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They dispose Kings to Tyranny, Husbands to Jealousy, Wise Men to Irresolution and Melancholy. They are Defects, not in the Heart, but in the Brain ; for they take place in the Stoutest Natures: As in the Example of Henry the Seventh of England : There was not a more Suspicious Man, nor a more Stout : And in such a Composition, they do small Hurt. For commonly they are not admitted, but with Examination, whether they be likely or no? But in fearful Natures, they gain Ground too fast. There is nothing makes a Man Sufpect much, more than to Know little : And therefore Men should remedy Suspicion; by procuring to know more, and not to keep their Suspicions in Smother. What would Men have? Do they think, those they employ and deal with, are Saints ? Do they not think, they will have their own Ends, and be truer to Themselves, than to them? Therefore, there is no better way to moderate Suspicions, than to account upon such Suspicions as true, and yet to bridle them, as false. For so far, a Man ought to make use of Suspicions, as to provide, as if that should be true, that he Suspects, yet it may do him no Hurt. Suspicions, that the Mind, of itself, gathers, are but Buzzes; but Suspicions, that are artificially nourished, and put into Men's Heads, by the Tales, and Whisperings of others, have Stings. Certainly, the best Mean, to clear the Way, in this fame Wood of Suspicions, is frankly to communicate them, with the Party, that he Suspects : For thereby, he shall be sure, to know more of the Truth of them, than he did before ; and withal, shall make that Party more circumspect, not to give further Cause of Suspicion. But this would not be done to Men of base Natures : For they, if they find themselves once suspected, will never be true. The Italian says ; Sospetto licentia fede : As if Suspicion did give a Passport to Faith : But it ought rather to kindle it, to discharge itself.
XXXII. Of Discourse.
OME in their Discourse, defire rather Commendation of Wit, in being able to hold all Arguments, than of Judge
ment, in discerning what is True : As if it were a Praise, to know what might be Said, and not what should be Thought. Some have certain Common Places, and Themes, wherein they are good, and want Variety: Which kind of Poverty is for the most part tedious, and when it is once perceived ridiculous. The honourableft part of Talk, is to give the Occasion; and again to moderate and pass to somewhat else; for then a Man leads the Dance. It is good, in Discourse, and Speech of Conversation, to vary, and intermingle Speech, of the present Occasion with Arguments ; Tales with Reasons; asking of Queftions, with telling of Opinions; and Jeft with Earnest : For it is a dull Thing to tire, and, as we say now, to jade, any Thing too far. As for Jeft, there be certain Things, which ought to be privileged from it; namely Religion, Matters of State, Great Persons, any Man's present Business of Importance, and any Case that deserveth Pity. Yet there be fome, that think their Wits have been asleep, except they dart out somewhat that is piquant and to the quick: That is a vein, which would be bridled ;
Parce Puer stimulis, et fortiùs utere Loris. And generally, Men ought to find the difference between Saltness and Bitterness. Certainly, he that hath a satirical vein, as he maketh others afraid of his Wit, fo he had need be afraid of others' Memory. He that questioneth much, shall learn much, and content much ; but especially, if he apply his Questions, to the Skill of the Perfons, whom he asketh : For he shall give them occasion, to please themselves in speaking, and himself shall continually gather Knowledge. But let his Questions not be troublesome; for that is fit for a Pofer. And let him be fure, to leave other Men their Turns to speak. Nay, if there be any, that would reign, and take up all the time, let him find means to take them off, and to bring others on; as Musicians use to do, with those that dance too long Galliards. If you dissemble fometimes your knowledge, of that you are thought to know, you shall be thought another time, to know that you know not. Speech of a Man's Self ought to be seldom, and well chosen. I knew One, was wont to say, in scorn ; He must needs be a Wise Man, he speaks so much of Himself : And there is but one Case, wherein a Man may commend himself, with good Grace ; and that is in commending Virtue in another ; especially, if it be such a Virtue, whereunto himself pretendeth. Speech of Touch towards others, should be sparingly used : For Discourse ought to be as a Field, without coming home to any Man. I knew two Noblemen, of the West Part of England; whereof the one was given to scoff, but kept ever royal Cheer in his House: The other, would ask of those, that had been at the other's Table; Tell truly, was there never a Flout or dry Blow given ? to which the Guest would answer; Such and such a Thing passed: The Lord would say; I thought he would mar a good Dinner. Discretion of Speech, is more than Eloquence; and to speak agreeably to him, with whom we deal, is more than to speak in good Words, or in good Order. A good continued Speech, without a good Speech of Interlocution, shews Slowness: And a good Reply, or second Speech, without a good settled Speech, sheweth Shallowness and Weakness. As we see in Beasts, that those that are weakest in the Course, are yet nimblest in the Turn: As it is betwixt the Greyhound, and the Hare. To use too many Circumstances, ere one come to the Matter, is wearisome; to use none at all, is blunt.
XXXIII. Of Plantations.
LANTATIONS are amongst ancient, primitive, and heroical Works. When the World was young, it begat more
Children; but now it is old, it begets fewer : For I may justly account new Plantations to be the Children of former Kingdoms. I like a Plantation in a pure Soil ; that is, where People are not displanted, to the end, to plant in others. For else, it is rather an Extirpation than a Plantation. Planting of Countries is like Planting of Woods ; for you must make account, to lose almost Twenty Years' Profit, and expect your Recompense, in the end. For the principal Thing, that hath been the Destruction of most Plantations, hath been the base, and hasty Drawing of Profit, in the first Years. It is true, Speedy Profit is not to be neglected, as far as may stand, with the Good of the Plantation, but no farther. It is a shameful and unblessed Thing, to take the Scum of People, and wicked condemned Men, to be the People with whom you Plant: And not only so, but it spoileth the Plantation, For they will ever live like Rogues, and not fall to work, but be lazy, and do Mischief, and spend Victuals, and be quickly weary, and then certify over to their Country, to the Difcredit of the Plantation. The People wherewith you Plant, ought to be Gardeners, Ploughmen, Labourers, Smiths, Carpenters, Joiners, Fisher