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accept of them in good part. The vices of Authority are chiefly four: Delays, Corruption, Roughness, and Facility. For Delays, give easy Access ; keep Times appointed; go through with that which is in hand ; and interlace not business, but of necessity. For Corruption, do not only bind thine own Hands, or thy Servants' Hands, from taking ; but bind the Hands of Suitors also from offering. For Integrity.used doth the one ; but Integrity professed, and with a manifest detestation of Bribery, doth the other. And avoid not only the Fault, but the Suspicion. Whosoever is found variable, and changeth manifestly, without manifest Cause, giveth Suspicion of Corruption. Therefore, always, when thou changest thine Opinion, or Course, profess it plainly, and declare it, together with the Reasons that move thee to change ; and do not think to steal it. A Servant, or a Favourite, if he be inward, and no other apparent Cause of Esteem, is commonly thought but a By-way, to close Corruption. For Roughness, it is a needless cause of Discontent : Severity breedeth Fear; but Roughness breedeth Hate. Even Reproofs from Authority ought to be Grave, and not Taunting. As for Facility, it is worse than Bribery. For Bribes come but now and then; but if Importunity, or Idle Respects, lead a Man, he shall never be without. As Solomon faith ; To respect Persons is not good ; For such a man will transgress for a piece of Bread. It is most true, that was anciently spoken; A Place fheweth the Man: and it sheweth some to the better, and some to the worse : Omnium consensu capax

Imperii, nisi imperasset; faith Tacitus of Galba : but of Vespasian he saith ; Solus Imperantium Vefpasianus mutatus in melius. Though the one was meant of Sufficiency, the other of Manners and Affection. It is an assured Sign of a worthy and generous Spirit, whom Honour amends. For Honour is, or should be, the Place of Virtue: and as in Nature, Things move violently to their Place, and calmly in their Place : fo Virtue in Ambition is violent, in Authority settled and calm. All Rising to Great Place is by a winding Stair: and if there be Factions, it is good to fide a Man's self, whilst he is in the Rising ; and to balance Himself, when he is placed. Use the Memory of thy Predecessor fairly, and tenderly; for if thou dost not, it is a Debt will sure be paid, when thou art gone.

If thou have Colleagues, respect them, and rather call them, when they look not for it, than exclude them when they have reason to look to be called. Be not too sensible, or too remembering, of thy Place, in Conversation, and private Answers to Suitors; But let it rather be said ; When he fits in Place, he is another Man.

XII. Of Boldness.

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T is a trivial Grammar School Text, but yet worthy a wise Man's Confideration. Question was asked of De

mosthenes ; What was the chief Part of an Orator? He answered, Action : What next? Action: What next again ? Action. He said it, that knew it beft; and had by nature, himself, no Advantage, in that he commended. A strange thing, that that Part of an Orator, which is but fuperficial, and rather the virtue of a Player, should be placed so high, above those other Noble Parts, of Invention, Elocution, and the rest : nay almost alone, as if it were All in All. But the Reason is plain. There is in Human Nature, generally, more of the Fool than of the Wife; and therefore those faculties, by which the Foolish part of Men's Minds is taken, are most potent. Wonderful like is the Case of Boldness, in Civil Business; What firft? Boldness : What Second, and Third? Boldness. And yet Boldness is a Child of Ignorance, and Baseness, far inferior to other Parts. But nevertheless, it doth fascinate, and bind hand and foot, those that are either shallow in Judgement, or weak in Courage; which are the greatest Part: Yea and prevaileth with Wise Men, at weak times. Therefore we see it hath done wonders in Popular States; but with Senates and Princes lefs : And more ever upon the first entrance of Bold Persons into Action, than soon after ; for Boldness is an ill keeper of promise. Surely, as there are Mountebanks for the Natural Body; so are there Mountebanks for the Politic Body: Men that undertake great Cures; and perhaps have been lucky in two or three Experiments, but want the Grounds of Science; and therefore cannot hold out. Nay, you shall see a Bold Fellow many times do Mahomet’s Miracle. Mahomet made the People believe, that he would call a Hill to him; and from the Top of it, offer up his Prayers, for the Observers of his Law. The People assembled ; Mahomet called the Hill to come to him, again and again : And when the Hill stood still, he was never a whit abashed, but said ; If the Hill will not come to Mahomet, Mahomet will go to the Hill. So these Men, when they have promised great Matters, and failed most shamefully, (yet if they have the perfection of Boldness) they will but flight it over, and make a turn, and no more ado. Certainly, to Men of great Judgement, Bold Persons are a Sport to behold; nay, and to the Vulgar also, Boldness hath somewhat of the ridiculous. For if Absurdity be the Subject of Laughter, doubt you not, but great Boldness is seldom without some Absurdity. Especially it is a Sport to see, when a Bold Fellow is out of Countenance; for that puts his Face into a most shrunken and wooden Posture; as needs it must; for in Bashfulness, the Spirits do a little go and come ;

but with Bold Men, upon like occasion, they stand at a stay ; like a Stale at Chess, where it is no Mate, but yet the Game cannot stir. But this last were fitter for a Satire, than for a serious Observation. This is well to be weighed, that Boldness is ever blind: For it seeth not Dangers and Inconveniences. Therefore it is ill in Counsel, good in Execution. So that the right Use of Bold Persons is, that they never command in Chief, but be Seconds, and under the Direction of others. For in Counsel, it is good to see dangers; and in Execution not to see them, except they be very great.

XIII. Of Goodness, and Good

ness of Nature.

TAKE Goodness in this Sense, the affecting of the Weal of Men, which is that the Grecians call Philanthropia :

And the word Humanity (as it is used) is a little too light to express it. Goodness I call the Habit, and Goodness of Nature the Inclination. This of all Virtues, and Dignities of the Mind, is the greatest; being the Character of the Deity : and without it, Man is a Busy, Mischievous, Wretched Thing; no better than a Kind of Vermin. Goodness answers to the Theological Virtue Charity, and admits no Excess, but Error. The desire of Power in Excess, caused the Angels to fall; the desire of Knowledge in Excess, caused Man to fall : But in Charity there is no Excess; neither can Angel, or Man, come in danger by it.

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