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XLVI. Of Gardens.
OD Almighty first planted a Garden.
ment to the Spirits of Man ; without which, Buildings and Palaces are but gross Handyworks : And a Man shall ever see, that when Ages grow to Civility and Elegancy, Men come to Build Stately, sooner than to Garden finely: As if Gardening were the greater Perfection. I do hold it, in the royal Ordering of Gardens, there ought to be Gardens, for all the Months in the Year: In which, severally, Things of Beauty may be then in Season. For December, and January, and the Latter Part of November, you must take fuch Things, as are Green all Winter : Holly; Ivy; Bays; Juniper ; Cypress Trees; Yew; Pineapple Trees; Fir Trees; Rosemary; Lavender ; Periwinkle, the white, the purple, and the blue; Germander ; Flags; Orange Trees; Lemon Trees; and Myrtles, if they be stoved; and Sweet Marjoram warm set. There followeth, for the latter Part of January, and February, the Mezerion Tree, which then blossoms; Crocus vernus, both the yellow, and the gray ; Primroses ; Anemonies; the early Tulipa ; Hyacinthus Orientalis; Chamairis; Fritellaria. For March, There come Violets, specially the single blue, which are
the earliest ; the Yellow Daffodil ; the Daisy; the Almond Tree in blossom; the Peach Tree in blossom; the Cornelian Tree in blossom; Sweet Briar. In April follow, the double white Violet; the WallAower; the Stock Gilliflower; the Cowslip; Flower de Luces, and Lilies of all natures; Rosemary Flowers; the Tulipa; the Double Peony; the pale Daffodil; the French Honeysuckle ; the Cherry Tree in blossom ; the Damson, and Plum Trees in blossom ; the Whitethorn in leaf; the Lilac Tree. In May, and June, come Pinks of all forts, specially the Blush Pink; Rofes of all kinds, except the Musk, which comes later; Honeysuckles; Strawberries ; Buglofs; Columbine; the French Marygold; Flos Africanus; Cherry Tree in Fruit; Ribes; Figs in Fruit; Rasps ; Vine Flowers ; Lavender in Flowers; the Sweet Satyrian, with the White Flower; Herba Muscaria; Lilium Convallium ; the Apple Tree in blossom. In July, come Gilliflowers of all varieties ; Musk Roses; the Lime Tree in blossom, early Pears, and Plums in Fruit; Gennitings; Quodlins. In August, come Plums of all sorts in fruit; Pears; Apricocks; Barberries; Filberds ; Musk-Melons ; Monks Hoods, of all colours. In September, come Grapes; Apples; Poppies of all colours; Peaches; Melo-Catones; Nectarines; Cornelians; Wardens; Quinces. In O&tober, and the beginning of November, come Services; Medlars; Bullaces; Rofes cut or removed to come late; Hollyoaks ; and such like. Thus, if you will, you may have the Golden Age again, and a Spring all the year long. And, because the Breath of Flowers is far Sweeter in the Air (where it comes and goes, like the Warbling of Musick), than in the Hand, therefore nothing is more fit for that delight, than to know what be the Flowers and Plants, that do beft perfume the Air. Roses Damask and Red, are fast Flowers of their Smells; fo that; you may walk by a whole row of them, and find nothing of their Sweetness ; yea though it be, in a Morning's Dew. Bays likewise yield no Smell, as they grow. Rosemary little ; nor Sweet Marjoram. That which above all others, yields the Sweetest Smell in the Air, is the Violet ; specially the White double Violet, which comes twice a Year; about the middle of April, and about Bartholomew-tide. Next to that is, the Musk Rose. Then the Strawberry Leaves dying, with a most excellent Cordial Smell. Then the Flower of the Vines; it is a little duft, like the dust of a Bent, which grows upon the Cluster, in the First coming forth. Then Sweet Briar. Then Wallflowers, which are very delightful, to be set under a Parlour, or lower Chamber Window. Then Pinks, and Gilliflowers, specially the Matted Pink, and Clove Gilliflower. Then the Flowers of the Lime Tree. Then the Honeyfuckles, so they be somewhat afar off. Of Bean Flowers I speak not, because they are Field Flowers. But those which Perfume the Air most delightfully, not passed by as the rest, but being Trodden upon and crushed, are three : That is Burnet, Wild Thyme, and Water-Mints. Therefore, you are to set whole Alleys of them, to have the Pleasure, when you walk or tread.
For Gardens, (speaking of those, which are indeed prince-like, as we have done of Buildings) the Contents ought not well to be under Thirty Acres of Ground; and to be divided into three Parts : A Green in the Entrance; a Heath or Defert in the Going forth; and the Main Garden in the midft; besides Alleys, on both sides. And I like well, that Four Acres of Ground be assigned to the Green; Six to the Heath; Four and Four to either Side ; and Twelve to the Main Garden. The Green hath two pleasures; the one, because nothing is more pleasant to the Eye, than green Grass kept finely Thorn; the other, because it will give you a fair Alley in the midst, by which you may go in front upon a stately Hedge, which is to enclose the Garden. But, because the Alley will be long, and in great Heat of the Year, or Day, you ought not to buy the shade in the Garden, by going in the Sun through the Green, therefore you are, of either Side the Green, to Plant a Covered Alley, upon Carpenter's Work, about Twelve Foot in Height, by which you may go in Shade, into the Garden. As for the making of Knots, or Figures, with divers coloured Earths, that they may lie under the Windows of the House, on that Side, which the Garden stands, they be but Toys: You may see as good Sights, many times, in Tarts. The Garden is best to be Square; encompassed, on all the Four Sides with a Stately Arched Hedge. The Arches to be upon Pillars of Carpenter's Work, of some Ten Foot high, and Six Foot broad: And the Spaces between, of the same Dimension, with the Breadth of the Arch. Over the Arches, let there be an entire Hedge, of some Four Foot High, framed also upon Carpenter's Work: And over every Arch, and upon the upper Hedge, over every Arch, a little Turret, with a Belly, enough to receive a Cage of Birds: And over every Space, between the Arches, some other little Figure, with broad Plates of round coloured Glass, gilt, for the Sun to Play upon. But this Hedge I intend to be raised upon a Bank, not steep, but gently slope, of some Six Foot, set all with Flowers. Also I understand that this Square of the Garden should not be the whole Breadth of the Ground, but to leave, on either Side, Ground enough for diversity of Side Alleys : Unto which the Two covered Alleys of the Green, may deliver you. But there must be no Alleys with Hedges, at either End, of this great Inclosure : Not at the hither End, for letting your Prospect upon this fair Hedge from the Green; nor at the further End, for letting your Prospect from the Hedge, through the Arches, upon the Heath.
For the ordering of the Ground within the Great Hedge, I leave it to Variety of Device; advising nevertheless, that whatsoever form you cast it into, first it be not too busy, or full of Work. Wherein I, for my part, do not like Images cut out in Juniper, or other Garden stuff: They be for Children. Little low Hedges, round, like Welts, with some pretty Pyramids, I like well: And in some Places, fair Columns upon Frames of Carpenter's Work. I would also have the Alleys, spacious and fair. You may have closer Alleys upon the side Grounds,