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men, Fowlers, with some few Apothecaries, Surgeons, Cooks, and Bakers. In a Country of Plantation, first look about, what kind of Victual the Country yields of itself, to hand : As Chesnuts, Walnuts, Pineapples, Olives, Dates, Plums, Cherries, Wild Honey, and the like: and make use of them. Then consider, what Victual or Esculent Things there are, which grow speedily, and within the year; as Parsnips, Carrots, Turnips, Onions, Radish, Artichokes of Jerusalem, Maize, and the like. For Wheat, Barley, and Oats, they ask too much Labour : But with Peas and Beans, you may begin ; both because they ask less Labour, and because they serve for Meat, as well as for Bread. And of Rice likewise cometh a great Increase, and it is a kind of Meat. Above all, there ought to be brought Store of Biscuit, Oatmeal, Flour, Meal, and the like, in the beginning, till Bread may be had. For Beasts, or Birds, take chiefly such as are least subject to Diseases, and multiply fastest : as Swine, Goats, Cocks, Hens, Turkeys, Geese, House Doves, and the like. The Victual in Plantations, ought to be expended, almost as in a besieged Town; that is, with certain Allowance. And let the Main Part of the Ground employed to Gardens, or Corn, be to a common Stock; and to be laid in, and stored up,

and then delivered out in proportion ; besides fome Spots of Ground, that any particular Person will manure for his own Private use. Consider likewise, what Commodities the Soil, where the Plantation is, doth naturally yield, that they may some way help to defray the Charge of the Plantation : So it be not, as was said, to the untimely Prejudice, of the main Business: as it hath fared with Tobacco in Virginia. Wood commonly aboundeth but too much ; and therefore, Timber is fit to be one. If there be Iron Ore, and Streams whereupon to set the Mills; Iron is a brave Commodity, where Wood aboundeth. Making of Bay Salt, if the Climate be proper for it, would be put in Experience. Growing Silk likewise, if any be, is a likely commodity. Pitch and Tar, where store of Firs and Pines are, will not fail. So Drugs, and Sweet Woods, where they are, cannot but yield great Profit. Soap Ashes likewise, and other Things, that may be thought of. But moil not too much under Ground: For the Hope of Mines is very uncertain, and useth to make the Planters lazy, in other Things. For Government, let it be in the Hands of one, assisted with some Counsel : and let them have Commission, to exercise martial Laws, with some Limitation. And above all, let Men make that profit of being in the Wilderness, as they have God always, and his Service before their Eyes. Let not the Government of the Plantation, depend upon too many Counsellors, and Undertakers, in the Country that Planteth, but upon a temperate Number; and let those be rather Noblemen, and Gentlemen, than Merchants : For they look ever to the present Gain. Let there be Freedoms from Custom, till the Plantation be of Strength : And not only Freedom from Custom, but Freedom to carry their Commodities, where they may make their Best of them, except there be some special Cause of Caution. Cram not in People, by sending too fast, Company after Company ; but rather hearken how they waste, and send Supplies proportionably; but so, as the Number may live well, in the Plantation, and not by Surcharge be in Penury. It hath been a great endangering, to the Health of some Plantations, that they have built along the Sea, and Rivers, in Marish and unwholefome Grounds. Therefore, though you begin there, to avoid Carriage, and other like Discommodities, yet build still, rather upwards, from the streams, than along. It concerneth likewise, the Health of the Plantation, that they have good Store of Salt with them, that they may use it, in their Victuals, when it shall be necessary. If you Plant, where Savages are, do not only entertain them with Trifles, and Gingles; but use them justly, and graciously, with sufficient Guard nevertheless : and do not win their favour, by helping them to invade their Enemies, but for their Defence it is not amiss : And send oft of them, over to the Country, that Plants, that they may see a better Condition than their own, and commend it when they return. When the Plantation grows to Strength, then it is time to Plant with Women, as well as with Men; that the Plantation may spread into Generations, and not be ever pieced from without. It is the finfullest. Thing in the world, to forsake or destitute a Plantation, once in Forwardness : For besides the Dishonour, it is the Guiltiness of Blood, of many commiserable Persons.

Xxxiv. Of Riches.

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CANNOT call Riches better, than the Baggage of Virtue. The Roman Word is better, Impedimenta. For as

the Baggage is to an Army, so is Riches to Virtue. It cannot be spared, nor left behind, but it hindereth the March ; yea, and the care of it, sometimes, loseth or disturbeth the Victory : Of great Riches, there is no real Use, except it be in the Distribution; the rest is but Conceit. So faith Solomon ; Where much is, there are Many to consume it; and what hath the Owner, but the Sight of it, with his Eyes? The personal Fruition in any

Man, cannot reach to feel Great Riches : There is a Custody of them; or a Power of Dole and Donative of them; or a Fame of them ; but no solid Use to the Owner. Do you not see, what feigned Prices are set upon little Stones, and Rarities? and what Works of Oftentation, are undertaken, because there might seem to be, some Use of great Riches? But then you will say, they may be of use, to buy Men out of Dangers or Troubles. As Solomon faith ; Riches are as a strong Hold, in the Imagination of the Rich Man. But this is excellently expressed, that it is in Imagination, and not always in Faet. For certainly great Riches have sold more Men, than they have bought out. Seek not Proud Riches, but such as thou mayest

get justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and leave contentedly. Yet have no abstract nor friarly Contempt of them. But distinguish, as Cicero faith well of Rabirius Pofthumus; In studio rei amplificanda, apparebat, non Avaritiæ prædam, sed Infrumentum Bonitati quæri. Hearken also to Solomon, and beware of hasty Gathering of Riches : Qui feftinat ad Divitias, non erit infons. The Poets feign that when Plutus (which is Riches,) is sent from Jupiter, he limps and goes slowly ; but when he is sent from Pluto, he runs, and is swift of Foot. Meaning, that Riches gotten by good Means, and just Labour, pace flowly; but when they come by the death of others, (as by the Course of Inheritance, Testaments, and the like,) they come tumbling upon a Man. But it might be applied likewise to Pluto, taking him for the Devil. For when Riches come from the Devil, (as by Fraud, and Oppression, and unjust Means,) they come upon speed. The Ways to enrich are many, and . most of them foul. Parfimony is one of the best, and yet is not innocent: for it withholdeth Men, from Works of Liberality, and Charity. The Improvement of the Ground is the mostNatural obtaining of Riches; for it is our great Mother's Blessing, the Earth’s; but it is slow. And yet, where Men of great wealth, do stoop to husbandry, it multiplieth Riches exceedingly. I knew a Nobleman in England, that had the greatest Audits, of any Man in my Time: a great Grazier, a great Sheep-Mafter, a great Timber-Man, a great Collier, a great Corn-Master, a great Lead-Man, and so of Iron,

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