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in a War against the Third, doth extol the Forces of either of them, above Measure, the one to the other : And sometimes, he that deals between Man and Man, raiseth his own Credit, with Both, by pretending greater Interest, than he hath in Either. And in these, and the like kinds, it often falls out, that Somewhat is produced of Nothing : For Lies are sufficient to breed Opinion, and Opinion brings on Substance. In military Commanders and Soldiers, Vain Glory is an essential Point; for as Iron sharpens Iron, so by Glory one Courage sharpeneth another. In Cases of great Enterprise, upon charge and Adventure, a Composition of Glorious Natures doth put Life into Business; and those that are of Solid and sober Natures, have more of the Ballast, than of the Sail. In Fame of Learning, the Flight will be slow, without some Feathers of Oftentation. Qui de contemnenda Gloria Libros scribunt, Nomen suum inscribunt. Socrates, Aristotle, Galen, were Men full of Oftentation. Certainly Vain Glory helpeth to perpetuate a Man's Memory; and Virtue was never so beholden to human Nature, as it received his due at the Second Hand. Neither had the Fame of Cicero, Seneca, Plinius Secundus, borne her Age so well, if it had not been joined with some Vanity in themselves : Like unto Varnish, that makes Ceilings not only shine, but last. But all this while, when I speak of Vain Glory, I mean not of that Property, that Tacitus doth attribute to Mucianus ; Omnium, quæ dixerat, feceratque, Arte quâdam Ostentator : For that proceeds not of Vanity, but of natural Magnanimity, and Discretion : And in some Persons, is not only comely, but gracious. For Excusations, Cessions, Modesty itself well governed, are but Arts of Ostentation. And amongst those Arts, there is none better, than that which Plinius Secundus speaketh of; which is to be liberal of Praise and Commendation to others, in that, wherein a Man's Self hath


Perfection. For faith Pliny very wittily ; In commending another, you do yourself right: for he that you commend, is either superior to you, in that you commend, or inferior. If he be inferior, if he be to be commended, you much more : If he be superior, if he be not to be commended, you much less. Glorious Men are the Scorn of wise Men; the Admiration of Fools; the Idols of Parasites; and the Slaves of their own Vaunts.

lv. Of Honour and Repu



HE winning of Honour, is but the re

vealing of a Man's Virtue and Worth, without Disadvantage. For some in

their Actions, do Woo and affect Honour, and Reputation : Which Sort of Men are commonly much talked of, but inwardly little admired. And fome, contrariwise, darken their Virtue in the Shew of it; so as they be undervalued in opinion. If a Man perform that which hath not been attempted before; or attempted and

given over ; or hath been achieved, but not with so good Circumstance; he shall purchase more Honour, than by Effecting a Matter of greater Difficulty, or Virtue, wherein he is but a Follower. If a Man fo temper his Actions, as in some one of them, he doth content every Faction, or Combination of People, the Musick will be the fuller. A Man is an ill Husband of his Honour, that entereth into any Action, the Failing wherein may disgrace him more, than the Carrying of it through can Honour him. Honour, that is gained and broken upon another, hath the quickest Reflection; like Diamonds cut with Fascets. And therefore, let a Man contend, to excel any Competitors of his in Honour, in outshooting them, if he can, in their own Bow. Discreet Followers and Servants help much to Reputation : Omnis Fama à Domefticis emanat. Envy, which is the Canker of Honour, is best extinguished, by declaring a Man's Self, in his Ends, rather to seek Merit, than Fame: And by Attributing a Man's Successes, rather to divine Providence and Felicity, than to his own Virtue or Policy. The true marshalling of the Degrees of Sovereign Honour are these. In the First Place are Conditores Imperiorum; Founders of States, and Commonwealths : Such as were Romulus, Cyrus, Cæfar, Ottoman, Ismael. In the Second Place are Legis-latores, Lawgivers; which are also called, Second Founders, or Perpetui Principes, because they govern by their Ordinances, after they are gone : Such were Lycurgus, Solon, Juftinian, Edgar, Alphonsus of Castile the Wise,


that made the Siete Partidas. In the Third Place, are Liberatores, or Salvatores : Such as compound the long Miseries of civil Wars, or deliver their Countries from Servitude of Strangers, or Tyrants; as Auguftus Cæsar, Vespasianus, Aurelianus, Theodoricus, King Henry the Seventh of England, King Henry the Fourth of France. In the Fourth Place, are Propagatores or Propugnatores Imperii; such as in honourable Wars enlarge their Territories, or make noble Defence against Invaders. And in the Last Place are Patres Patriæ; which reign justly, and make the Times good, wherein they live. Both which last Kinds, need no examples, they are in such Number. Degrees of Honour in Subjects are ; first, Participes Curarum; those upon whom Princes do discharge the greatest Weight of their Affairs; their Right Hands, as we call them. The next are, Duces Belli, Great Leaders; such as are Princes' Lieutenants, and do them notable Services in the Wars. Gratio ; Favourites ; such as exceed not this Şcantling; to be Solace to the Sovereign, and harmless to the People. And the fourth, Negotiis pares ; such as have great Places under Princes, and execute their Places with Sufficiency. There is an Honour likewise, which may be ranked amongst the greatest, which happeneth rarely : That is, of such as Sacrifice themselves, to Death or Danger, for the Good of their Country: As was M. Regulus, and the two Decii.

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UDGES ought to remember, that their Office is Jus dicere, and not Jus dare; to interpret Law, and not to make

Law, or give Law. Else will it be like the Authority, claimed by the Church of Rome; which under pretext of Exposition of Scripture, doth not stick to add and alter; and to pronounce that, which they do not find; and by Shew of Antiquity, to introduce Novelty. Judges ought to be more learned, than witty; more reverend, than plausible; and more advised, than confident. Above all Things, Integrity is their Portion, and proper Virtue. Cursed (faith the Law) is he that removeth the Landmark. The Mislayer of a mere Stone is to blame. But it is the Unjuft Judge, that is the capital Remover of Landmarks, when he defineth amiss of Lands and Property. One foul Sentence doth more Hurt, than many foul Examples. For these do but corrupt the Stream ; The other corrupteth the Fountain. So faith Solomon; Fons turbatus, et Vena corrupta, eft Justus cadens in caufâ suâ coram Adversario. The Office of Judges, may have Reference, unto the Parties that fue; unto the Advocates that plead; unto the Clerks and Ministers of Justice underneath them; and to the Sovereign or State above them.

First, for the Causes or Parties that sue. There

JL 71

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