure the education of the canal children, In this little space boaters are born, li 'e, and and the placing of their floating homes under proper die; and it is in this little place that nearly all their sanitary laws, and also to prevent the fearful amount larder, kitchen, parlour, an 1 bedroom requisites are of promiscuous huddling together there is in the stored.
The foul, poisonous atmosphere arising from the 10 per cent. of whom can read and write-the boatmen and their families when they are crouched spreading of disease stopped, habits of sobriety, in their little beds is at times, as they have often morality, and industry encouraged, the Act of 1877 told me, enough to poison pigs.'
must be amended on the lines I have laid down It is only fair to say that some of the boaters are in the Amending Bill, and described in my works as respeciable as any other class of workers, and and in my evidence before the select committee on their homes as 'clean as pinks.'
canals last year—a Bill which has been before ParliaThe appearance of our boating population, taken ment during the last three sessions. as a whole, presents the features more marked, Last year the Bill was read a second time, and especially among the children, than when I first referred to the Select Committee on Canals, and became practically acquainted with the boatmen they reported it back to the House of Commons and their families, some forty years ago ; that is to without amendment. As the Bill now stands it has say, the stout, strong and healthy boaters are not been read a second time this year and referred to a so numerous as formerly, and their places are being select committee. Each year the Bill has been filled up on the one hand by the thin, poor, .blocked' at the instance of the Canal Association, haggard, careworn and dejected creatures.
on the plea that it will interfere with canal traffic. To my mind the two main causes of this are, This I deny most emphatically. The carrying out first, the unhealthy state of the cabins and want of of the Act on the lines of the Amending Bill will give proper ventilation ; second, working in their damp an impetus to canal traffic, and bring health and clothes-for the women and children have no con- happiness to the toilers. venience to dry them when they get wet; and, The failing points of the Act of 1877 are-1. The thirdly, to the amount of drinking they indulge in ; Act, to a great extent, is permissive. 2. Proceedings for on an average throughout the country a boatman cannot be taken against boatmen and boat-owners for will spend six shillings per week in beer. But the breaches of the regulations. 3. The Act is placed question which arose in my mind whenever thinking entirely in the hands of the local authorities, which the subject over during a lifetime of observation, but are, as a rule, twenty, thirty, forty, and fifty miles more especially since I began the agitation in 1872, apart. 4. The non-annual registration of the boats. was how to get rid of the evils surrounding boating 5: The want of power in the Act to enable the life.
Local Government Board to appoint officers to My long experience has taught me this : if action supervise, control, enforce, and report to Parliament is taken wisely, two of the evils can be dealt with by the working of the Act, and to visit the boats worklaws that are applicable to the rest of the community; ing between the registration districts. 6. The want in fact, they have been slightly applied by the powers of power to enter the boats at reasonable times to that are already in the Canal Boats' Act of 1877, but inspect them. 7. The want of power to give the not so much as is desirable. Overcrowding in the education officers power to enter a boat cabin to see cabin continues, and the education of the children is to the education of the children. 8. The payment of an object not yet accomplished. The third evil a week's fees demanded from boat children who can must be got rid of, chiefly, by moral and philanthro- only attend one or two days in the week. 9. Many pic agencies and influences.
boats, in coal and other districts, escape registration Inspection under the Act of 1877 is little better and inspection on the plea that the boats are not than a farce. Some of the registration authorities used as dwellings. 10. The fines, instead of being of the Local Government Board have taken no steps paid to the county fund, should be paid to those to carry out the Act of 1877. Others have appointed who institute proceedings and do the work. officers to see to it, but have not given any salary il. There is no provision made in the Act or in the for doing the work. That part of the work, namely regulations for the transfer of boats by sale or otherregistration, for which the sanitary authorities have wise. My Bill remedies these faulty places. received a fee of 5s., has been partly carried out. Clause i provides for the annual registration of Eight thousand boats have been registered, with the boats, upon which the success or non-success many thousands to follow, which registration, if the of the Act of 1877 and the Bill I am promoting system of registration I recommend is not continued, depends, and I propose at a cost of not more than so as to be able to tell who owns the boats and the five shillings. At any rate, if the boats are not names of them who live in them, will be worse than registered annually they must be registered every useless. The local inspectors appointed by the time a change takes place in the captains or masters, registration authorities have come from the ranks of which would be a troublesome and an expensive policemen, surveyors, medical officers, and sanitary affair, owing to the frequent changes taking place, inspectors, and some sanitary authorities have been often several times during the year. Nor would it appointed registration authorities against their wish. be wise and practical to put a canal boat and her Thus it will be seen that the system of inspection at cabin crew through the same forms, ceremonies, present carried out is all ‘heads and tails," "topsy and difficulties that ships and ships' crews have to turvy' fashion, and in anything but a satisfactory undergo every time a change of ownership and crew manner. Carelessness, apathy, and indifference takes place. have run through the inspection and everything con- The process I propose is both extremely simple nected with the Acts from the day it came into and inexpensive, no matter in what part of the operation to the present time. With these failing country the boat happens to be at the time of the points and difficulties staring us in the face, it has annual renewal of the registration certificate. I will become an imperative and absolute necessity that, if only take one case to illustrate my meaning upon the little good that has been gained by the Act of this point. Suppose a boat is registered at Pad1877 is to be maintained, the seed sown to bring dington in the first instance, but at the end of the fruit, and the fabrics, which are to be an ornament year the boat is working on the canals near Birto the land, reared upon the foundations laid in 1877, mingham. To compel the boat to be brought from the close upon 30,000 canal children educated—not | Birmingham to Paddington for the renewal of the
registration certificate would be a great and un- Clause it of the Canal Boats Act, 1877 (Amend. necessary hardship inflicted upon boatmen and ment), Bill, deals with our gipsies, van, show, and boat-owners. What the captain would have to do other travelling children and their homes, and reads would be to ask the registration-officer at Birming- follows :- The expression “Canal Boats," ham to examine his boat, and, upon its being satis- “Canal Boat,” and “Boat," in the principal Act and factory, he would give the captain a note to that this Act, and also in the regulations of the Local effect, which note the captain would send to the Government Board and Education Department, Paddington registration officer, upon which the shall include all travelling and temporary dwellings officer would forward the proper certificate of renewal not rated for the relief of the poor. It was stated of registration.
to the Committee that vans and like places are not Up to the present time the Local Government canal boats, to which I replied that the principles Board have had no power to enforce the carrying out
involved and objects sought are the same ; and the of the Act of 1877. All they could do was to make same machinery from beginning to end would have regulations, which the Manchester and other to be brought into motion to carry out the plans I authorities say, in effect, are not worth the paper propose. It is only a question of the term used or they are printed upon. Clause 5 of the Amending name given. In one case a home moves upon Bill gives the Local Government Board and the water, and in the other case a home moves upon Education Departments power to
see that the land. Act of 1877 is properly carried out, and is as
A thousand things far wider of the mark and follows :
object are brought under various acts of Parliament. 1. The Local Government Board and Education Take, for instance, the wide scope of our factory, Department shall from time to time cause inquiries
mining, and educational laws, or hundreds of other to be made as to the due observance of the enact
Acts of Parliament that are placed upon the statute
book. ments contained in the principal Act, and in the regulations made thereunder, with respect to the
It is time our canal and canal-workers were put registration of canal boats, the education of children
upon a satisfactory basis, and if the boatmen do not dwelling on board canal boats, and other matters
get sufficient money to make them comfortable relating to the execution of the principal Act and
homes on land, it is high time they did, and this this Act.
can be done by lowering canal tolls, increasing canal 2. Every inspector of the Local Government capable of carrying boats of from two to three
traffic, making canals of greater depth and width, Board and Education Department shall, for the
hundred tons burden--in the way I have indicated purpose of any inquiry under this Act, have in relation to witnesses and their examination, the produc
for many years—and the putting of the whole of the tion of papers and accounts, and inspection of places
canal system under proper supervision and control,
as other industries are. and matters required to be inspected, similar powers
Prayers and sighs have gone to St. Stephen's from to those which poor law inspectors have under the
friends in all parts of the country—diocesan conActs relating to the relief of the poor for the purposes
ferences, Birmingham, Manchester, London, and of those Acts, and power to enter any canal boat at all reasonable times.
other school boards, borough corporations, and
quarter sessions-in favour of the Canal Boats Act 3. The Local Government Board and Education
Amendment Bill. The Essex Quarter Sessions, Department shall, as soon as practicable after the
composed of about 250 leading county gentlemen, meeting of Parliament in every year, cause to be
including peers, lords, M.P.s, baronets, and squires, laid before both Houses of Parliament a report as
at the instance of Mr. Andrew Johnston and Mr. to the proceedings of inspectors appointed under
Pierce, passed a unanimous resolution in favour of this Act , and generally as to the execution of the
the Bill, and with no further response from headprincipal Act and this Act.
quarters to their action and my long, long years of 4. Such part of the fees paid in respect of regis- toil than. Go thy way for this time, and when I have tration under the principal Act and this Act as the a more convenient season-session-I will send for Local Government Board from time to time direct, thee.' Will it ever come? I begin to doubt it. shall be applied towards the expenses of inquiry made under this Act.
Instead of the sanitary authorities doing the work, Penny DINNERS FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN,—The Rev. and finding the necessary money to enforce the W. Moore Ede, rector of Gateshead, has been trying the provisions of the Act and the regulations of the experiment of penny dinners for poor school children. Local Government Board, without any power over
The result of the first week's experiment was a profit of the tines, Clause 10 of the Bill is intended to put
about seven shillings on nearly 500 dinners, and this, the this matter right and reads as follows :
rev. gentleman says, “has not been obtained by placing the
children on short allowance. They have had each day as 1. One half of any fine recovered under the prin. cipal Act or this Act shall go to the informer, and
much as they could eat ; for, unlike Oliver Twist, they
have been allowed to ask for more as often as they pleased. the remainder to the sanitary authority (as defined
One boy was heard to boast that he had sent in his plate by the principal Act) of the district in which the
eight times, and five helps were common.' Mr. Ede sugoffence is committed.
gests that the system of penny dinners should be established 2. Provided that where the sanitary authority are in connection with all our National and Board Schools, the informers they shall be entitled to the whole of or, at any rate, those in poor districts, and he affirms that the fines recovered.
the scheme will be absolutely self-supporting, 3. All sums payable to a sanitary authority under At the last meeting of the Blaydon Local Board it was this section shall be paid over to their treasurer, and stated that there were a dozen cases of typhoid fever at shall by him be carried over to the account of the Black Hall Mill, which arose from the deficient or polluted fund applicable by the authority to the purposes of supply of water at that place. There was also a total THE COMMUNICABILITY OF porter who bathed the male enteric patients. On
absence of drainage.
Feb. 7, 1880, the smallpox hospital was closed for ENTERIC TEVER.
enteric fever and reopened for smallpox; and from that By ALEXANDER COLLIE, M.D.
time to this there has been no enteric fever in the
Homerton Smallpox Hospital (Gayton). The experi[Having received the appended query from a subscriber, ence of the Homerton Fever Hospital is essentially we submitted it for reply to Dr. Collie, who has kindly the experience of the other fever hospitals. Thus, in gone into this important question at such length that we the six years 1878-83 eight nurses and attendants deem it advisable to publish the information sent in an
contracted enteric fever in the London Fever Hospi
tal; and during the same years seven nurses and independent form.-Ed. S. R.]
attendants contracted enteric fever in the HomerBeing Sanitary Inspector of a large district I write to
ton Fever Hospital. The Hampstead Hospital ask your opinion upon the subject of typhoid fever. Is was opened for enteric and scarlet fever in it communicable from person to person? The District
October 1882. Very few cases, especially of Medical Officer of Health is of opinion that it is. Poor enteric, were admitted until the autumn of 1883, Law Medical Officer of great experience here is also of when the wards were fairly full. Then three cases that opinion; but a young doctor recently established arose, two amongst nurses who were nursing enteric sneers at the above opinions as being those of old fogies' patients, and one in a housemaid who frequented an of the profession, and states that in London hospitals- enteric ward. The experience of Deptford and St. Bartholomew's, for instance-typhoid cases are habit
Stockwell is similar. Whatever then be the exuaily treated in the same ward with other patients. May I also ask if the majority of the profession---so far as you
planation, the fact that attendants upon cases of
enteric fever contract the disease is beyond disare aware-agree with the old sogies' or with the young lights ?-I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
pute. The experience of the general hospitals is June 25, 1884.
M. S. E.
similar to that of the special hospitals of which the
following is a striking example. DR. BRISTOWE probably expresses the opinion of 'The Committee regret to inform the Governors the profession on this question when he says : -' It that during the latter part of the year seven nurses is admitted by most physicians that enteric fever is were laid up with typhoid fever, one of whom unfornot in the usual sense of the term contagious; that tunately died. Although the drains of the hospital it is not conveyed from one person to another person had been carefully inspected so recently as last by the touch or by the breath ; and that attendants spring, the Committee considered it desirable to on the sick rarely, if ever, take the disease from have them again thoroughly examined. This was them ; yet it is quite certain that the immigration of done on two separate occasions, under the direction a patient suffering from enteric fever into an in- of Mr. Yuill, a member of the Committee, who has fected locality not unfrequently leads to an outbreak had great experience in such investigations, and Mr. there.' The phrase "the usual sense of the term Harvey, the architect, when powerful tests were contagious' is somewhat vague, and it would be well applied to ascertain whether any defects existed ; if the precise meaning of contagious' in the usunl and the Governors will be glad to hear that nothing and the unusual sense of the term were definitely was found in the condition of the drains that could determined. There is also some contradiction in account for the illness of the nurses. All the nurses the statement that the disease is not contagious, who were laid up with typhoid fever had been enand that the immigration of a patient suffering gaged in nursing typhoid cases ; and this fact would from enteric fever into an uninfected locality seem to indicate that the opinion of the medical pronot unfrequently leads to an outbreak there.'fession as to the non-infectiousness or non-contaWhy, if it be not in some way contagious ? giousness of typhoid fever may probably, in the Further, the statement that attendants on the course of time, have to be reconsidered.' - Annual sick rarely if ever take the disease' can Report of Royal Free Hospital, 1883. longer be maintained in the light of recent experi- Dr. Donkin and Dr. Sharkey record, in the British
Take the Homerton Fever Hospital as an Medical Journal of Nov. 6, 1880, similar experiences example. It has been open as a fever hospital for in respect of the Children's Hospital at Shadwell, about eleven years, and during that time about and St. Thomas's, and in the same number Dr. thirty persons contracted enteric fever, twenty-eight McNeill describes an epidemic of enteric fever of whom were attendants upon the enteric sick : | which was imported into Colonsay and spread appaone was a laundry woman, who collected soiled rentiy in no other way than from person to person. linen from enteric fever wards, and one was a nurse, French opinion is not less decided. Thus Louis, the origin of whose case was doubtful. On this after discussing the opinions of Leuret, Gendron, point the experience of the Homerton Smallpox and Bretonneau, who all hold that enteric fever is Hospital is very curious. From Feb. I, 1871, to contagious, concludes : ' It appears to me henceforth Sept. 19, 1879, 6,771 cases of smallpox and 171 impossible, after what has preceded, to deny the cases of scarlet fever had been treated there, and contagious character of the typhoid affection even during the same time about 487 persons had been at Paris, for there can be no doubt of the nature of employed in attendance upon the sick and other the disease observed by M. Bretonneau. M. Gendron, wise; but during all that time, a period of about and those who share their opinions. The symptoms nine years, no case of enteric fever had occurred observed by them during life, and the lesions found among these 7,000 persons, a large number of after death, are the same as among the individuals whom, being young persons, were of the susceptible attacked with the affection of which we are age. But on Sept. 29, 1879, the Homerton Smallpox speaking, " et comment admettre que la même Hospital was opened for enteric fever, and within six maladie soit contagieuse à Tours et à Châteauweeks there were two cases among the nurses who du-Loir, et ne le soit pas à Paris ?” Trousnursed it, followed by a third a little later, and by a seau writes to the same effect :-“ A consideration fourth at the end of threc months in the person of a l of the reports which the Academy receives every