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free Servants and Attendants upon Noblemen and Gentlemen ; which are no ways inferior unto the Yeomanry, for Arms. And therefore, out of all Question, the Splendour, and Magnificence, and great Retinues, and Hospitality of Noblemen, and Gentlemen, received into Custom, doth much conduce unto Material Greatness. Whereas, contrariwise, the close and reserved living of Noblemen, and Gentlemen, causeth a Penury of Military Forces.
By all means, it is to be procured, that the Trunk of Nebuchadnezzar's Tree of Monarchy, be great enough to bear the Branches, and the Boughs ; that is, that the natural Subjects of the Crown or State, bear a sufficient Proportion, to the stranger Subjects, that they govern. Therefore all States, that are liberal of Naturalization towards Strangers, are fit for Empire. For to think that an Handful of People, can, with the greatest Courage, and Policy in the World, embrace too large Extent of Dominion, it may hold for a time, but it will fail suddenly. The Spartans were a nice People, in Point of Naturalization; whereby, while they kept their Compass, they stood firm; but when they did spread, and their Boughs were becoming too great for their Stem, they became a Windfall upon the sudden. Never any State was, in this Point, so open to receive Strangers into their Body, as were the Romans. Therefore it sorted with them accordingly; for they grew to the greatest Monarchy. Their manner was, to grant Naturalization, which they called Jus Civitatis) and to grant it in the highest Degree; that is, Not only Jus Commercii, Jus Connubii, Jus Hæreditatis; but also, Jus Suffragii, and Jus Honorum. And this, not to singular Persons alone; but likewise to whole Families; yea, to Cities, and sometimes to Nations. Add to this, their Custom of Plantation of Colonies; whereby the Roman Plant was removed into the Soil of other Nations. And putting both Constitutions together, you will say, that it was not the Romans that spread upon the World; but it was the World, that spread upon the Romans : And that was the sure Way of Greatness. I have marvelled sometimes at Spain, how they clasp and contain so large Dominions, with so few Natural Spaniards : But sure, the whole Compass of Spain is a very great Body of a Tree; far above Rome, and Sparta, at the first. And besides, though they have not had that usage, to Naturalize liberally; yet they have that, which is next to it; that is, To employ, almost indifferently, all Nations, in their Militia of ordinary Soldiers : yea, and sometimes in their Highest Commands. Nay, it seemeth at this instant, they are sensible of this want of Natives ; as by the Pragmatical Sanction, now published, appeareth.
It is certain, that sedentary, and within-door Arts, and delicate Manufactures that require rather the Finger, than the Arm) have, in their Nature, a Contrariety, to a Military Disposition. And generally, all Warlike People are a little idle ; and love Danger better than Travail : Neither must they be too much broken of it, if they shall be preserved in vigour. Therefore, it was great Advantage, in the ancient States of Sparta, Athens, Rome, and others, that they had the use of Slaves, which commonly did rid those Manufactures. But that is abolished, in greatest part, by the Christian Law. That which cometh nearest to it, is, to leave those Arts chiefly to Strangers, (which for that purpose are the more easily to be received) and to contain, the principal Bulk of the vulgar Natives, within those three kinds; Tillers of the Ground; Free Servants; and Handy-Crafts-Men, of Strong, and Manly Arts, as Smiths, Mafons, Carpenters, &c. Not reckoning Professed Soldiers.
But above all, for Empire and Greatness, it importeth most; That a Nation do profess Arms, as their principal Honour, Study, and Occupation. For the Things, which we formerly have spoken of, are but Habilitations towards Arms: And what is Habilitation without Intention and Axt? Romulus, after his death (as they report, or feign) sent a Present to the Romans; that, above all, they should intend Arms; and then, they should prove the greatest Empire of the World. The Fabrick of the State of Sparta was wholly (though not wisely) framed, and composed, to that Scope and End. The Perfans, and Macedonians, had it for a Aash. The Gauls, Germans, Goths, Saxons, Normans, and others, had it for a Time. The Turks have it, at this day, though in great Declination. Of Christian Europe, they that have it, are, in effect, only the Spaniards. But it is so plain, That every Man profiteth in that he most intendeth, that it needeth not to be stood upon. It is enough to point at it; that no Nation, which doth not directly profess Arms, may look to have Greatness fall into their Mouths. And, on the other side, it is a most certain Oracle of Time; That those States, that continue long in that Profesfion (as the Romans and Turks principally have done) do wonders. And those, that have professed Arms but for an Age, have notwithstanding, commonly, attained that Greatness in that Age, which maintained them long after, when their Profeffion and Exercise of Arms had grown to decay.
Incident to this point is; For a State, to have those Laws or Customs, which may reach forth unto them, just Occasions (as may be pretended) of War. For there is that Justice imprinted in the Nature of Men, that they enter not upon Wars (whereof so many Calamities do ensue) but upon some, at the least Specious, Grounds and Quarrels
. The Turk hath at hand, for Cause of War, the Propagation of his Law or Sect; a Quarrel that he may always Command. The Romans, though they esteemed the Extending the Limits of their Empire, to be great Honour to their Generals, when it was done, yet they never rested upon alone, to begin a Warre. First therefore, let Nations, that pretend to Greatness, have this; That they be sensible of Wrongs, either upon Borderers, Merchants, or Politick Ministers; and that they fit not too long upon a Provocation. Secondly, let them be pressed, and ready, to give Aids and Succours, to their Confederates : As it ever was
with the Romans : In so much, as if the Confederate had Leagues defensive with divers other States, and upon Invasion offered, did implore their Aids severally, yet the Romans would ever be the foremost, and leave it to none Other to have the Honour. As for the Wars, which were anciently made on the behalf of a kind of Party, or tacit Conformity of Estate, I do not see how they may be well justified: As when the Romans made a War for the Liberty of Grecia: Or when the Lacedemonians, and Athenians, made Wars, to set up or pull down Democracies, and Oligarchies : Or when Wars were made by Foreigners, under the pretence of Justice, or Protection, to deliver the Subjects of others from Tyranny, and Oppression; And the like. Let it suffice, that no Estate expect to be Great that is not awake, upon any just Occasion of Arming.
No Body can be healthful without Exercise, neither Natural Body, nor Politick: And certainly, to a Kingdom or Estate, a Just and Honourable War is the true Exercise. A Civil War, indeed, is like the Heat of a Fever ; but a Foreign War is like the Heat of Exercise, and serveth to keep the Body in Health : For in a Slothful Peace, both Courages will effeminate, and Manners Corrupt. But howsoever it be for Happiness, without all Question, for Greatness, it maketh, to be still, for the most Part, in Arms: And the Strength of a Veteran Army, (though it be a chargeable Business) always on Foot, is that which commonly giveth the Law; or at least the Reputation amongst all